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Bivalvia

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Description

Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. Bivalves as a group have no head and they lack some usual molluscan organs like the radula and the odontophore. They include the clams, oysters, cockles, mussels, scallops, and numerous other families that live in saltwater, as well as a number of families that live in freshwater. The majority are filter feeders. The gills have evolved into ctenidia, specialised organs for feeding and breathing. Most bivalves bury themselves in sediment where they are relatively safe from predation. Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces. Some bivalves, such as the scallops and file shells, can swim. The shipworms bore into wood, clay, or stone and live inside these substances.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)137https://www.gbif.org/species/137
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)16005https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=16005
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-Bilateria
-EubilateriaAx 1987
-ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
-Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumMolluscaLinnaeus 1758
classBivalviaLinnaeus 1758
Common Nameclam
Scientific NameBivalvia
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Bivalviaclassbelongs to Molluscastated without evidenceSquires, 1984
Bivalviaclassbelongs to MolluscaimpliedBarnes, 1998
Bivalviaclassbelongs to Molluscastated with evidenceGravestock et al., 2001
Bivalviaclassbelongs to Molluscasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Bivalviaclassbelongs to Molluscastated without evidenceGiribet et al., 2006
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)20,590
Extant Size (PBDB)3,922 (19%)
First Recorded Appearance541 - 520 Ma
Cambrian
Motilityfacultatively mobile
Visionblind
Dietsuspension feeder
Taphonomyaragonite
Primary Reference (PBDB)C. Linnaeus. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Editio Decima 1:1-824
Common Name(s) Tweekleppigen, Muscheln, Bivalves, Bivalves And Clams, Musslor, Двостулкові, Двостулкові молюски, двустворчатые моллюски, 二枚貝, Clam, Clams, Palourdes, Bivalve, Mexilhão, Ostra
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bivalvia

External Images

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Cryptodonta
subclass
listed (PBDB)
Isofilibranchia
subclass
listed (PBDB)
Neotaxodonta
subclass
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Palaeotaxodonta
subclass
listed (PBDB)8479 Ma
Early Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Adapedonta
order
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Anomalodesmacea
order
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Arcida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
12,728479 Ma
Early Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Cardiida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
37,121453 Ma
Late Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Carditida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
11,129485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Galeommatida
order
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Gastrochaenida
order
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hippuritida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Rudist4,879439 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Limida
order
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lucinida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6,659443 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Megalodontida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
585461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Modiomorphida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1,784485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Myalinida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6,917479 Ma
Early Ordovician
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Myida
order
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mytilida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6,196479 Ma
Early Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Nuculanida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8,404485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Nuculida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4,663485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Ostreida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Oyster24,106479 Ma
Early Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Pectinida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Scallop33,756443 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Prionodesmacea
order
listed (PBDB)1423 Ma
Silurian
423 Ma
Silurian
Protobranchia
order
listed (PBDB)13,980485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Solemyida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
904485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Sphaeriida
order
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Teleodesmacea
order
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Trigoniida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6,212479 Ma
Early Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Unionida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
531290 Ma
Permian
0 Ma
Extant
Venerida
order
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Plicatulacea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)
Actinodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Actinodontophoridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8290 Ma
Permian
174 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Afghanodesmatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Allodesmatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
50479 Ma
Early Ordovician
427 Ma
Silurian
Amblemidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
20.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Amnigeniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Amotapidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Amusiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Anodontopsidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Antipleuridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
240443 Ma
Silurian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Archanodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1260 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Archaracidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Arenigomyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Arhouriellidae
family
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Aviculidae
family
listed (PBDB)1237 Ma
Middle Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Baidiostracidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Bakevellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Batolitidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bayleiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Buchiolidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4384 Ma
