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Bivalvia

Description

Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. Bivalves as a group have no head and they lack some usual molluscan organs like the radula and the odontophore. They include the clams, oysters, cockles, mussels, scallops, and numerous other families that live in saltwater, as well as a number of families that live in freshwater. The majority are filter feeders. The gills have evolved into ctenidia, specialised organs for feeding and breathing. Most bivalves bury themselves in sediment where they are relatively safe from predation. Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces. Some bivalves, such as the scallops and file shells, can swim. The shipworms bore into wood, clay, or stone and live inside these substances.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)137https://www.gbif.org/species/137
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)16005https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=16005
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumMolluscaLinnaeus 1758
classBivalviaLinnaeus 1758
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameBivalvia
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)20,590
Extant Size (PBDB)3,922 (19%)
First Recorded Appearance541 - 520 Ma
Cambrian
Motilityfacultatively mobile
Visionblind
Dietsuspension feeder
Taphonomyaragonite
Primary Reference (PBDB)C. Linnaeus. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Editio Decima 1:1-824
Common Name(s) Bivalves, Bivalves And Clams, Clam, Clams
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bivalvia

External Images

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Adapedonta
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arcida
order
accepted12,728479 Ma
Early Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Cardiida
order
accepted37,121453 Ma
Late Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Carditida
order
accepted11,129485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Galeommatida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gastrochaenida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hippuritida
order
acceptedRudist4,879439 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Limida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lucinida
order
accepted6,659443 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Megalodontida
order
accepted585461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Modiomorphida
order
accepted1,784485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Myalinida
order
accepted6,917479 Ma
Early Ordovician
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Myida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mytilida
order
accepted6,196479 Ma
Early Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Nuculanida
order
accepted8,404485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Nuculida
order
accepted4,663485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Ostreida
order
acceptedOyster24,106479 Ma
Early Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Pectinida
order
acceptedScallop33,756443 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Solemyida
order
accepted904485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Sphaeriida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trigoniida
order
accepted6,212479 Ma
Early Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Unionida
order
accepted531290 Ma
Permian
0 Ma
Extant
Venerida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Actinodontidae
family
accepted0
Actinodontophoridae
family
accepted8290 Ma
Permian
164 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Afghanodesmatidae
family
accepted0
Allodesmatidae
family
accepted50479 Ma
Early Ordovician
423 Ma
Silurian
Amblemidae
family
accepted20.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Amnigeniidae
family
accepted0
Amotapidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Amusiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anodontopsidae
family
accepted0
Antipleuridae
family
accepted240443 Ma
Silurian
354 Ma
Carboniferous
Archanodontidae
family
accepted1260 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Archaracidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Arenigomyidae
family
accepted0
Baidiostracidae
family
accepted0
Bakevellidae
family
accepted0
Batolitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bayleiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Buchiolidae
family
accepted4384 Ma
Middle Devonian
382 Ma
Late Devonian
Burmesiidae
family
accepted14237 Ma
Middle Triassic
199 Ma
Early Jurassic
Cadomiidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Camyidae
family
accepted0
Cardilidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cardiolariidae
family
accepted165485 Ma
Cambrian
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Cardiolidae
family
accepted222443 Ma
Silurian
347 Ma
Carboniferous
Carydiidae
family
accepted51419 Ma
Early Devonian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Cercomyidae
family
accepted0
Cetoconchidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Chondrotidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Clavagellidae
family
accepted6483.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Cleidothaeridae
family
accepted323.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Clistoconchidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Colpomyidae
family
accepted23485 Ma
Cambrian
472 Ma
Early Ordovician
Coxiconchidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Coxiconchiidae
family
accepted23485 Ma
Cambrian
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Crassatellopsidae
family
accepted0
Crenellidae
family
accepted191170 Ma
Middle Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Cuspidariidae
family
accepted362242 Ma
Middle Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Cyrtodontidae
family
accepted459479 Ma
Early Ordovician
290 Ma
Permian
Dattidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Deltopectenidae
family
accepted0
Dianchoridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dreisseniidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Dualinidae
family
accepted1376 Ma
Late Devonian
371 Ma
Late Devonian
Duranidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eritropidae
family
accepted6467 Ma
Middle Ordovician
458 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Euciroidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Eurydesmidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Evyanidae
family
accepted0
Falcatodontidae
family
accepted1479 Ma
Early Ordovician
472 Ma
Early Ordovician
Flemingostreidae
family
