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Hexactinellida

Description

Hexactinellid sponges are sponges with a skeleton made of four- and/or six-pointed siliceous spicules, often referred to as glass sponges. They are usually classified along with other sponges in the phylum Porifera, but some researchers consider them sufficiently distinct to deserve their own phylum, Symplasma.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)146https://www.gbif.org/species/146
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)3841https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=3841
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Porifera : Hexactinellida
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
phylumPoriferaGrant 1836
classHexactinellidaSchmidt 1870
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameHexactinellida
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)1,107
Extant Size (PBDB)70 (6.3%)
First Recorded Appearance635 - 541 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Environmentmarine
Motilitystationary, attached
Visionblind
Dietsuspension feeder
Ecospace CommentsCOMMENTS: Erect, non-motile attached suspension feeding according to Bambach et al. (2007)
Taphonomysilica
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Glass Sponges, Hexactinellid Sponges, Glass Sponge
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexactinellida

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Amphidiscosida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lychniscosida
order
accepted393.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Lyssacinosida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sceptrulophora
order
accepted1191 Ma
Early Jurassic
174 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Aglithodictyidae
family
accepted2383 Ma
Late Devonian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Asthenospongiidae
family
accepted7478 Ma
Early Ordovician
453 Ma
Late Ordovician
Celyphiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cliefdenellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Colospongiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cystispongiidae
family
accepted693.9 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Cystothalamiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dictyospongiidae
family
accepted34541 Ma
Cambrian
260 Ma
Permian
Dierespongiidae
family
accepted1272 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Docodermatidae
family
accepted17306 Ma
Carboniferous
265 Ma
Permian
Hemidiscellidae
family
accepted1299 Ma
Carboniferous
290 Ma
Permian
Hintzespongiidae
family
accepted21541 Ma
Cambrian
427 Ma
Silurian
Hyalostellidae
family
accepted9541 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Hydnodictyidae
family
accepted1452 Ma
Late Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Leptophragmatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Multivasculatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pachyteichismatidae
family
accepted87165 Ma
Middle Jurassic
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Pattersoniidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pileolitidae
family
accepted7279 Ma
Permian
242 Ma
Middle Triassic
Pileospongiidae
family
accepted2326 Ma
Carboniferous
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Pillaraspongiidae
family
accepted6383 Ma
Late Devonian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Plieolitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Porispongiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protospongiidae
family
accepted170635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Sebargasiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Staurodermatidae
family
accepted40165 Ma
Middle Jurassic
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Stereodictyidae
family
accepted25339 Ma
Carboniferous
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Stromatidiidae
family
accepted4272 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Teganiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thaumastocoeliidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Titusvillidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Titusvilliidae
family
accepted2365 Ma
Late Devonian
315 Ma
Carboniferous
Triactinellidae
family
accepted1466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Uphantenidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wareembaiidae
family
accepted2456 Ma
Late Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Aulodomus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Australispongia
genus
accepted3497 Ma
Cambrian
478 Ma
Early Ordovician
Bothroconis
genus
accepted1260 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Carinthiaspongus
genus
accepted1242 Ma
Middle Triassic
235 Ma
Late Triassic
Chelispongia
genus
accepted3456 Ma
Late Ordovician
444 Ma
Silurian
Clepsydrospongia
genus
accepted0
Corticospongia
genus
accepted1372 Ma
Late Devonian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Cyathophycella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Deanea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diaretula
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dilatispongia
genus
accepted1458 Ma
Middle Ordovician
453 Ma
Late Ordovician
Helicodictya
genus
accepted0
Hemidiagoniella
genus
accepted3458 Ma
Middle Ordovician
453 Ma
Late Ordovician
Hexatractiella
genus
accepted4516 Ma
Cambrian
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Hillendia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Holasterella
genus
accepted0
Hyalocaulus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ithacadictya
genus
accepted1383 Ma
Late Devonian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Kometia
genus
accepted5516 Ma
Cambrian
444 Ma
Silurian
Konyrium
genus
accepted2497 Ma
Cambrian
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Krainerella
genus
accepted1242 Ma
Middle Triassic
235 Ma
Late Triassic
Laocaetis
genus
accepted583.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Lithospongia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lysactinella
genus
accepted0
Misonia
genus
accepted1191 Ma
Early Jurassic
174 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Multivasculatus
genus
accepted1501 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Octobrum
genus
accepted2157 Ma
Jurassic
151 Ma
Late Jurassic
Palaeophragmodictya
genus
accepted13635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Pinnatispongia
genus
accepted1497 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Plectoderma
genus
accepted0
Polyptycha
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Porospongia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protoarmstrongia
genus
accepted0
Retifungus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhabdostauridium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhogostomium
genus
accepted2161 Ma
Jurassic
151 Ma
Late Jurassic
Rugosoderma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Scotospongia
genus
accepted1242 Ma
Middle Triassic
235 Ma
Late Triassic
Sestrocladiella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Silicunculus
genus
accepted3456 Ma
Late Ordovician
444 Ma
Silurian
Solusrectus
genus
accepted1458 Ma
Middle Ordovician
453 Ma
Late Ordovician
Sycodictya
genus
accepted0
Teganiella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Teganium
genus
accepted1443 Ma
Silurian
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Thamnodictya
genus
accepted1326 Ma
Carboniferous
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Xylospongia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Neopscacas variata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Lychniscosa
order
Not linked to GBIF930extant513 Ma
Cambrian
2.59 Ma
Pleistocene
Reticulosa
order
Not linked to GBIF353extant635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Amphidiscosa
order
Not linked to GBIF39extant485 Ma
Cambrian
206 Ma
Late Triassic
Hemidiscosa
order
Not linked to GBIF1extinct299 Ma
Carboniferous
290 Ma
Permian
Acanothyra
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Lyssacinosa
order
Not linked to GBIF154extant516 Ma
Cambrian
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Lyssakida
order
Not linked to GBIF22extant541 Ma
Cambrian
156 Ma
Jurassic
Hexasterophora
subclass
Not linked to GBIF655extant456 Ma
Late Ordovician
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Amphidiscophora
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF1extant33.9 Ma
Oligocene
28.1 Ma
Oligocene
Innaecoeliida
order
Not linked to GBIF368extant380 Ma
Late Devonian
16.0 Ma
Miocene

