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Gold

This page kindly sponsored by Bruce Ueno
Formula:
Au
Colour:
Rich yellow, paling to whitish-yellow with increasing silver; blue & green in transmitted light (only thinnest folia [gold leaf])
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
15 - 19.3
Crystal System:
Isometric
Member of:
Name:
Gold is one of the first minerals used by prehistoric cultures. The Latin name for this mineral was "aurum" and Jöns Jakob Berzelius used Au to represent the element when he established the current system of chemical symbols. The Old English word "gold" first appeared in written form about 725 and may further have been derived from "gehl" or "jehl". May be derived from Anglo-Saxon "gold" = yellow. (Known to alchemists as Sol.)
Copper Group. Gold-Silver Series and Gold-Palladium Series.

A native element and precious metal, gold has long been prized for its beauty, resistance to chemical attack and workability. As it is found as a native element, has a relatively low melting point (1063 degrees Celsius) and is malleable, it has been used by mankind for thousands of years.

Gold is used as a standard for international currency and is also widely used in jewelry, electronics (where its superb properties as a conductor help offset its tremendous cost), dentistry and in photographic processes.

Gold occurs in significant amounts in three main types of deposits: hydrothermal quartz veins and related deposits in metamorphic and igneous rocks; in volcanic-exhalative sulphide deposits; and in consolidated to unconsolidated placer deposits. It may also occur in contact metamorphic or hypothermal deposits (eg. Skarns), or epithermal deposits such as volcanic fumaroles. It is most commonly found as disseminated grains in quartz veins with pyrite and other sulphides, or as rounded grains, flakes or nuggets in placer deposits in recent to ancient stream and river deposits. Gold is often panned from such deposits by taking advantage of its high density to wash away the lighter sediments from a pan or sluice.

Nuggets are almost exclusively hypogene in origin, forming mostly in veins, but can be somewhat modified in form and chemistry by weathering, erosion, and transport (Hough et al., 2007).


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of GoldHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
1.AA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
A : Copper-cupalite family
Dana 7th ed.:
1.1.1.1
1.1.1.1

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
1 : Metals, other than the Platinum Group
1.5

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)

Physical Properties of GoldHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Rich yellow, paling to whitish-yellow with increasing silver; blue & green in transmitted light (only thinnest folia [gold leaf])
Streak:
Shining yellow
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN10=30 - 34 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Malleable
Cleavage:
None Observed
None
Fracture:
Hackly
Density:
15 - 19.3 g/cm3 (Measured)    19.309 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Calculated density at 0° C. Depends on silver content (pure gold is 19.3).

Optical Data of GoldHide

Type:
Isotropic
Type:
Isotropic
Reflectivity:
400nmR=24.9%
420nmR=26.5%
440nmR=28.1%
460nmR=31.6%
480nmR=39.0%
500nmR=49.5%
520nmR=57.8%
540nmR=63.4%
580nmR=67.8%
600nmR=71.0%
620nmR=73.8%
640nmR=76.1%
660nmR=78.2%
680nmR=81.9%
700nmR=83.6%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 83.6%.
Colour in reflected light:
Yellow to white with increasing silver, reddish with copper
Internal Reflections:
none
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of GoldHide

Formula:
Au
CAS Registry number:
7440-57-5

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society
Common Impurities:
Ag,Cu,Pd,Hg,Bi

Age informationHide

Age range:
Orosirian : 1837 ± 8 Ma to 1837 ± 8 Ma - based on data given below.
Sample ages:
Sample IDRecorded ageGeologic TimeDating method
11837 ± 8 MaOrosirianU/Pb
Sample references:
IDLocalityReference
1Bidjovagge Au-Cu deposit, Kautokeino, Finnmark, Norwayhttp://aps.ngu.no/pls/oradb/minres_deposit_fakta.Main?p_objid=892&p_spraak=E

Crystallography of GoldHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.0786 Å
Unit Cell V:
67.85 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Usually crude to rounded octahedra, cubes, and dodecahedra to 2 cm. Often elongated along [100] or [111] directions, forming herringbone and dendritic twins. Flattened {111} plates with triangular octahedral faces. Rarely as wires ([111] elongation); reticulated; dendritic; arborescent; filiform; spongy; also massive in rounded fragments, flattened grains and scales (gold dust).
Twinning:
Common on (111) to give herringbone twins. Repeated on (111) to give stacks of spinel twins that form hexagonal wires.