accepted466109 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Fordillidae
family
accepted89530 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Frenguelliellidae
family
accepted0
Glyphaeidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Grammysiidae
family
accepted614479 Ma
Early Ordovician
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Gyropleuridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Halonymphidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Horiopleuridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ichtyosarcolidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Intihuarellidae
family
accepted4485 Ma
Cambrian
466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Ischyrodontidae
family
accepted0
Isolimeidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Kinerkaellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Konduriidae
family
accepted0
Lamellodontidae
family
accepted0
Lamellotidae
family
accepted0
Laternulidae
family
accepted327247 Ma
Early Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Leiopectinidae
family
accepted8443 Ma
Silurian
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Lipanellidae
family
accepted22485 Ma
Cambrian
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Lithiotidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lithodomidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lunulicardiidae
family
accepted7359 Ma
Late Devonian
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Lyonsiellidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Lyonsiidae
family
accepted38201 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Margaritariidae
family
accepted641.3 Ma
Eocene
2.59 Ma
Pleistocene
Matheriidae
family
accepted0
Megadesmidae
family
accepted266347 Ma
Carboniferous
242 Ma
Middle Triassic
Melliterycidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Microdontidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Montanariidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Myochamidae
family
accepted2133.9 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Myoconchidae
family
accepted4237 Ma
Middle Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Myodakryotidae
family
accepted2458 Ma
Late Ordovician
452 Ma
Late Ordovician
Myopholadidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nucularcidae
family
accepted49467 Ma
Middle Ordovician
443 Ma
Silurian
Nyassidae
family
accepted26393 Ma
Early Devonian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Oriocrassatellidae
family
accepted0
Orthonotidae
family
accepted86468 Ma
Middle Ordovician
260 Ma
Permian
Osculigeridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pachycardiidae
family
accepted54247 Ma
Early Triassic
206 Ma
Late Triassic
Palaeocardiidae
family
accepted3443 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Palaeocarditidae
family
accepted157237 Ma
Middle Triassic
174 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Palaeolophidae
family
accepted662232 Ma
Late Triassic
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Palaeomutelidae
family
accepted63290 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Pandoridae
family
accepted12966.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Parilimyidae
family
accepted8161 Ma
Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Penicillidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Pergamidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Periplomatidae
family
accepted283125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Pholadomyacidae
family
accepted0
Pholadomyidae
family
accepted2,245461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Pichleriidae
family
accepted57247 Ma
Early Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Pironaeidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pisidiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Poromyidae
family
accepted345125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Praecardiidae
family
accepted108458 Ma
Middle Ordovician
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Praelucinidae
family
accepted0
Praeostreidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Prospondylidea
family
accepted64252 Ma
Permian
164 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Prothyridae
family
accepted0
Protocuspidariidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Pseudarcidae
family
accepted0
Rethidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhaetomyidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Saharopteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sanguinolitidae
family
accepted748445 Ma
Late Ordovician
252 Ma
Permian
Saturnidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Saxicavellidae
family
accepted359.2 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Septiferidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Similodontidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Slavidae
family
accepted41439 Ma
Silurian
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Solecrutidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Solenomorphidae
family
accepted0
Spanilidae
family
accepted38431 Ma
Silurian
403 Ma
Early Devonian
Sphaeridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spheniopsidae
family
accepted1838.0 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Stolidotidae
family
accepted35439 Ma
Silurian
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Streblopterinellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Terquemiidae
family
accepted113247 Ma
Early Triassic
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Thraciidae
family
accepted625290 Ma
Permian
0 Ma
Extant
Toucasiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tridacnidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tuarangiidae
family
accepted3513 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Ucumariidae
family
accepted3485 Ma
Cambrian
466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Umburiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Verticordiidae
family
accepted18272.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Xylophaginidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zadimerodiidae
family
accepted2478 Ma
Early Ordovician
470 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Ahtioconcha
genus
accepted1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Alatoconcha
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Andinodesma
genus
accepted1408 Ma
Early Devonian
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Arcticlam
genus
accepted166.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
61.6 Ma
Paleocene
Avichlamys
genus
accepted19252 Ma
Permian
242 Ma
Middle Triassic
Aviculovulsa
genus