Middle Devonian
384 Ma
Middle Devonian
Burmesiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
14237 Ma
Middle Triassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Cadomiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Camyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Cardilidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cardiolariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
165485 Ma
Cambrian
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Cardiolidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
222443 Ma
Silurian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Carydiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
51419 Ma
Early Devonian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Cercomyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Cetoconchidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Chondrotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Cirravidae
family
listed (PBDB)
Clavagellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6483.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Cleidothaeridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
323.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Clistoconchidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Colpomyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
23485 Ma
Cambrian
477 Ma
Early Ordovician
Corbidae
family
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Coxiconchidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Coxiconchiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
23485 Ma
Cambrian
461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Crassatellopsidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Crenellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
191170 Ma
Middle Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Cuspidariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
362242 Ma
Middle Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Cyrtodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
459479 Ma
Early Ordovician
296 Ma
Permian
Dattidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Deltopectenidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Dianchoridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dreisseniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Dualinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1376 Ma
Late Devonian
376 Ma
Late Devonian
Duranidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eritropidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6467 Ma
Middle Ordovician
464 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Euciroidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Eurydesmidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Evyanidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Falcatodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1479 Ma
Early Ordovician
479 Ma
Early Ordovician
Flemingostreidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
466109 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Fordillidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
89530 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Frenguelliellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fusidae
family
listed (PBDB)
Gariidae
family
listed (PBDB)
Glyphaeidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Grammysiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
614479 Ma
Early Ordovician
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Gyropleuridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Halonymphidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Horiopleuridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ichtyosarcolidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Intihuarellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4485 Ma
Cambrian
479 Ma
Early Ordovician
Ischyrodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Isolimeidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Kinerkaellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Konduriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Lamellodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Lamellotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Laternulidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
327247 Ma
Early Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Laurskiidae
family
listed (PBDB)
Leiopectinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8443 Ma
Silurian
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Lipanellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
22485 Ma
Cambrian
427 Ma
Silurian
Lithiotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lithodomidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lunulicardiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7359 Ma
Late Devonian
326 Ma
Carboniferous
Lyonsiellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Lyonsiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
38201 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Margaritariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
641.3 Ma
Eocene
3.60 Ma
Pliocene
Matheriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Megadesmidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
266347 Ma
Carboniferous
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Melliterycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Microdontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Montanariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Myochamidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2133.9 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Myoconchidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4237 Ma
Middle Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Myodakryotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2458 Ma
Late Ordovician
458 Ma
Late Ordovician
Myopholadidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nucularcidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
49467 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Nyassidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
26393 Ma
Early Devonian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Oriocrassatellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Orthonotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
86468 Ma
Middle Ordovician
265 Ma
Permian
Osculigeridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pachycardiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
54247 Ma
Early Triassic
212 Ma
Late Triassic
Palaeocardiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3443 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Palaeocarditidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
157237 Ma
Middle Triassic
183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Palaeolophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
662232 Ma
Late Triassic
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Palaeomutelidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
63290 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Pandoridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