Crystallographic forms of GoldHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Gold no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gold no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gold no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gold no.17 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gold no.46 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gold no.47 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.355 (100)
2.039 (52)
1.230 (36)
1.442 (32)
0.9357 (23)
0.8325 (23)
0.9120 (22)

Occurrences of GoldHide

Synonyms of GoldHide

Other Language Names for GoldHide

Afrikaans:Goud
Albanian:Ari
Amharic:ወርቅ
Arabic:ذهب
Armenian:Ոսկի
Asturian:Oru
Aymara:Quri
Azeri:Qızıl
Basque:Urre
Belarusian:Золата
Bengali:সোনা
Bishnupriya Manipuri:ঔরো
Bosnian (Latin Script):Zlato
Bulgarian:Злато
Catalan:Or
Chuvash:Ылтăн
Corsican:Oru
Croatian:Zlato
Czech:Zlato
Danish:Guld
Dutch:Goud
Esperanto:Oro
Estonian:Kuld
Finnish:Kulta
French:Or
Or natif
Friulian:Aur
Galician:Ouro
Gan:
Georgian:ოქრო
Guarani:Kuarepotiju
Haitian:
Hakka:Kîm
Hebrew:זהב
Hungarian:Arany
Icelandic:Gull
Ido:Oro
Indonesian:Emas
Irish Gaelic:Ór
Japanese:自然金
Javanese:Emas
Kapampangan:Gintu
Kazakh (Cyrillic Script):Алтын
Kongo:Wolo
Korean:
Kurdish (Latin Script):Zêr
Latin:Aurum
Latvian:Zelts
Limburgian:Goud
Lingala:Wólo
Lithuanian:Auksas
Lojban:solji
Low Saxon:Gold
Luxembourgish:Gold
Macedonian:Злато
Malay:Emas
Manx:Airh
Marathi:सोने
Min Nan:Au
Mongolian (Cyrillic Script):Алт
Norman:Or
Norwegian (Bokmål):Gull
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Gull
Occitan:Aur
Persian:طلا
Polish:Złoto
Portuguese:Ouro
Quechua:Quri
Ripuarian:Jold
Romanian:Aur
Russian:Золото
Scottish Gaelic:Òr
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Злато
Serbo-Croatian:Zlato
Sicilian:Oru
Simplified Chinese:自然金
Slovak:Zlato
Slovenian:Zlato
Swahili:Dhahabu
Tagalog:Ginto
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Зар
Turkish:Altın
Ukrainian:Золото
Uzbek (Latin Script):Oltin
Venetian:Oro
Vietnamese:Vàng
Welsh:Aur
Yiddish:גאלד
Zazaki:Zern
Zhuang:Gim
Zulu:Igolide

Varieties of GoldHide

Argentian Mercurian GoldA variety of gold, containing up to 31 weight percent of silver and up to 15 weight percent of mercury.
Bismuthian GoldA variety of gold containing several weight percent of bismuth, possibly in solid solution (Palache, Berman & Frondel, 1944).
Cuprian GoldA variety of Gold possibly containing Cu in substitution for Au to at least 20%.
Iridian GoldAn iridium-rich variety of gold.
Mercurian GoldA variety of gold with a Mercury content of up to 15 weight percent.
Nickeloan GoldNatural gold-nickel alloys with Ni contents up to 40 mass%. The colour of such alloys can be silver-white.
Palladian GoldA palladium-bearing variety of gold.
Platinian GoldA platinum-rich variety of gold.
Plumbian GoldA Pb-bearing variety from Polish Cu-bearing Zechstein polymetallic deposits.
PorpeziteGold-Palladium Series .
PyrrhochrysitSilver rich gold
RhoditeA rhodian variety of Gold. Gold containing 34 to 43 weight per cent Rh has been reported (Columbia & Mexico). NOTE: Not confirmed.