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1870Hexactinellida Schmidt
1998Hexactinellida Zrzavy et al.
2002Hexactinellida Reiswig p. 1378
2002Hexactinellida Sepkoski, Jr.
2004Hexactinellida Finks et al.
2012Hexactinellida Nielsen p. 20
2012Hexactinellida Worheide et al. p. 33 figs. Fig. 1.1

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Zrzavy J., Mihulka S., et al (1998) Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence, Cladistics 14, 249-285
Reiswig H. M. (2002) Family Aulocystidae Sollas, 1887, Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges, 1378-1382
Finks R. M., Reid R. E. H., et al (2004) Porifera (Demospongea, Hexactinellida, Heteractinida, Calcarea), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part E, Revised E 3, 1-872
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Worheide G., Dohrmann M., et al (2012) Deep phylogeny and evolution of sponges (Phylum Porifera), Advances in Marine Biology 61, 1-78
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Reiswig, H.M. (2002). Class Hexactinellida Schmidt, 1870. pp 1201-1202 In Hooper, J.N.A. & van Soest, R.W.M. (ed.) Systema Porifera. A guide to the classification of sponges. 2 (Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers: New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow. - via World Register of Marine Species
Schmidt, O. (1870). Grundzüge einer Spongien-Fauna des atlantischen Gebietes. (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): iii-iv, 1-88, pls I-VI. - via World Register of Marine Species
Costello, M.J.; Emblow, C.; White, R. (Ed.). (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50. Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle: Paris, France. ISBN 2-85653-538-0. 463 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Hooper, John N. A., and Rob W. M. van Soest, eds., 2002: null. Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. xlviii + 1708. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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