12966.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Paraviculidae
family
listed (PBDB)
Parilimyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8161 Ma
Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Penicillidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Pergamidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Periplomatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
283125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Pholadomyacidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pholadomyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2,245461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Pichleriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
57247 Ma
Early Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Pironaeidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pisidiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Poromyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
345125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Praecardiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
108458 Ma
Middle Ordovician
365 Ma
Late Devonian
Praelamellodontidae
family
listed (PBDB)1541 Ma
Cambrian
541 Ma
Cambrian
Praelucinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Praeostreidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Prospondylidea
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
64252 Ma
Permian
183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Prothyridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Protocuspidariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Pseudarcidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Rethidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhaetomyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Saharopteridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sanguinolitidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
748445 Ma
Late Ordovician
254 Ma
Permian
Saturnidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Saxicavellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
359.2 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Septiferidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Septocardiidae
family
listed (PBDB)
Similodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Slavidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
41439 Ma
Silurian
426 Ma
Silurian
Solecrutidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Solenomorphidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Solenomyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Spanilidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
38431 Ma
Silurian
409 Ma
Early Devonian
Sphaeridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spheniopsidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1838.0 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Spirodomidae
family
listed (PBDB)
Stolidotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
35439 Ma
Silurian
423 Ma
Silurian
Streblopterinellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Terquemiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
113247 Ma
Early Triassic
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Thraciidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
625290 Ma
Permian
0 Ma
Extant
Toucasiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tridacnidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tuarangiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3513 Ma
Cambrian
504 Ma
Cambrian
Ucumariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3485 Ma
Cambrian
479 Ma
Early Ordovician
Umburiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Verticordiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
18272.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Xylophaginidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Zadimerodiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2478 Ma
Early Ordovician
478 Ma
Early Ordovician
Amphikoilinae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)
Rousseliinae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)
Acturellina
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
516.0 Ma
Miocene
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Ahtioconcha
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Alatoconcha
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Andinodesma
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1408 Ma
Early Devonian
408 Ma
Early Devonian
Anthraconauta
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4339 Ma
Carboniferous
272 Ma
Permian
Arcticlam
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
166.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Avichlamys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
19252 Ma
Permian
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Aviculomya
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Aviculovulsa
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Bakevellia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
5260 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Barcoona
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Bilobissa
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bleta
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Boreionectes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bouleigmus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Bowdenia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Brachyanodon
genus
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Burriera
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1279 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Camnantia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1464 Ma
Middle Ordovician
464 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Camptochlamys
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Capillimya
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Carnidia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1237 Ma
Middle Triassic
237 Ma
Middle Triassic
Casterella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
10299 Ma
Carboniferous
265 Ma
Permian
Cheiopteria
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
16426 Ma
Silurian
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Claughtonia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1174 Ma
Middle Jurassic
174 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Cliopteria
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Clotho
genus
listed (PBDB)
Coloniceramus
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Conchodus
genus
listed (PBDB)
Coquandia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Costanaia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Costicamptonectes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Coxiconcha
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Crassiconcha
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1260 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Cruciella
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Ctenolima
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1156 Ma
Jurassic
156 Ma
Jurassic
