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Rhodophyta

Description

Red algae, or Rhodophyta (roh-DOF-it-ə, ROH-də-FY-tə; from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhodon), meaning 'rose', and φυτόν (phyton), meaning 'plant'), are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing. The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and mostly consist of multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in warmer areas. Except for two coastal cave dwelling species in the asexual class Cyanidiophyceae, that diverged from other red algae about 1.3 billion years ago, there are no terrestrial species, which may be due to an evolutionary bottleneck where the last common ancestor lost about 25% of its core genes and much of its evolutionary plasticity.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)106https://www.gbif.org/species/106
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)54808https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=54808
Rankphylum
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Plantae : Rhodophyta
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomPlantaeHaeckel 1866
subkingdomBiliphytaCavalier-Smith 1981
phylumRhodophytaWettstein 1922
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameRhodophyta
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)318
Extant Size (PBDB)117 (37%)
First Recorded Appearance520 - 516 Ma
Cambrian
Primary Reference (PBDB)W. Kiessling. 2003. Personal data.
Common Name(s) Red Algae
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodophyta

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Bangiophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Compsopogonophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyanidiophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Florideophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Porphyridiophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhodellophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhodophyceae
class
accepted3,825501 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Stylonematophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Archaeolithophyllales
order
accepted36383 Ma
Late Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Acanthinaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Batineviaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cambrinaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chabakoviaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cornutulaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Demidellaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Epiphytaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Erbinaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fistulellaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Flabellinaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Honanellaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kadvoyaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kenellaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kundatiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Manicosiphoniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Moniliporellaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mucilinaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parachabakoviaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Potentillinaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proauloporaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudoanthaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pustulariaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sajaniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Serligiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stacheinaceae
family
accepted10345 Ma
Carboniferous
326 Ma
Carboniferous
Tomentulaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chalicostroma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chondrosiphon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eolithoporella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Guangxilamina
genus
accepted2269 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Halothamnion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Valmeyeraphycus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pujalsia punctata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Rhodophycota GBIFphylumPlantae : Rhodophycota

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1922Rhodophyta Wettstein
1996Rhodophyta Margulis p. 1074
2003Rhodophyta Kiessling
2008Rhodophyta Taylor et al. p. 1027

References

Kiessling W. (2003) Personal data
Margulis L. (1996) Archaeal-eubacterialmergers intheoriginofEukarya: Phylogenetic classification of life, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93, 1071-1076
Taylor E., Taylor T., et al (2008) Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, 1-1230
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2019). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. - via World Register of Marine Species
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via World Register of Marine Species
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Bold, Harold C., and Michael J. Wynne, 1985: null. Introduction to the Algae: structure and reproduction, 2nd ed.. xvi + 720. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Silva, Paul C., Philip W. Basson, and Richard L. Moe, 1996: Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. University of California Publications in Botany, vol. 79. xiv + 1259. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2019). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, R., Hallingbäck, T., Hansson, H.G. & Hedström, L. (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska växtfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Guiry, G.M. (2012) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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