accepted0
Bilobissa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Boreionectes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bouleigmus
genus
accepted0
Bowdenia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Burriera
genus
accepted1279 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Camptochlamys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Capillimya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Casterella
genus
accepted10299 Ma
Carboniferous
252 Ma
Permian
Cheiopteria
genus
accepted16426 Ma
Silurian
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Cliopteria
genus
accepted0
Coquandia
genus
accepted0
Costanaia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Costicamptonectes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coxiconcha
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crassiconcha
genus
accepted1260 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Cycloconchoides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dolponella
genus
accepted9254 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Edon
genus
accepted3345 Ma
Carboniferous
326 Ma
Carboniferous
Ensipteria
genus
accepted25269 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Eoasmussia
genus
accepted0
Eusebia
genus
accepted172.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Euthydesma
genus
accepted2393 Ma
Early Devonian
371 Ma
Late Devonian
Exputens
genus
accepted1756.0 Ma
Paleocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Gissaromya
genus
accepted1168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
165 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Glendella
genus
accepted9279 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Gloverilima
genus
accepted8272 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Gosselettia
genus
accepted1388 Ma
Middle Devonian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Gryphaeligmus
genus
accepted8174 Ma
Middle Jurassic
164 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Guebhardia
genus
accepted0
Guerichia
genus
accepted8372 Ma
Late Devonian
347 Ma
Carboniferous
Hayasakapecten
genus
accepted24279 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Heligmopsis
genus
accepted0
Hippochaeta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hubeinella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hypotrema
genus
accepted6168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Inflatomonotis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Inoceramya
genus
accepted1101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
86.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Jellia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kogulanychia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leochlamys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lhasanella
genus
accepted1183 Ma
Early Jurassic
174 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Limatulina
genus
accepted9336 Ma
Carboniferous
254 Ma
Permian
Limnopagetia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Limnopappia
genus
accepted0
Lituyapecten
genus
accepted25.33 Ma
Miocene
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Manihikia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Merismopteria
genus
accepted45323 Ma
Carboniferous
252 Ma
Permian
Micranodonta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Morrisipecten
genus
accepted9290 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Mulletia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Myacites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Myalinopterella
genus
accepted0
Mytilon
genus
accepted166.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
61.6 Ma
Paleocene
Nanohalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Neofordilla
genus
accepted0
Newsomella
genus
accepted3433 Ma
Silurian
423 Ma
Silurian
Nodonychia
genus
accepted1393 Ma
Early Devonian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Oblicarina
genus
accepted6296 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Obrimia
genus
accepted6419 Ma
Early Devonian
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Oxytomoidea
genus
accepted1,025393 Ma
Early Devonian
61.6 Ma
Paleocene
Pachypteria
genus
accepted2339 Ma
Carboniferous
254 Ma
Permian
Palaeopinna
genus
accepted2408 Ma
Early Devonian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Palanatina
genus
accepted1254 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Paleowaagia
genus
accepted17299 Ma
Carboniferous
260 Ma
Permian
Pergamidia
genus
accepted10237 Ma
Middle Triassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Permoceramus
genus
accepted1272 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Petroxestes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pholadella
genus
accepted37408 Ma
Early Devonian
254 Ma
Permian
Phygraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Plethocardia
genus
accepted20461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Pleurodapis
genus
accepted18419 Ma
Early Devonian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Pleurodesma
genus
accepted123.0 Ma
Miocene
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Plicatomytilus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polidevcia
genus
accepted223408 Ma
Early Devonian
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Praeamonotis
genus
accepted6265 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Praeanomalodontata
genus
accepted0
Praelamellodonta
genus
accepted1541 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Promacrus
genus
accepted0
Prospondylus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protopis
genus
accepted11251 Ma
Early Triassic
216 Ma
Late Triassic
Pseudoheligmus
genus
accepted172.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Pseudoveletuceta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Regalilima
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rossiodus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rutotia
genus
accepted1269 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Saharopteria
genus
accepted1347 Ma
Carboniferous
331 Ma
Carboniferous
Semimodiola
genus
accepted766.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Sinodora
genus
accepted8403 Ma
Early Devonian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Somalidacna
genus
accepted123.0 Ma
Miocene
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Taeniodon
genus
accepted2209 Ma
Late Triassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Teranota
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tuarangia
genus
accepted3513 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Tugoniopsis
genus
accepted0
Wuxuanites
genus
accepted8403 Ma
Early Devonian
