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About CannizzariteHide

Stanislao Cannizzaro
S may be replaced by minor Se (or Se may even be essential). The structure solution (Topa et al., 2010) gave Pb48Bi56(S124Se8)sum132.
White to silvery gray
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named by F. Zambonini, O. de Fiore, and G. Carobbi in 1924 in honor of Stanislao Cannizzaro (13 July 1826, Palermo, Sicily, Italy – 10 May 1910, Rome, Italy), chemist. He is best known for the Cannizzaro reaction and his work on atomic weights.
Wittite may be identical with cannizzarite.

Compare Unnamed (Cd-Pb-Bi Sulphide Selenide II) and so-called "cannizzarite-B" (UM1975-13-S:BiPb).

Classification of CannizzariteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
B : Galena derivatives, with Pb

6 : 2 < ø < 2.49

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
6 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb alone

Physical Properties of CannizzariteHide

White to silvery gray
Iridescent tarnish
VHN20=132 kg/mm2 - Vickers
somewhat malleable and elastic, prone to twisting and bending
6.7 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.95 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of CannizzariteHide

Strong from blue to gray

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 53.7%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red

Chemical Properties of CannizzariteHide


S may be replaced by minor Se (or Se may even be essential). The structure solution (Topa et al., 2010) gave Pb48Bi56(S124Se8)sum132.
IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of CannizzariteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 38.86(3) Å, b = 4.090(3) Å, c = 39.83(3) Å
β = 102.30(3)°
a:b:c = 9.501 : 1 : 9.738
Unit Cell V:
6,185.16 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Thin laths, felted masses, stellate groups. Crystals to 2 mm.
Stellate trillings and simple V-shaped twins.
(Cd,In)-rich cannizzarite has a 15.4172(9), b 4.0582(2), c 20.8071(12) Å, β 98.031(2)°, V 1289.05(12) Å3 (Borisov et al., 2012). Previously assumed to be a = 4.13, b = 4.13, c = 15.48 Å, beta 99° (Graham et al., 1953).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
3.82 Å(100)
3.01 Å(60)
2.68 Å(60)
2.87 Å(50)
2.22 Å(50)
2.03 Å(50)
1.910 Å(40)
some preferred orientation occured

Type Occurrence of CannizzariteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
very thin single laths, up to 2 mm, often warped but also found straight; may have frayed ends; also as felted masses and stellate groups
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
(1) University of Florence, Florence, Italy, 14398/G; Natural History Museum, catalogue no. 128.28; (2) National School of Mines, Paris, France
Geological Setting of Type Material:
deep fumarolic activity
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for CannizzariteHide

Simplified Chinese:卡辉铋铅矿

Varieties of CannizzariteHide

Common AssociatesHide

BursaitePb5Bi4S11 (?)
Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4to (Mn2+)WO4
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Cannizzarite associated with BismuthiniteBi2S3
1 photo of Cannizzarite associated with ChallacolloiteKPb2Cl5

