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Fenestella

Description

Fenestella (52 BC? – AD 19?) was a Roman historian and encyclopaedic writer.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)1003677https://www.gbif.org/species/1003677
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)25550https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=25550
Rankgenus
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Bryozoa : Stenolaemata : Fenestrida : Fenestellidae : Fenestella
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-Bilateria
-EubilateriaAx 1987
-ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
-Spiralia
-Polyzoa
phylumBryozoaEhrenberg 1831
classStenolaemataBorg 1926
orderFenestridaElias and Condra 1957
familyFenestellidaeKing 1850
genusFenestellaLonsdale 1839
Scientific NameFenestella Lonsdale, 1839
Name Published Inin Murchison, Silurian System: 677
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Fenestellasubgenusbelongs to Graptoporastated without evidenceSalter, 1858
Fenestellagenusbelongs to Fenestellidaestated with evidenceBassler, 1911
Fenestellagenusbelongs to Fenestellidaestated without evidenceCampbell and Engel, 1963
Fenestellagenusbelongs to Fenestellidaestated with evidenceMorozova, 1970
Fenestellagenusbelongs to Fenestratasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Fenestellagenusbelongs to Fenestellidaestated with evidenceErnst et al., 2019
Status (PBDB)extinct
Taxon Size (PBDB)107
First Recorded Appearance461 - 450 Ma
Ordovician
Last Recorded Appearance254 - 252 Ma
Permian
Motilitystationary, attached (based on Stenolaemata)
Visionblind (based on Stenolaemata)
Dietsuspension feeder (based on Stenolaemata)
Taphonomylow Mg calcite (based on Fenestellidae)
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenestella

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Fenestella acuticosta
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella affluensa
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3296 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella agrestis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella akselensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella albionensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella alexinensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella altaica
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella alternata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella altidorsata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella amplia
species
listed (PBDB)3296 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Fenestella angusta
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella anodosa
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2331 Ma
Carboniferous
323 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella anticostiensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella aperta
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella arkonensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella artiensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella barrisi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella bendensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1323 Ma
Carboniferous
323 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella beschevenisformis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella biarmica
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella bifurcata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella borsiensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4272 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Fenestella brachipora
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella buguniensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella cacuminatis
species
listed (PBDB)1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella canthariformis
species
listed (PBDB)3290 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Fenestella capitanensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2265 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Fenestella catagrapha
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella cavernosa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella cestriensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella changxingiana
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2254 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Fenestella chapmani
species
listed (PBDB)3296 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella cibaria
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella cincta
species
listed (PBDB)3323 Ma
Carboniferous
323 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella cingulata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella clivosa
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3296 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella columnaris
species
listed (PBDB)4290 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Fenestella compressa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella concava
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1254 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Fenestella condrai
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella confusa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella conradi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella crassa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella crassesaeptata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella cumberlandica
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella cystica
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1359 Ma
Late Devonian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Fenestella dargoensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8411 Ma
Early Devonian
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Fenestella darvazensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2279 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Fenestella disjecta
species
listed (PBDB)3290 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella dispersa
species
listed (PBDB)15296 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Fenestella distincta
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella elegantissima
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella elevatipora
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella enta
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1296 Ma
Permian
296 Ma
Permian
Fenestella exigua
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella faberi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella firmior
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2279 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella fistulata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella flexuosa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella fossula
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
15299 Ma
Carboniferous
265 Ma
Permian
Fenestella frivola
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella funicula
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella gammata
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella gracilis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella granularis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1318 Ma
Carboniferous
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella gratiosa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella gruntae
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2296 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella guadalupensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1269 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Fenestella hangchouensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2279 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Fenestella hemicycla
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella herrickana
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella hilli
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3279 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Fenestella inaequalis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella incelebris
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella infraseptata
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella intuberculata
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella irrevocabilis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella ivanovi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella jupiterensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1441 Ma
Silurian
441 Ma
Silurian
Fenestella kalaktashensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella khasanensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2265 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Fenestella koksaensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella komalarjuni
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella kosmaensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella kosomensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1323 Ma
Carboniferous
323 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella krachokensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella kuloyensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella lennardi
species
listed (PBDB)2279 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella limbatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella macleayensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1318 Ma
Carboniferous
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella macronodata
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella malchii
species
listed (PBDB)9331 Ma
Carboniferous
323 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella markini
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella media
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella meekana
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella micropora
species
listed (PBDB)13331 Ma
Carboniferous
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella microtuberculata
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella milleri
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella mimica
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1306 Ma
Carboniferous
306 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella minutula
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella modesta
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella monoseriata
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella moorei
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella multipora
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1269 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Fenestella multispinosa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella neoforaminosa
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella nodulosa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella oklahomensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1318 Ma
Carboniferous
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella orientalis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1296 Ma
Permian
296 Ma
Permian
Fenestella osbornei
species
listed (PBDB)8331 Ma
Carboniferous
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella otae
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella oxfordensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella oxovensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella pamirensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1296 Ma
Permian
296 Ma
Permian
Fenestella perundulata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella placida
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella plebeja
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2345 Ma
Carboniferous
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella plotnikovi
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella plummeri
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella polyporata
species
listed (PBDB)4365 Ma
Late Devonian
296 Ma
Permian
Fenestella popeana
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2269 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Fenestella praerobusta
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1269 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Fenestella pseudoneoconstans
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1269 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Fenestella pseudorhomboidea
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella pulcherrima
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1269 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Fenestella pulchradorsalis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella quasipermulta
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1265 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Fenestella quinquecella
species
listed (PBDB)1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella rectangularis
species
listed (PBDB)1331 Ma
Carboniferous
331 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella regalis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella regina
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella reversicnotta
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
5290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella rockhamptonensis
species
listed (PBDB)2323 Ma
Carboniferous
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella rotundata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella roucheli
species
listed (PBDB)1347 Ma
Carboniferous
347 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella rudis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella rudisiformis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella ruidacarinata
species
listed (PBDB)2290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella sasakwaensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella serratula
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4345 Ma
Carboniferous
331 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestella simulatrix
species
listed (PBDB)4290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella sinopermiana
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6265 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Fenestella sparsinodata
species
listed (PBDB)2290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella spinacristata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella spinulifera
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2279 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Fenestella springsurensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella striolata
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3446 Ma
Late Ordovician
445 Ma
Late Ordovician
Fenestella subconstans
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
5272 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Fenestella sublaticrescens
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Fenestella subrudis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella swaini
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1359 Ma
Late Devonian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Fenestella texana
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella thaiensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1272 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Fenestella triserialis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella ussuriensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1265 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Fenestella vadosa
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2296 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Fenestella valentis
species
listed (PBDB)2290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella varicosa
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella veneris
species
listed (PBDB)1290 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Fenestella vera
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestella yarrolensis
species
listed (PBDB)2359 Ma
Late Devonian
347 Ma
Carboniferous
Fenestrellina cacuminatis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina canthariformis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina chapmani
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina cincta
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina columnaris
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina disjecta
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina dispersa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina lennardi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina malchii
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina micropora
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina osbornei
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina quinquecella
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina rectangularis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina rockhamptonensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina roucheli
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina ruidacarinata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina simulatrix
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina sparsinodata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina valentis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fenestrellina yarrolensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Minilya amplia
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Retepora polyporata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Retepora veneris
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rugofenestella omanica
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1269 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Fenestrella Girard, 1844GBIFgenusAnimalia : Bryozoa : Stenolaemata : Fenestrida : Fenestellidae : Fenestrella