392 Ma
Middle Devonian
Xianfengoconcha
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Alasmidon falcata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Andonta moulinsiana
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Corrugolima transluscens
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lampsillis radiata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Menatus planulatus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monocondyloea pequensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Partuk aurantia
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Partuk dendroica
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Partuk exigua
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Partuk mirabilis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Partuk olympia
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Partuk tohiveana
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polygrella polygrella
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polygysa sanbusni
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Potamilis metnecktayi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudoaviculopecten bradfordensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhyncotrochus extraneus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhyncotrochus monticolo
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sphaenium cubense
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stroplietus rugosus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tancrediopsis gothlandica
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thericium biminensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thericium biminievse
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Truncillo ebenus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Cryptodonta
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0
Palaeotaxodonta
subclass
Not linked to GBIF8extant479 Ma
Early Ordovician
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Prionodesmacea
order
Not linked to GBIF1extinct423 Ma
Silurian
392 Ma
Middle Devonian
Teleodesmacea
order
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Protobranchia
order
Not linked to GBIF13,980extant485 Ma
Cambrian
Anomalodesmacea
order
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Solenomyidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Hippagus
genus
Not linked to GBIF3extinct41.3 Ma
Eocene
3.60 Ma
Pliocene
Arhouriellidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Aviculidae
family
Not linked to GBIF1extant237 Ma
Middle Triassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Isofilibranchia
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Euprotobranchia
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF92extant530 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Eubivalvia
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF172,863extant485 Ma
Cambrian
Neotaxodonta
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Megalodus
genus
Not linked to GBIF19extinct237 Ma
Middle Triassic
209 Ma
Late Triassic
Fusidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Platymya
genus
Not linked to GBIF9extinct170 Ma
Middle Jurassic
113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Clotho
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Phaenomya
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct41.3 Ma
Eocene
38.0 Ma
Eocene
Amphikoilinae
subfamily
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Brachyanodon
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Cirravidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Ferganoconcha
genus
Not linked to GBIF3extinct152 Ma
Late Jurassic
113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Laurskiidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Libitina
genus
Not linked to GBIF3extant47.8 Ma
Eocene
38.0 Ma
Eocene
Lithophagella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Martinsonella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Praelamellodontidae
family
Not linked to GBIF1extinct541 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Promargaritifera
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Prosodacna
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct7.25 Ma
Miocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Pseudocardita
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct237 Ma
Middle Triassic
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Reniella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Rousseliinae
subfamily
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Sancticarolis
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Septocardiidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Serrilaminula
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Spirodomidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Trigonellites
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct156 Ma
Jurassic
151 Ma
Late Jurassic
Paraviculidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Conchodus
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Fogiella
genus
Not linked to GBIF4extinct222 Ma
Late Triassic
216 Ma
Late Triassic
Plicatulacea
superfamily
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Isodonta
genus
Not linked to GBIF5extinct201 Ma
Early Jurassic
152 Ma
Late Jurassic
Corbidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Gariidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Solecurtus ellipticus Tate, 1887GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Solecurtus ellipticus

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1758Bivalvia Linnaeus
1820Pelecypoda Goldfuss
1838Ostrea compta Goldfuss
1847Solen (Solecurtus) ellipticus Dana p. 153
1847Solen (Solecurtus) planulatus Dana p. 153
1847Modiolopsis praerupta Dana p. 159
1849Solecurtus (Psammobia) planulatus Dana p. 686 figs. Pl 2, fig 10
1849Solecurtus ellipticus Dana p. 686 figs. Pl 2, fig 9
1849Cypricardia praerupta Dana p. 703 figs. Pl 8, fig 10
1856Hinnites comtus Giebel
1886Asiphonidae Choffat
1895Pelecypoda Stanton p. 34
1906Astarte scrivenori Newton p. 492 figs. Pl 25, figs 11,12
1916Pelecypoda Raymond
1919Stutchburia praerupta Etheridge Jr. p. 190
1936Palaeostrea Grabau
YearName and Author
1982Spirulinae Allen and Sanders
1984Bivalvia Squires p. 40
1987Bivalvia Squires p. 54
1987Pelecypoda Ward and Blackwelder p. 129
1988Bivalvia Squires p. 17
1989Pelecypoda Shoshani et al. p. 435
1993Bivalvia Kennedy p. 397
1997Bathyspinulinae Coan and Scott
1998Bivalvia Barnes p. 270
2000Bathyspinulinae Coan et al. pp. 82, 91
2001Bivalvia Gravestock et al. p. 200
2002Bivalvia Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Palaeoentolium Sepkoski, Jr.
