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Tardigrada

Description

Tardigrades, known colloquially as water bears or moss piglets, are a phylum of water-dwelling eight-legged segmented micro-animals. They were first described by the German zoologist Johann August Ephraim Goeze in 1773, who called them little water bears. In 1777, the Italian biologist Lazzaro Spallanzani named them Tardigrada, which means "slow steppers".


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)14https://www.gbif.org/species/14
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)67137https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=67137
Rankphylum (GBIF)
unranked clade (PBDB)
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Tardigrada
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
Ecdysozoa
Panarthropoda
Tardigrada(Spallanzani 1777)
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameTardigrada
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)11
Extant Size (PBDB)7 (64%)
First Recorded Appearance513 - 501 Ma
Cambrian
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. Zrzavy, S. Mihulka, and P. Kepka, A. Bezdek, D. Tietz. 1998. Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence. Cladistics 14:249-285
Common Name(s) Water Bear, Tardigrades, Water Bears
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tardigrada

External Images

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Eutardigrada
class
accepted293.9 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Heterotardigrada
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mesotardigrada
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Heterotardigrada
class
Not linked to GBIF1extant83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1777Tardigrada Spallanzani
1998Tardigrada Zrzavy et al.
2011Tardigrada Edgecombe et al. p. 153 figs. Fig. 1
2012Tardigrada Nielsen p. 265 figs. Fig. 42.1

References

Zrzavy J., Mihulka S., et al (1998) Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence, Cladistics 14, 249-285
Edgecombe G. D., Giribet G., et al (2011) Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions, Organisms Diversity & Evolution 11 2, 151-172 doi:10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Guidetti, R.; Bertolani, R. (2011). Phylum Tardigrada Doyère, 1840. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa. 3148: 96-97. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Guidetti, Roberto, and Roberto Bertolani, 2005: Tardigrade taxonomy: an updated check list of the taxa and a list of characters for their identification. Zootaxa, issue 845. 1-46. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Michalczyk, L. (2015) Tardigrade Taxonomy. Tardigrada Register. http://www.tardigrada.net/register/taxonomy.htm Last updated on the 12-01-2015. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Ramazzotti, G., and W. Maucci, 1983: Il Philum Tardigrada: III edizione riveduta e aggiornata. Memorie dell'Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia Dott. Marco de Marchi, vol. 41. 1012. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 1990: null. Invertebrates. xiii + 992. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Guidetti, R., Jönsson, K.I. & Møbjerg Kristensen, R. (2015) Tardigrades of Sweden; an updated check-list. Zootaxa: 3981 (4): 491–507. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Miner, R.W (1950) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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