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1839Fenestella Lonsdale
1858Graptopora (Fenestella) Salter
1911Fenestella Bassler
1933Fenestella Harlton p. 15
1963Fenestella Campbell and Engel p. 65
1970Fenestella Morozova p. 161
1971Rhombofenestella Termier and Termier
1971Rugofenestella Termier and Termier p. 43
2002Fenestella Sepkoski, Jr.
2019Fenestella Ernst et al. p. 649

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Bassler R. S. (1911) The early Paleozoic Bryozoa of the Baltic Provinces, Bulletin of the United States National Museum 77, 1-375
Harlton B. H. (1933) Micropaleontology of the Pennsylvanian Johns Valley shale of the Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma, and its relationship to the Mississippian Caney shale, Journal of Paleontology 7 1, 3-29
Campbell K. S. W., Engel B. A. (1963) The faunas of the Tournaisian Tulcumba Sandstone and its members in the Werrie and Belvue synclines, New South Wales, Journal of the Geological Society of Australia 10 1, 55-122
Morozova I. P. (1970) Mshanki Pozdnei Permi, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta 122, 1-346
Termier H., Termier G. (1971) Bryozoaires du Paleozoique superieur de l'Afghanistan, Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie de la Faculté des Sciences de Lyon 47, 1-52
Ernst A., Brett C. E., et al (2019) Bryozoan fauna from the Reynales Formation (lower Silurian, Aeronian) of New York, USA, Journal of Paleontology 93, 628-657
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Opinion 622 Fenestella Lonsdale, 1839 (Bryozoa); validation under the Plenary Powers in accordance with accustomed usage.Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 19(2), 76-79 (1962) - via Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology
Nomenclator Zoologicus (authority adjusted) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Nomenclator Zoologicus. A list of the names of genera and subgenera in zoology from the tenth edition of Linnaeus, 1758 to the end of 2004. Digitised by uBio from vols. 1-9 of Neave (ed.), 1939-1996 plus supplementary digital-only volume. http://ubio.org/NomenclatorZoologicus (as at 2006). - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
SN2000: Brands, S. J. (compiler) 1989-2005. Systema Naturae 2000. Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2006 version). Available online at http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Sepkoski, J. J., Jr. (2002). A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology. 363, 1-560. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
WoRMS (Mar 2013) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
in Murchison, Silur. Syst. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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