2006Bivalvia Giribet et al. p. 7724
2008Bivalvia Hikuroa and Grant-Mackie

References

Linnaeus C. , Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Editio Decima 1, 1-824 doi:10.5962/bhl.title.542
Dana J. D. Descriptions of fossil shells of the collections of the exploring expedition under the command of Charles Wilkes, USN, obtained in Australia, from the lower layers of the coal formation in Illawarra, and from a deposit probably of nearly the same age at Harper's Hill, Valley of the Hunter, American Journal of Science and Arts, Second Series 4, 151-160
Dana J. D. Descriptions of fossil shells of the collections of the exploring expedition under the command of Charles Wilkes, USN, obtained in Australia, from the lower layers of the coal formation in Illawarra, and from a deposit probably of nearly the same age at Harper's Hill, Valley of the Hunter, American Journal of Science and Arts, Second Series 4, 151-160
Dana J. D. Descriptions of fossil shells of the collections of the exploring expedition under the command of Charles Wilkes, USN, obtained in Australia, from the lower layers of the coal formation in Illawarra, and from a deposit probably of nearly the same age at Harper's Hill, Valley of the Hunter, American Journal of Science and Arts, Second Series 4, 151-160
Dana J. D. Appendix I. Descriptions of Fossils. 1. Fossils of New South Wales, United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1842, 1842 Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Atlas: Geology, 681-720
Dana J. D. Appendix I. Descriptions of Fossils. 1. Fossils of New South Wales, United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1842, 1842 Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Atlas: Geology, 681-720
Dana J. D. Appendix I. Descriptions of Fossils. 1. Fossils of New South Wales, United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1842, 1842 Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Atlas: Geology, 681-720
Giebel C. G. Die Versteinerungen in Muschelkalk von Lieskau bei Halle, Abhandlungen Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines 1, 53-126
Stanton T. W. Contributions to the Cretaceous paleontology of the Pacific coast. : The fauna of the Knoxville, Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 133, 1-132 doi:10.3133/b133
Newton R. B. (1906) Notice of some fossils from Singapore discovered by John B. Scrivenor, FGS, geologist to the Federated Malay States, Geological Magazine, New Series, Decade V 3, 487-496
Raymond P. E. (1916) The Pelecypoda of the Chazy Formation, Annals of the Carnegie Museum 328, 325-343
Etheridge Jr. R. (1919) Palaeontologia Novae Cambriae Meridionalis - occasional descriptions of New South Wales fossils - No. 7, Records of the Australian Museum 12 9, 183-192
Squires R. L. (1984) Megapaleontology of the Eocene Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 350, 1-76
Squires R. L. (1987) Eocene molluscan paleontology of the Whitaker Peak area, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 388, 1-93
Ward L. W., Blackwelder B.W. (1987) Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene Mollusca from the James City and Chowan River Formations at Lee Creek Mine, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 61, 113-283
Squires R. L. (1988) Eocene Macropaleontology of Northern Lockwood Valley, Ventura County, California, Contributions in Science (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) 398, 1-23
Shoshani J., Fisher D. C., et al (1989) The Shelton Mastodon Site: Multidisciplinary study of a late Pleistocene (Twocreekan) locality in Southeastern Michigan, Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 27 14, 393-436
Kennedy G. L. (1993) New Cretaceous and Tertiary Pholadidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from California, Journal of Paleontology 67 3, 397-404
Coan E. V., Scott P. V., et al (2000) Bivalve seashells of western North America, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural history Monographs 2, 1-764
Gravestock D. I., Alexander E. M., et al (2001) The Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Stansbury Basin, South Australia, Russian Academy of Sciences, Transactions of the Palaeontological Institute 282, 1-344