Relationship of Gold to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
CopperCuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
MaldoniteAu2BiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
SilverAgIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz1,180 photos of Gold associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Hessite81 photos of Gold associated with Hessite on mindat.org.
Pyrite69 photos of Gold associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Sphalerite59 photos of Gold associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Sylvanite52 photos of Gold associated with Sylvanite on mindat.org.
Calcite51 photos of Gold associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Galena49 photos of Gold associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Coloradoite46 photos of Gold associated with Coloradoite on mindat.org.
Limonite41 photos of Gold associated with Limonite on mindat.org.
Chalcopyrite39 photos of Gold associated with Chalcopyrite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

1.AA.05AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05CopperCuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05Electrum(Au, Ag)
1.AA.05LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05NickelNiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05SilverAgIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05UM2004-08-E:AuCuPd(Cu,Pd,Au)
1.AA.05UM1991-06-E:AuCuAu3Cu
1.AA.10aAuricuprideCu3AuOrth.
1.AA.10bTetra-auricuprideAuCuTet.
1.AA.10aCuproaurideCu3Au
1.AA.15AnyuiiteAuPb2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mcm
1.AA.15Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2Tet.
1.AA.15IodineI2
1.AA.15NovodnepriteAuPb3Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
1.AA.15UM1985-02-E:AlZn(Zn,Cu)Al2
1.AA.20Cupalite(Cu,Zn)AlOrth.
1.AA.25HunchuniteAu2PbIso.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

1.1.1.2SilverAgIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.1.1.3CopperCuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.1.1.4LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.1.1.5AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

1.1CopperCuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.2SilverAgIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.6AuricuprideCu3AuOrth.
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCuTet.
1.8ZincZnHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.9CadmiumCdHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2Iso.
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZnIso.
1.12MercuryHgTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6Iso.
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2Iso.
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9Hex.
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2Orth.
1.18LuanheiteAg3HgHex.
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.20IndiumInTet.
1.21AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2Tet.
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)AlOrth.
1.24DiamondCIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.25GraphiteCHex. 6mm : P63mc
1.26ChaoiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
1.27LonsdaleiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSnTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
1.30LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.31AnyuiiteAuPb2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mcm
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
1.33ArsenicAsTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.34ArsenolampriteAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
1.35PaxiteCuAs2Mon.
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2Hex.
1.37DomeykiteCu3AsIso. 4 3m : I4 3d
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10Mon.
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7 Iso.
1.41AntimonySbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.42StibarsenAsSbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3AsMon. 2 : B2
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)Hex.
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
1.48DyscrasiteAg3SbOrth. mm2 : Pmm2
1.49BismuthBiTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.50MaldoniteAu2BiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.51SulphurS8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fddd
1.52RosickýiteSMon. 2/m : P2/b
1.53SeleniumSeTrig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
1.54TelluriumTeHex.
1.55ChromiumCrIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.56RheniumReHex.
1.57IronFeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)Iso.
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.64TetrataeniteFeNiTet.
1.65AwaruiteNi3FeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHgTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
1.68PaolovitePd2SnOrth.
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2Hex.
1.70CabriitePd2CuSnOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
1.71Taimyrite(Pd,Cu,Pt)3SnOrth.
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3SnIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74ZvyagintsevitePd3PbIso.
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2Hex.
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Iso.
1.82PlatinumPtIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.83HongshiitePtCuTrig.
1.84NiggliitePtSnHex.
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3FeIso.
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFeTet.
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFeTet.
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNiTet.
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Iso.

Fluorescence of GoldHide

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Melting Point: 1062.4° ± 0.8°
Notes:
Completely soluble with Copper. Insoluble in acids except for aqua regia, with incomplete separation if more than 20% of silver is present.

