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Pinopsida

Description

The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida. They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants. All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs. Examples include cedars, Douglas firs, cypresses, firs, junipers, kauri, larches, pines, hemlocks, redwoods, spruces, and yews. As of 1998, the division Pinophyta was estimated to contain eight families, 68 genera, and 629 living species.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)194https://www.gbif.org/species/194
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)54790https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=54790
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Plantae : Tracheophyta : Pinopsida
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Plantae : Pinophyta : Pinopsida
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomPlantaeHaeckel 1866
superphylumTracheophyta
PteridobiotinaDoweld 2001
superphylumCycadophytanaeDoweld 2001
phylumPinophytaReveal 1996
classPinopsidaBurnett 1833
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NamePinopsida
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)413
Extant Size (PBDB)63 (15%)
First Recorded Appearance383 - 359 Ma
Late Devonian
Primary Reference (PBDB)D.J. Mabberley. 2000. The Plant-Book, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 858 p.
Common Name(s) Conifers
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinopsida

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Pinales
order
accepted8,548359 Ma
Late Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Vojnovskyales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bartheliaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cordaitaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Czekanowskiaceae
family
accepted0
Emporiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ferugliocladaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Majonicaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thucydiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ullmanniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Utrechtiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Voltziaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Amyelon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aporoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Archaeopitys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cardiocarpon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cephalotaxopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cupressinites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Darneya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Elatides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Frenelopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hybothya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mesoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mesoxylopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nephrostrobus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paleotaxites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phyllostrobus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Piceoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pinites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pityoxylon
genus
accepted1113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Planoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protopiceoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protopinuxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protopodocarpoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ptenostrobus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rigbyocarpus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sequoioxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sphenolepidium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Strobilites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tarphyderma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Taxites
genus
accepted8290 Ma
Permian
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Taxoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Titanophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Walkomia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zamiostrobus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Cordaitanthales
order
Not linked to GBIF1,167extinct383 Ma
Late Devonian
157 Ma
Jurassic

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1833Pinopsida Burnett p. 483
1983Pinopsida Hueber p. 271
1984Pinopsida Meyen p. 90
1995Coniferopsida McLoughlin et al.
2000Pinopsida Mabberley
2001Pinopsida Doweld p. xvi

References

Mabberley D.J. (2000) The Plant-Book, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 858 p.
Hueber F. M. (1983) Fossil woods and resin-like substances from the Lee Creek Mine, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 53, 269-285
Meyen S. V. (1984) Basic features of gymnosperm systematics and phylogeny as evidenced by the fossil record, Botanical Review 50 1, 1-111
McLoughlin S., Drinnan A. N., et al (1995) A Cenomanian Flora from the Winton Formation, Eromanga Basin, Queensland, Australia, Memoirs of the Queensland Museam 38 1, 273-313
Doweld A. B. (2001) Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Tentamen Systematis Plantarum Vascularium
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via World Register of Marine Species
Ruggiero M, Gordon D, Bailly N, Kirk P, Nicolson D (2012) The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 30th April 2012 (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Culham A., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Appeltans W., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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