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Giribet G., Okusu A., et al (2006) Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 20, 7723-7728
Hikuroa D., Grant-Mackie J. (2008) New species of Late Jurassic Australobuchia (Bivalvia) from the Murihiku Terrane, Port Waikato-Kawhia region, New Zealand, Alcheringa 32, 73-98
Taylor J. D., Kennedy W. J. & Hall A. (1973). The Shell Structure and Mineralogy of the Bivalvia. II. Lucinacea-Clavagellacea. Conclusions. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, London 22 (9): 253-294, pl. 15 - via World Register of Marine Species
Lemer, S.; Bieler, R.; Giribet, G. (2019). Resolving the relationships of clams and cockles: dense transcriptome sampling drastically improves the bivalve tree of life. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 286(1896): 20182684. - via World Register of Marine Species
Bieler, R.; Mikkelsen, P. M.; Collins, T. M.; Glover, E. A.; González, V. L.; Graf, D. L.; Harper, E. M.; Healy, J.; Kawauchi, G. Y.; Sharma, P. P.; Staubach, S.; Strong, E. E.; Taylor, J. D.; Tëmkin, I.; Zardus, J. D.; Clark, S.; Guzmán, A.; McIntyre, E.; Sharp, P.; Giribet, G. (2014). Investigating the Bivalve Tree of Life – an exemplar-based approach combining molecular and novel morphological characters. Invertebrate Systematics. 28(1): 32-115. - via World Register of Marine Species
Bieler R. & Mikkelsen P. 2006. Bivalvia – a look at the Branches. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 148, 223–235. - via World Register of Marine Species
Bieler R., Carter J.G. & Coan E.V. (2010). Classification of Bivalve families. Pp. 113-133, in: Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (2010), Nomenclator of Bivalve Families. Malacologia 52(2): 1-184. - via World Register of Marine Species
Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. - via World Register of Marine Species
Cox L.R. et al., 1969. Part N: Mollusca 6, Bivalvia. In R.C. Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. 2 vol., 1224 p. - via World Register of Marine Species
Taylor J. D., Kennedy W. J. & Hall A. (1973). The Shell Structure and Mineralogy of the Bivalvia. II. Lucinacea-Clavagellacea. Conclusions. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, London 22 (9): 253-294, pl. 15 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Lemer, S.; Bieler, R.; Giribet, G. (2019). Resolving the relationships of clams and cockles: dense transcriptome sampling drastically improves the bivalve tree of life. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 286(1896): 20182684. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Bieler, R.; Mikkelsen, P. M.; Collins, T. M.; Glover, E. A.; González, V. L.; Graf, D. L.; Harper, E. M.; Healy, J.; Kawauchi, G. Y.; Sharma, P. P.; Staubach, S.; Strong, E. E.; Taylor, J. D.; Tëmkin, I.; Zardus, J. D.; Clark, S.; Guzmán, A.; McIntyre, E.; Sharp, P.; Giribet, G. (2014). Investigating the Bivalve Tree of Life – an exemplar-based approach combining molecular and novel morphological characters. Invertebrate Systematics. 28(1): 32-115. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Bieler R. & Mikkelsen P. 2006. Bivalvia – a look at the Branches. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 148, 223–235. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Bieler R., Carter J.G. & Coan E.V. (2010). Classification of Bivalve families. Pp. 113-133, in: Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (2010), Nomenclator of Bivalve Families. Malacologia 52(2): 1-184. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Cox L.R. et al., 1969. Part N: Mollusca 6, Bivalvia. In R.C. Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. 2 vol., 1224 p. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al., 1998: Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed.. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Gittenberger et al. (2004) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
WoRMS (2016) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Vaught, K. C. / Abbott, Robert T. and Kenneth J. Boss, 1989: null. A classification of the living Mollusca. xii+195. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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