Reported as spongy alteration pseudomorphs after Calaverite (Cripple Creek).
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Electrical conductor, transparent reflective coating, jewelry, dentistry, coinage, decorative coatings

Gold in petrologyHide

Common component of (items highlighted in red)
Accessory component of (items highlighted in red)

References for GoldHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Wibel (1852) Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein, Hamburg . Abhandlungen und Verhandlungen: 2: 87.
Hatch, F.H. and J.A. Chalmers (1895) The Gold Mines of the Rand. London: Macmillan & Co.
Scupham, J.R. (1898) The Buried Rivers of California as a Source of Gold. Mines and Minerals - November 1898.
Outerbridge Jr., Alexander E. (1899) Marvellous Increase in Production of Gold. AP Popular Science Monthly, March 1899.
Stone, George H. (1900) Gold Placers in Glaciated Regions. Mines and Minerals (June 1900).
Krusch (1903) Zeitschrift für praktische Geologie, Berlin, hale a.S.: 11: 331 (Simpson analysis).
Spencer, Arthur C. (1904) The Geology of the Treadwell Ore Deposits, Douglas Island, Alaska. Transaction of the American Institute of Mining Engineers - October 1904.
Douglass, Earl (1905) Source of the Placer Gold in Alder Gulch, Montana. Mines and Minerals - February 1905.
Evans, Horace F. (1905) The Source of the Fraser River Gold. Mining World - September 2, 1905.
Wilkinson, H.L. (1905) Deep Placer Deposits of Victoria. Engineering and Mining Journal - December 30, 1905.
Hart, T.S. (1906) Victorian Auriferous Occurrences. Australian Mining Standard - July 25, August 1, 1906. Serial. 2 parts.
Nenadkevwitsch (1907) Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Trav. Mus. géol.: 1: 81.
Gregory, John W. (1907) Gold Mining and Gold Production (Cantor Lecture). Journal of the Society of Arts - Sept. 13, 1907. Serial. lst part.
Tyrrell, J.B. (1907) Concentration of Gold in the Klondike. Economic Geology - June 1907.
Garrison, F. Lynwood (1909) Nature of Mining and Scientific Press - May 29, 1909.
Samojloff (1909) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 46: 286.
Cochrane, N.D. (1910) Geological Features of Fiji. Australian Mining Standard - August 3, 1910.
Day, Sosman (1910) American Journal of Science: 29: 93.
Lincoln, F.C. (1911) Types of Canadian Gold Deposits. Economic Geology: 6: 247.
Thomas, Jr., C.S. (1911) The Bugbear of Gold. Mining and Scientific Press - May 13, 1911.
Chernik (1912) Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Trav. Mus. géol.: 6: 78.
Lakes, A. (1912) Geology of the Breckenridge Placers. Mines and Minerals - February 1912.
Nenadkevwitsch (1914) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 53: 609.
Ungemach (1916) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 39: 5.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: Volume 4: 75.
Doelter, C. (1922) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 3 [2]: 187.
McKeehan (1922) Physical Review, a Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: 20: 424.
Uglow, W.L., Johnston, W.A. (1923) Origin of the Placer Gold of the Barkerville Area, Cariboo District, British Columbia, Canada. Economic Geology: 18(8): 541-561.
Holgersson and Sedström (1924) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 75: 143.
Weiss (1925) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 108: 643 (artificial Au-Ag alloys).
Strukturberichte (1913-1926): 504 (Au-Cu series).
Ballard, S.M. (1928) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Rocky Bar Quadrangle. Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology - Pamphlet, no. 26, 41 pp.
Ferraz, L.C. (1929) Compendio dos Mineraes do Brazil en forma Diccionario 645pp., Rio de Janeiro: 326.
Freise, F.W. (1931) Transportation of Gold by Organic Underground Solutions. Economic Geology: 26, 421-431.
Kellogg, A.E. (1931) Origin of Flour Gold in Black Sands. Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona: 14(20)(March 15th): 3-4 and 49-50.
Schneiderhöhn, H., Ramdohr, P. (1931) Lehrbuch der Erzmikroskopie. 2 volumes: vol. 2, 714 pp.: 64.
Strukturberichte (1928-1932): 615 (Au-Cu series).
Drier, Walker (1933) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 16: 294.
Holloway, H.L. (1933) Alluvial Gold. Mining Magazine: 49(2) (Aug): 82-85.
Lindgren, W. (1933) Mineral Deposits. Fourth edition, 930pp. New York.
Owen, Yates (1933) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 15: 472 (On spectroscopically pure gold).
Treskinsky, S. (1933) Desert Placers. Mining Magazine: 49(4) (Oct 1933): 219-223 [Description of type of placer deposit occurring in Persia].