Cycloconchoides
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Delia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Dolponella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9254 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Edon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3345 Ma
Carboniferous
339 Ma
Carboniferous
Elasmatium
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Elliptoidea
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Ensia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Ensipteria
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
25269 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Eoasmussia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Euburnopecten
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Eusebia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
172.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Euthydesma
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2393 Ma
Early Devonian
376 Ma
Late Devonian
Exputens
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1756.0 Ma
Paleocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Ferganoconcha
genus
listed (PBDB)3152 Ma
Late Jurassic
125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Fogiella
genus
listed (PBDB)4222 Ma
Late Triassic
222 Ma
Late Triassic
Geinitzia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3269 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Gibboconcha
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Gissaromya
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Glendella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9279 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Gloverilima
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8272 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Gosselettia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1388 Ma
Middle Devonian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Gryphaeligmus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8174 Ma
Middle Jurassic
166 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Guebhardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Guerichia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8372 Ma
Late Devonian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Hayasakapecten
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
24279 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Heligmopsis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Hemisterias
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Hippagus
genus
listed (PBDB)341.3 Ma
Eocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Hippochaeta
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hubeinella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hypotrema
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
151 Ma
Late Jurassic
Inflatomonotis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Inoceramya
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Isodonta
genus
listed (PBDB)5201 Ma
Early Jurassic
164 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Jellia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Joannisiella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1248.6 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Kogulanychia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Laubeia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2235 Ma
Late Triassic
235 Ma
Late Triassic
Leila
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Leochlamys
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lhasanella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1183 Ma
Early Jurassic
183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Libitina
genus
listed (PBDB)347.8 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Libyaconchus
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Limatulina
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9336 Ma
Carboniferous
260 Ma
Permian
Limnopagetia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Limnopappia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Lithophagella
genus
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Lituyapecten
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
25.33 Ma
Miocene
0.78 Ma
Pleistocene
Lux
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Manankovia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3347 Ma
Carboniferous
331 Ma
Carboniferous
Manihikia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Martinsonella
genus
listed (PBDB)
Megagrypha
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Megalodus
genus
listed (PBDB)19237 Ma
Middle Triassic
222 Ma
Late Triassic
Megalomus
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8443 Ma
Silurian
426 Ma
Silurian
Merismopteria
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
45323 Ma
Carboniferous
254 Ma
Permian
Micranodonta
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Morrisipecten
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9290 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Mulletia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Myacites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Myalinopterella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Mytilon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
166.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Nanohalus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Neofordilla
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Newsomella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3433 Ma
Silurian
427 Ma
Silurian
Nodonychia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1393 Ma
Early Devonian
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Oblicarina
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6296 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Obrimia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6419 Ma
Early Devonian
408 Ma
Early Devonian
Onkogrypha
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Ostreavicula
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Oxytomoidea
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1,025393 Ma
Early Devonian
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Pachypteria
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2339 Ma
Carboniferous
260 Ma
Permian
Palaearca
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Palaeopinna
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2408 Ma
Early Devonian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Palanatina
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1254 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Paleowaagia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
17299 Ma
Carboniferous
265 Ma
Permian
Paradoxia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1191 Ma
Early Jurassic
191 Ma
Early Jurassic
Pergamidia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
10237 Ma
Middle Triassic
222 Ma
Late Triassic
Permoceramus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Petroxestes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phaenomya
genus
listed (PBDB)141.3 Ma
Eocene
41.3 Ma
Eocene
