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Platyhelminthes

Description

The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates. Unlike other bilaterians, they are acoelomates (having no body cavity), and have no specialized circulatory and respiratory organs, which restricts them to having flattened shapes that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through their bodies by diffusion. The digestive cavity has only one opening for both ingestion (intake of nutrients) and egestion (removal of undigested wastes); as a result, the food cannot be processed continuously.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)108https://www.gbif.org/species/108
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)169062https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=169062
Rankphylum
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Platyhelminthes
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
Spiralia
superphylumPlatyzoaCavalier-Smith 1998
phylumPlatyhelminthesGegenbaur 1859
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NamePlatyhelminthes
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)9
Extant Size (PBDB)3 (33%)
First Recorded Appearance520 - 516 Ma
Cambrian
Primary Reference (PBDB)D. R. Brooks. 1989. The Phylogeny of the Cercomeria (Platyhelminthes: Rhabdocoela) and General Evolutionary Principles. Journal of Parasitology 75(4):606-616
Common Name(s) Flatworms, Platyhelminths, Tapeworms
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platyhelminthes

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Cestoda
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monogenea
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trematoda
class
accepted1129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Bothrioplanida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dolichomicrostomida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fecampiida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gnosonesimida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Macrostomorpha
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polycladida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Prolecithophora
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Prorhynchida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proseriata
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhabdocoela
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tricladida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Acrumenidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Catenulidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chordariidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crassicolidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Didymorchidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Geopaliducolidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Koinocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leimacopsidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proporoplanidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudophyllidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pterastricolidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Retronectidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhynchokarlingidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stenostomidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Typhlorhynchidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tyrrheniellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anotocelis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brabbinthes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Centrostomum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chonostomum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Darwinia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Derostoma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diopis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diotis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diplonchus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Disorus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Elasmodes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Endocelis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glossostoma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gyrator
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Heteroplana
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Heterostylochus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Niobe
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Orthostomum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palaeoplatoda
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Platypholinia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Plerocercus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polyporus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Prostomum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proteola
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudogyratrix
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhynchoprobolus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Telostomum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tetracotylus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trachyplana
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tricelis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Typhlolepta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Vladimissa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Vortex
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Catatiopsis hatcheri
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chriostichorchis rarus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conjugouterus parvus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Rhabdocoela
order
Not linked to GBIF138.0 Ma
Eocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Turbellaria
class
Not linked to GBIF2extant0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1859Platyhelminthes Gegenbaur
1989Platyhelminthes Brooks p. 609
2006Platyhelminthes Passamaneck and Halanych
2011Platyhelminthes Edgecombe et al. p. 153 figs. Fig. 1
2012Platyhelminthes Nielsen p. 166 figs. Fig. 23.1

References

Brooks D. R. (1989) The Phylogeny of the Cercomeria (Platyhelminthes: Rhabdocoela) and General Evolutionary Principles, Journal of Parasitology 75 4, 606-616
Passamaneck Y., Halanych K. M. (2006) Lophotrochozoan phylogeny assessed with LSU and SSU data: Evidence of lophophorate polyphyly, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 1, 20-28 doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.001
Edgecombe G. D., Giribet G., et al (2011) Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions, Organisms Diversity & Evolution 11 2, 151-172 doi:10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Egger, B.; Lapraz, F.; Tomiczek, B.; Müller, S.; Dessimoz, C.; Girstmair, J.; Škunca, N.; Rawlinson, K.; Cameron, C.; Beli, E.; Todaro, M.; Gammoudi, M.; Noreña, C.; Telford, M. (2015). A Transcriptomic-Phylogenomic Analysis of the Evolutionary Relationships of Flatworms. Current Biology. 25(10): 1347-1353. - via World Register of Marine Species
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 1990: null. Invertebrates. xiii + 992. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Egger, B.; Lapraz, F.; Tomiczek, B.; Müller, S.; Dessimoz, C.; Girstmair, J.; Škunca, N.; Rawlinson, K.; Cameron, C.; Beli, E.; Todaro, M.; Gammoudi, M.; Noreña, C.; Telford, M. (2015). A Transcriptomic-Phylogenomic Analysis of the Evolutionary Relationships of Flatworms. Current Biology. 25(10): 1347-1353. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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