Vegard, Kloster (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 89: 560.
Bürg, G. (1935) Die sekundaeren Umlagerungen und Anreicherungen des des Goldes in den Goldseifen. Zeitschrift für Praktische Geologie: 43(9) (Sept 1935): 134-139.
Fisher, M.S. (1935) Origins and Composition of Alluvial Gold, With Special Reference to Morobe Goldfield, New Guinea. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy - Bulletin 365, 366, 367, 369 and 370 Feb 1935, 46 p supp plates, (discussion) Mar p. 1-27 Apr p. 23-4, June p. 31-2 and (author's reply) July p. 5-14.
Heyerhoff, H.A. (1935) Do Gold Nuggets Grow or Are They Born that Way? Mining and Metallurgy: 16(no. 340, Apr 1935): 195.
Jurriaanse (1935) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 90: 322 (Bi solubility in Au).
Fisher, M.S. (1936) Origin and Composition of Alluvial Gold, with Special Reference to Morobe Goldfield, New Guinea. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy - Bulletin 378, Mar 1936 p. 27-31.
Crampton, F.A. (1937) Occurrence of Gold in Stream Placers. Mining Journal (Phoenix, Arizona): 20(16): 3-4 and 33-34.
Emmons, W.H. (1937) Gold Deposits of the World. New York: McGraw Hill.
Van Aubel, R. (1937) Sur l'origine de l'or et des pepites alluvionnaires. Chronique des Mines Coloniales: 6(64): 238-262.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 89-95.
Hoffman, A. (1947) Free Gold, Story of Canadian Mining Rinehart and Co. New York and Toronto, 420 p.
Gorbunov, E.Z. (1959) K voprosu o dal'nosti perenosa rossypnogo zolota ot korennykh istochnikov. Sovetskaya Geologiya: 2(6) (June 1959): 98-105. Transportation of gold during formation of placers].
Gorbunov, E.Z. (1963) Osobennosti razvitiya gidroseti i voprosy rossypnoi zolotonostnosti na Severo-Vostoke SSSR. Sovetskaya Geologiya n 4 Apr 1963 p 73-84 [Evolution features of hydrographic networks and problems of occurrence of gold, tin, and tungsten placers in northeast of the former Soviet Union].
Ivensen, Yu.P., Stepanov, A.A., Chaikovskii, V.K. (1963) K probleme zolotonosnykh konglomeratov. Razvedka i Okhrana Nedr n 2 Feb 1963 p. 1-7.
[Problem of gold-bearing conglomerates].
Sher, S.D. (1965) O sootnoshenii masshtabov korennoi i rossypnoi zolotonosnosti v razlichnykh zolotonosnykh provintsiyakh zemnogo shara. Sovetskaya Geologiya n 3 Mar 1965 p. 3-9 [Relationship between the magnitude of primary gold deposits and gold placers in various gold-bearing provinces of the world].
Hammett, A.B.J. (1966) The History of Gold. Kerrville: Braswell Printing.
Ferguson, S.A. et al (1973) Gold Deposits of Ontario (2 volumes); Ontario Division of Mines Circular 13.
Boyle (1979) The geochemistry of gold and its deposits.
Bache (1982) Les gisements d'or dans le monde.
Fleet, M.E. and Mumin, A.H. (1997) Gold-bearing arsenian pyrite and marcasite and arsenopyrite from Carlin trend gold deposits and laboratory synthesis. American Mineralogist: 82: 182-193.
Deksissa, D.J. and Koeberl, C. (2002) Geochemistry and petrography of gold-quartz-tourmaline veins of the Okote area, southern Ethiopia: implications for gold exploration. Mineralogy and Petrology: 75: 101-122.
Extra Lapis (English), No. 5 - Gold (2003).
Morris, Neil (2005) Gold and Silver. Appleseed Editions Ltd, East Sussex.
Reich, M., Kesler, S.E., Utsunomiya, S., Palenik, C.S., Chryssoulis, S., and Ewing, R.C. (2005) Solubility of gold in arsenian pyrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 69: 2781-2796.
Reith, F., Rogers, S.L., McPhail, D.C., and Webb, D. (2006) Biomineralization of Gold: Biofilms on Bacterioform Gold. Science: 313(5784): 233-236.
Hough, R.M., Butt, C.R.M., Reddy, S.M., and Verrall, M. (2007) Gold nuggets: supergene or hypogene? Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: 54: 959-964.
Hough, R.M. et al. (2008) Naturally occurring gold nanoparticles and nanoplates. Geology: 36: 571-574.
Hough, R.M., Butt, C.R.M., and Fischer-Bühner, J. (2009) The crystallography, metallography and composition of gold. Elements: 5: 297-302.
Majzlan, J., Chovan, M., Andráš, P., Newville, M., and Wiedenbeck, M. (2010) The nanoparticulate nature of invisible gold in arsenopyrite from Pezinok (Slovakia). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen: 187: 1-9.
Hough, R.M., Noble, R.R.P., and Reich, M. (2011) Natural gold nanoparticles. Ore Geology Reviews: 42: 55-61.
Fougerouse, D., Reddy, S.M., Saxey, D.W., Rickard, W.D.A., van Riessen, A., and Micklethwaite, S. (2016) Nanoscale gold clusters in arsenopyrite controlled by growth rate not concentration: Evidence from atom probe microscopy. American Mineralogist (online).