Pholadella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
37408 Ma
Early Devonian
260 Ma
Permian
Phygraea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phyllonia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Platymya
genus
listed (PBDB)9170 Ma
Middle Jurassic
125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Plethocardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
20461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Pleureterites
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pleurodapis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
18419 Ma
Early Devonian
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Pleurodesma
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
123.0 Ma
Miocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Plicatomytilus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Polidevcia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
223408 Ma
Early Devonian
28.1 Ma
Oligocene
Praeamonotis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6265 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Praeanomalodontata
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Praecardiomya
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Praelamellodonta
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1541 Ma
Cambrian
541 Ma
Cambrian
Praevicula
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Productea
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Promacrus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Promargaritifera
genus
listed (PBDB)
Prosodacna
genus
listed (PBDB)17.25 Ma
Miocene
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Prospondylus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Protoentolium
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Protopis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
11251 Ma
Early Triassic
232 Ma
Late Triassic
Psammacola
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
12.59 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Psammoconcha
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pseudanodonta
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Pseudocardita
genus
listed (PBDB)1237 Ma
Middle Triassic
237 Ma
Middle Triassic
Pseudoheligmus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
172.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Pseudospatha
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Pseudoveletuceta
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rebusum
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Regalilima
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Reniella
genus
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Rhenanomya
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Rossiodus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rutotia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1269 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Saharopteria
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1347 Ma
Carboniferous
347 Ma
Carboniferous
Sancticarolis
genus
listed (PBDB)
Semimodiola
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
766.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Serrilaminula
genus
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Sinodora
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8403 Ma
Early Devonian
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Somalidacna
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
123.0 Ma
Miocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Taeniodon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2209 Ma
Late Triassic
209 Ma
Late Triassic
Tatella
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Telistrophis
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Teranota
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Thoralia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
5479 Ma
Early Ordovician
472 Ma
Early Ordovician
Trachidomia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1304 Ma
Carboniferous
304 Ma
Carboniferous
Trigonellites
genus
listed (PBDB)1156 Ma
Jurassic
156 Ma
Jurassic
Tuarangia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3513 Ma
Cambrian
504 Ma
Cambrian
Tugoniopsis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Wuxuanites
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8403 Ma
Early Devonian
403 Ma
Early Devonian
Xianfengoconcha
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Alasmidon falcata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Andonta moulinsiana
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Corrugolima transluscens
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lampsillis radiata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Menatus planulatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Monocondyloea pequensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Partuk aurantia
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Partuk dendroica
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Partuk exigua
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Partuk mirabilis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Partuk olympia
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Partuk tohiveana
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Polygrella polygrella
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Polygysa sanbusni
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Potamilis metnecktayi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudoaviculopecten bradfordensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhyncotrochus extraneus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhyncotrochus monticolo
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sphaenium cubense
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Stroplietus rugosus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tancrediopsis gothlandica
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Thericium biminensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Thericium biminievse
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Truncillo ebenus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eubivalvia
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)172,863485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Euprotobranchia
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)92530 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Solecurtus ellipticus Tate, 1887GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Solecurtus ellipticus

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1758Bivalvia Linnaeus
1820Pelecypoda Goldfuss
1838Ostrea compta Goldfuss
1847Solen (Solecurtus) ellipticus Dana p. 153
1847Solen (Solecurtus) planulatus Dana p. 153
1847Modiolopsis praerupta Dana p. 159
1849Solecurtus (Psammobia) planulatus Dana p. 686 figs. Pl 2, fig 10
1849Solecurtus ellipticus Dana p. 686 figs. Pl 2, fig 9
1849Cypricardia praerupta Dana p. 703 figs. Pl 8, fig 10
1856Hinnites comtus Giebel
1886Asiphonidae Choffat
1895Pelecypoda Stanton p. 34
1906Astarte scrivenori Newton p. 492 figs. Pl 25, figs 11,12
1916Pelecypoda Raymond
