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Brachiopoda

Description

Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs. Brachiopod valves are hinged at the rear end, while the front can be opened for feeding or closed for protection. Two major groups are recognized, articulate and inarticulate. The word "articulate" is used to describe the tooth-and-groove features of the valve-hinge which is present in the articulate group, and absent from the inarticulate group. This is the leading diagnostic feature (fossilizable), by which the two main groups can be readily distinguished. Articulate brachiopods have toothed hinges and simple opening and closing muscles, while inarticulate brachiopods have untoothed hinges and a more complex system of muscles used to keep the two valves aligned. In a typical brachiopod a stalk-like pedicle projects from an opening in one of the valves near the hinges, known as the pedicle valve, keeping the animal anchored to the seabed but clear of silt that would obstruct the opening.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)110https://www.gbif.org/species/110
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)26322https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=26322
Rankphylum
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Brachiopoda
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-Bilateria
-EubilateriaAx 1987
-ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
-Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
-Lophophorata
phylumBrachiopodaCuvier 1805
Common Namelamp shell
Scientific NameBrachiopoda
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Brachiopodaclassbelongs to Molluscoideastated without evidenceMartin, 1904
Brachiopodaphylumbelongs to Phoronozoastated without evidenceZrzavy et al., 1998
Brachiopodaphylumbelongs to Metazoasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Brachiopodaunranked cladebelongs to Trochozoastated without evidenceEdgecombe et al., 2011
Brachiopodaphylumbelongs to Brachiozoastated without evidenceNielsen, 2012
Brachiopodaphylumbelongs to Lophophoratastated with evidenceNesnidal et al., 2013
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)18,904
Extant Size (PBDB)564 (3.0%)
First Recorded Appearance541 - 530 Ma
Cambrian
Motilitystationary, attached
Dietsuspension feeder
Ecospace CommentsECOSPACE CODE: 361. LIFE HISTORY: Epifaunal suspension feeder (Caron & Jackson, 2008).
Taphonomylow Mg calcite
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Armfotingar, Lamp Shell, Brachiopods, Lampshells, Armfüßer, Armkiemer, Brachiopoden, Lampenmuscheln, Stielmuscheln, Armfødder, Armpotigen, Brachiopodes, Braquiópodos, Lamp Shells, 腕足動物, Bivalve Coelomates, Braquiópode
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brachiopoda

External Images

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Craniiformea
subphylum
listed (PBDB)1,327516 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Disciniformea
subphylum
listed (PBDB)
Linguliformea
subphylum
listed (PBDB)7,320541 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Rhynchonelliformea
subphylum
listed (PBDB)165,208541 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Chileata
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
173520 Ma
Cambrian
260 Ma
Permian
Craniata
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1,327516 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Kutorginata
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
128541 Ma
Cambrian
479 Ma
Early Ordovician
Lingulata
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6,945541 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Obolellata
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
90541 Ma
Cambrian
433 Ma
Silurian
Rhynchonellata
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
108,662530 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Strophomenata
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
56,120516 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Tommotiida
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
246541 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Pygocaulia
subclass
listed (PBDB)
Inarticulata
order
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Clitambonoidea
suborder
listed (PBDB)2472 Ma
Early Ordovician
468 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Dallinacea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)
Punctospiracea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)
Alphaneospiriferidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cryptotretidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mickwitziidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
29530 Ma
Cambrian
516 Ma
Cambrian
Paterinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
317541 Ma
Cambrian
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Acanthotretella
genus
listed (PBDB)6513 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Agastapleura
genus
listed (PBDB)
Anatrypa
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Anomites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Biarea
genus
listed (PBDB)
Branxtonia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cornwallia
genus
listed (PBDB)
Crania
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dirinus
genus
listed (PBDB)
Eccentrotheca
genus
listed (PBDB)52541 Ma
Cambrian
516 Ma
Cambrian
Ernogia
genus
listed (PBDB)4541 Ma
Cambrian
530 Ma
Cambrian
Harttina
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Iphidella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
13516 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Jilinia
genus
listed (PBDB)
Larium
genus
listed (PBDB)
Lathamella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9541 Ma
Cambrian
541 Ma
Cambrian
Leptolepyron
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Longtancunella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Manosia
genus
listed (PBDB)1456 Ma
Late Ordovician
456 Ma
Late Ordovician
Nekvasilovella
genus
listed (PBDB)
Neogypidula
genus
listed (PBDB)
Ocruranus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Orbicula
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Oymurania
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
12520 Ma
Cambrian
516 Ma
Cambrian
Palaeocarrickella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pereudesia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pholidops
genus
listed (PBDB)67461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Plectorhynchonella
genus
listed (PBDB)1372 Ma
Late Devonian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Pomatospirella
genus
listed (PBDB)3242 Ma
Middle Triassic
235 Ma
Late Triassic
Pseudoleptostrophia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Reflexia
genus
listed (PBDB)
Rhynchoferella
genus
listed (PBDB)
Rictia
genus
listed (PBDB)
Socraticum
genus
listed (PBDB)
Spondylobolus
genus
listed (PBDB)
Surindia
genus
listed (PBDB)
Tegulella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
10468 Ma
Middle Ordovician
461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Terebratulites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Thecidium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3235 Ma
Late Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Venezuelia
genus
listed (PBDB)
Virbium
genus
listed (PBDB)
Xianshanella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Yeosinella
genus
listed (PBDB)
Yongjia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Zalvera
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Actrotreta highgatensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bicostata bicostata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Boreadortis crassa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Boreadortis recula
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Carniferella alleni
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Carniferella costellata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Clotinda rotunda
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Delororthis vescus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Echinoroelia pretiosa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Inocaulus minganensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Komia eganensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Liorhynchus carboniferum
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Liorhynchus haguei
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mocphorhynchus newmexicoense
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Muscrospirifer parvus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Neopatystrophia saxbyensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pagetides clydensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pagetides cooperi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pagetides gracilis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pagetides pusilla
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Parafusus aurecollis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Parafusus catinulus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Parafusus duodenaria
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Parafusus eurekensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Parafusus manardensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Platyostoma perplexa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Podogonium allegania
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Podogonium nevadensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Priscochiton alia
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Proanoplia pygmaea
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudoxybelocer americana
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rapidiorhynchus newmexicoense
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhabdostrophia striatisculpta
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spenorhynchia angulata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Stophomena kiaeri
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tecnocrytina fissiplicata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Yangtzella reticulatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Alroy, J. (2015) Fossilworks. Gateway to the Paleobiology Database. Online: http://fossilworks.org - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Brands, S.J. (comp.) (2014) The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. [http://taxonomicon.taxonomy.nl/]. 1989-present. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
WoRMS (2016) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Kaesler, R.L. (Ed.). (1997-2008). Brachiopoda. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H: Brachiopoda Revised. Geological Society of America, Boulder. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, vol. 1-6. - via World Register of Marine Species
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Kaesler, R.L. (Ed.). (1997-2008). Brachiopoda. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H: Brachiopoda Revised. Geological Society of America, Boulder. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, vol. 1-6. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Emig, C. C.; Bitner, M. A.; Álvarez, F. (2013). Phylum Brachiopoda. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa. 3703(1): 75-78. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 1990: null. Invertebrates. xiii + 992. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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