Internet Links for GoldHide

Significant localities for GoldHide

Showing 32 significant localities out of 29,966 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Tucumán
    • Burruyacú Department
      • Sierra de La Ramada
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry´s collection.Peña, H. A. (1970): Minerales y Rocas de Aplicación de la Provincia de Tucumán. Dirección Provincial de Minas. Tucumán.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Kentish municipality
      • Moina - Middlesex District
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania; Amy B.D. Cockerton and Andrew G. Tomkins (2012): Insights into the Liquid Bismuth Collector Model Through Analysis of the Bi-Au Stormont Skarn Prospect, Northwest Tasmania. Economic Geology 107, 667-682.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • New Westminster Mining Division
      • Harrison Lake
        • Bear Mountain
; Mauthier, M. and C. A. Francis (2006) Gold Crystal Localities of British Columbia, Canada. Rocks & Minerals 81:14-22; British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Geological Fieldwork, 1986, Paper 1987-1, pp. 15-22
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • Betts Cove
Swinden, S., McBRIDE, D., & Dube, B. (1990). Preliminary geological and mineralogical notes on the Nugget Pond gold deposit, Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland. Current Research, Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy Report of Activities, Mineral Development Division, 201-215.
  • Ontario
    • Cochrane District
      • Timmins area
        • Porcupine Mining District
          • Tisdale Township
; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McIntyre_Mines; The Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944),The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, Volume I, 834pp.: 94.; Econ Geol (1987) 82:1177-1191; Economic Geology November 1988 v. 83 no. 7 p. 1347-1368 ; Ontario MDI Number: MDI42A06NW00032
          • Whitney Township
Ann P. Sabina,(1974), " Rocks and Minerals for the Collector- Cobalt-Belleterre-Timmins; Ontario and Quebec", Geological Survey of Canada Paper 73-13 (1974),
Ireland
 