1919Stutchburia praerupta Etheridge Jr. p. 190
1936Palaeostrea Grabau
YearName and Author
1982Spirulinae Allen and Sanders
1984Bivalvia Squires p. 40
1987Bivalvia Squires p. 54
1987Pelecypoda Ward and Blackwelder p. 129
1988Bivalvia Squires p. 17
1989Pelecypoda Shoshani et al. p. 435
1993Bivalvia Kennedy p. 397
1997Bathyspinulinae Coan and Scott
1998Bivalvia Barnes p. 270
2000Bathyspinulinae Coan et al. pp. 82, 91
2001Bivalvia Gravestock et al. p. 200
2002Bivalvia Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Palaeoentolium Sepkoski, Jr.
2006Bivalvia Giribet et al. p. 7724
2008Bivalvia Hikuroa and Grant-Mackie

References

Linnaeus C. , Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Editio Decima 1, 1-824 doi:10.5962/bhl.title.542
Dana J. D. Descriptions of fossil shells of the collections of the exploring expedition under the command of Charles Wilkes, USN, obtained in Australia, from the lower layers of the coal formation in Illawarra, and from a deposit probably of nearly the same age at Harper's Hill, Valley of the Hunter, American Journal of Science and Arts, Second Series 4, 151-160
Dana J. D. Appendix I. Descriptions of Fossils. 1. Fossils of New South Wales, United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1842, 1842 Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Atlas: Geology, 681-720
Giebel C. G. Die Versteinerungen in Muschelkalk von Lieskau bei Halle, Abhandlungen Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines 1, 53-126
Stanton T. W. Contributions to the Cretaceous paleontology of the Pacific coast. : The fauna of the Knoxville, Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 133, 1-132 doi:10.3133/b133
Newton R. B. (1906) Notice of some fossils from Singapore discovered by John B. Scrivenor, FGS, geologist to the Federated Malay States, Geological Magazine, New Series, Decade V 3, 487-496
Raymond P. E. (1916) The Pelecypoda of the Chazy Formation, Annals of the Carnegie Museum 328, 325-343
Etheridge Jr. R. (1919) Palaeontologia Novae Cambriae Meridionalis - occasional descriptions of New South Wales fossils - No. 7, Records of the Australian Museum 12 9, 183-192
Squires R. L. (1984) Megapaleontology of the Eocene Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 350, 1-76
Squires R. L. (1987) Eocene molluscan paleontology of the Whitaker Peak area, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 388, 1-93
Ward L. W., Blackwelder B.W. (1987) Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene Mollusca from the James City and Chowan River Formations at Lee Creek Mine, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 61, 113-283
Squires R. L. (1988) Eocene Macropaleontology of Northern Lockwood Valley, Ventura County, California, Contributions in Science (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) 398, 1-23
Shoshani J., Fisher D. C., et al (1989) The Shelton Mastodon Site: Multidisciplinary study of a late Pleistocene (Twocreekan) locality in Southeastern Michigan, Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 27 14, 393-436
Kennedy G. L. (1993) New Cretaceous and Tertiary Pholadidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from California, Journal of Paleontology 67 3, 397-404
Coan E. V., Scott P. V., et al (2000) Bivalve seashells of western North America, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural history Monographs 2, 1-764
Gravestock D. I., Alexander E. M., et al (2001) The Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Stansbury Basin, South Australia, Russian Academy of Sciences, Transactions of the Palaeontological Institute 282, 1-344
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Giribet G., Okusu A., et al (2006) Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 20, 7723-7728
Hikuroa D., Grant-Mackie J. (2008) New species of Late Jurassic Australobuchia (Bivalvia) from the Murihiku Terrane, Port Waikato-Kawhia region, New Zealand, Alcheringa 32, 73-98
Taylor J. D., Kennedy W. J. & Hall A. (1973). The Shell Structure and Mineralogy of the Bivalvia. II. Lucinacea-Clavagellacea. Conclusions. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, London 22 (9): 253-294, pl. 15 - via World Register of Marine Species
Lemer, S.; Bieler, R.; Giribet, G. (2019). Resolving the relationships of clams and cockles: dense transcriptome sampling drastically improves the bivalve tree of life. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 286(1896): 20182684. - via World Register of Marine Species
Bieler, R.; Mikkelsen, P. M.; Collins, T. M.; Glover, E. A.; González, V. L.; Graf, D. L.; Harper, E. M.; Healy, J.; Kawauchi, G. Y.; Sharma, P. P.; Staubach, S.; Strong, E. E.; Taylor, J. D.; Tëmkin, I.; Zardus, J. D.; Clark, S.; Guzmán, A.; McIntyre, E.; Sharp, P.; Giribet, G. (2014). Investigating the Bivalve Tree of Life – an exemplar-based approach combining molecular and novel morphological characters. Invertebrate Systematics. 28(1): 32-115. - via World Register of Marine Species
Bieler R. & Mikkelsen P. 2006. Bivalvia – a look at the Branches. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 148, 223–235. - via World Register of Marine Species
Bieler R., Carter J.G. & Coan E.V. (2010). Classification of Bivalve families. Pp. 113-133, in: Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (2010), Nomenclator of Bivalve Families. Malacologia 52(2): 1-184. - via World Register of Marine Species
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Lemer, S.; Bieler, R.; Giribet, G. (2019). Resolving the relationships of clams and cockles: dense transcriptome sampling drastically improves the bivalve tree of life. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 286(1896): 20182684. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Bieler, R.; Mikkelsen, P. M.; Collins, T. M.; Glover, E. A.; González, V. L.; Graf, D. L.; Harper, E. M.; Healy, J.; Kawauchi, G. Y.; Sharma, P. P.; Staubach, S.; Strong, E. E.; Taylor, J. D.; Tëmkin, I.; Zardus, J. D.; Clark, S.; Guzmán, A.; McIntyre, E.; Sharp, P.; Giribet, G. (2014). Investigating the Bivalve Tree of Life – an exemplar-based approach combining molecular and novel morphological characters. Invertebrate Systematics. 28(1): 32-115. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Bieler R. & Mikkelsen P. 2006. Bivalvia – a look at the Branches. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 148, 223–235. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Bieler R., Carter J.G. & Coan E.V. (2010). Classification of Bivalve families. Pp. 113-133, in: Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (2010), Nomenclator of Bivalve Families. Malacologia 52(2): 1-184. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Cox L.R. et al., 1969. Part N: Mollusca 6, Bivalvia. In R.C. Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. 2 vol., 1224 p. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al., 1998: Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed.. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
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Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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