  • Co. Galway
    • Joyce Country
      • Bohaun
Ovoca Gold Exploration reports.; Lusty, P. A., Naden, J., Bouch, J. J., McKervey, J. A., & McFarlane, J. A. (2011). Atypical gold mineralization in an orogenic setting—the Bohaun Deposit, western Irish Caledonides. Economic Geology, 106(3), 359-380.
  • Co. Mayo
    • Croagh Patrick
UKJMM Vol.29 p.14
Romania
 
  • Alba Co.
    • Zlatna (Zalatna; Zalathna)
Carles Curto Milà collection
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Deva
No reference listed
Russia
 
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
          • Berezovskii (Berezovskii Zavod)
Cook, R. B. (2007). Crocoite: Dundas, Tasmania, Australia. Rocks & Minerals, 82(1), 50-54; Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
Taiwan
 
  • Taiwan Province
    • New Taipei City
      • Ruifang District
        • Chinkuashih Mine (Jinguashi Mine; Kinkwaseki Mine; Kinkaseki Mine)
James K.C.Huang Collection; Chemical Geology 154 1999. 155–167; Chemical Geology 154 1999. 155–167; Hwang, J. Y and Meyer, H O A (1982) The Mineral Chemistry and Genesis of the Chinkuashih ore deposits, Taiwan. Proceedings of the Geological Society of China 25:88-101
UK
 
  • England
    • Devon
      • South Devon
        • Torquay
Russell (1929); [Embrey & Symes, 1987 - "Minerals of Cornwall and Devon"]; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484; C. J. Stanley, A. J. Criddle and D. Lloyd (1990) Precious and Base Metal Selenide Mineralization at Hope's Nose, Torquay, Devon. Mineralogical Magazine 54:485-493
USA
 
  • Alabama
    • Randolph Co.
      • Pinetucky District
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull120
  • California
    • Mariposa Co.
      • Mother Lode Belt
        • Bagby-Mariposa-Mount Bullion-Whitlock District
          • Whitlock District
            • Colorado area
Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 212; Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 392-401; USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10031128.
            • Colorado District
              • Colorado
Eidahl, D. (1977): Gold from the Colorado quartz mine. Mineralogical Record 8, 440-441; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 23; Economic Geology (1987): 82: 328-344; Cook, Lees, Francis (2009) The Colorado Quartz Gold Mine Mariposa County, California. Rocks & Minerals 84:396-412
    • Placer Co.
Rocks & Minerals, Volume 69, Issue 6 December 1994, pages 371 - 378
        • Sage Hill
Waring, Clarence (1917) Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of El Dorado, Placer, Sacramento, Yuba. State Mineralogists Report 1915-1916.
MinRec.:20(5):387 & 31:20.
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
      • Lamartine District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Eagle Co.
      • Gilman District (Battle Mountain District; Red Cliff District)
        • Battle Mountain
Rocks & Min.:57:61.
    • Moffat Co.
      • Fourmile District (Timberlake Creek District)
Maneotis: 2009
    • Park Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • San Juan Co.
      • Eureka District
        • Gladstone
          • Bonita Peak
the Book "Colorado Gold" by Allen Bird (ex manager of the mine); Rocks & Min.: 63: 366-384.; Ransome, Frederick Leslie (1901) A report on the economic geology of the Silverton quadrangle, Colorado. USGS Bull 182; Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Georgia
    • Hall Co.
      • Gainesville
Rocks & Min.: 64:196.
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Toquima Range
        • Round Mountain District
          • Round Mountain
            • Round Mountain
Wilson, W. E. (2009): The Round Mountain mine, Nye County, Nevada. Mineralogical Record, 40:105-115
    • Washoe Co.
      • Pah Rah Range (Pah Rah Mts)
Rocks and Minerals, (1989) 64:397-403
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
R&M 79:1 p44-54
  • North Carolina
    • Davidson Co.
      • Carolina Slate Belt
        • Cid District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Washington
    • Kittitas Co.
      • Swauk District
        • Liberty
Rice Museum
矿物 and/or 产地  
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