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.JB.Andorite VIAgPbSb3S6Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
2.JB.05DiaphoriteAg3Pb2Sb3S8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.JB.10CosalitePb2Bi2S5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.JB.15FreieslebeniteAgPbSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.JB.15MarriteAgPbAsS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.JB.25aJunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.25dProuditeCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.25bFelbertaliteCu2Pb6Bi8S19Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.25jRouxeliteCu2HgPb23Sb27S65.5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.25fÁngelaiteCu2AgPbBiS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.JB.25iCuproneyiteCu7Pb27Bi25S68Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.30aGeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.JB.30aJordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.JB.30bKirkiitePb10Bi3As3S19Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.JB.35cPillaitePb9Sb10S23ClO0.5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.35aZinkenitePb9Sb22S42Hex. 6 : P63
2.JB.35bScainiitePb14Sb30S54O5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.35dPellouxite(Cu,Ag)Pb10Sb12S27O(Cl,S)0.6Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.35fTubuliteAg2Pb22Sb20S53Mon. m : Pb
2.JB.35eChovanitePb15-2xSb14+2xS36Ox (x ~ 0.2)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.40bAschamalmitePb6Bi2S9Mon. 2/m
2.JB.40aBursaitePb5Bi4S11 (?)Orth.
2.JB.40aFizélyiteAg5Pb14Sb21S48Mon. 2/m
2.JB.40aGustaviteAgPbBi3S6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.JB.40aLillianitePb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.JB.40aRamdohritePb5.9Fe0.1Mn0.1In0.1Cd0.2Ag2.8Sb10.8S24Mon. 2/m
2.JB.40dSchirmeritePbAgBi3S6 - Pb3Ag1.5Bi3.5S9Orth.
2.JB.40aUchucchacuaiteAgMnPb3Sb5S12Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
2.JB.40eUstarasitePb(Bi,Sb)6S10 (?)
2.JB.40aVikingiteAg5Pb8Bi13S30Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.40bHeyrovskýitePb6Bi2S9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cccm
2.JB.40aAndorite IVPb18Ag15Sb47S96Mon. 2 : P2
2.JB.55GratonitePb9As4S15Trig. 3m : R3m
2.JB.60MarrucciiteHg3Pb16Sb18S46Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Se)27Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.6.1SartoritePbAs2S4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.2DufrénoysitePb2As2S5Mon. 2 : P21
5.6.4BaumhaueritePb12As16S36Tric. 1 : P1
5.6.5GratonitePb9As4S15Trig. 3m : R3m
5.6.6JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.7FülöppitePb3Sb8S15Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.8ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42Hex. 6 : P63
5.6.9PlagionitePb5Sb8S17Mon. 2/m
5.6.10HeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.13SemseyitePb9Sb8S21Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.15BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.6.17RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.18GuettarditePbAsSbS4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.6.19Twinnite Pb0.8Tl0.1Sb1.3As0.8S4Mon. 2/m
5.6.20VeenitePb2(Sb,As)2S5Mon. 2 : P21
5.6.21SorbyiteCuPb9(Sb,As)11S26Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.6.22GeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.23GalenobismutitePbBi2S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.24CosalitePb2Bi2S5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.26LillianitePb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.27GiessenitePb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57Mon. 2/m
5.6.32KirkiitePb10Bi3As3S19Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.33UstarasitePb(Bi,Sb)6S10 (?)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for CannizzariteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Zambonini, F., de Fiore, O., Carobbi, G. (1924) Su un solfobismutito di piombo di Vulcano (Isole Eolie). Annali dell'Osservatorio Vesuviano: 1: 31-36.
Zambonini, F., de Fiore, O., Carobbi, G. (1925) Su un sulfobismutito di piombo di Vulcano (Isole Eolie). Rendiconto dell'Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche (sezione della Societa reale di Napoli): 31: 24-29.
Foshag, W.F. (1926) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 11: 194-194.
Wolfe, C.W. (1938) Cannizzarite and bismuthinite from Vulcano. American Mineralogist: 23: 790-798.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 472.
Graham, A.R., Thompson, R.M., Berry, L.G. (1953) Studies on mineral sulpho-salts: XVII - Cannizzarite. American Mineralogist: 38: 536-544.
Matzat, E. (1979) Cannizzarite. Acta Crystallographica: B35: 133-136.
Fleischer, M., Chao, G.Y., Pabst, A. (1979) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 64: 241-245.
Mozgova, N.N., Kuzmina, O.V., Organova, N.I., Laputina, I.P., Borodaev, Y.S., Fornaseri, M. (1985) New data on sulphosalt assemblages at Vulcano (Italy). Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrologia: 40: 277-283.
Hawthorne, F.C., Bladh, K.W., Burke, E.A.J., Grew, E.S., Langley, R.H., Puciewicz, J., Roberts, A.C., Schedler, R.A., Shigley, J.E., Vanko, D.A. (1987) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 72: 222-230.
Mozgova, N.N., Organova, N.I., Borodaev, Yu.S., Ryabeva, E.G., Sivtsov, A.V., Getmanskaya, T.I., Kuzmina, O.V. (1988) New data on cannizzarite and bursaite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen: 158: 293-309.
Jambor, J.L., Burke, E.A.J. (1989) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 74: 1399-1404.
Borodaev, Y.S., Garavelli, A., Garbarino, C., Grillo, S.M., Mozgova, N.N., Organova, N.I., Trubkin, N.V., Vurro, F. (2000) Rare sulfosalts from Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy. III. Wittite and cannizzarite. Canadian Mineralogist: 38: 23-34.
Topa, D., Makovicky, E., Dittrich, H. (2010) The crystal structure of 7K:12Q cannizzarite from Vulcano, Italy. The Canadian Mineralogist: 48: 483-495.
Borisov, S.V., Pervukhina, N.V., Magarill, S.A., Kuratieva, N.V., Bryzgalov, I.A., Mozgova, N.N., Chaplygin, I.V. (2012) The crystal structure of (Cd,In)-rich cannizzarite from Kudriavy Volcano, Iturup Island, Kuriles, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist: 50: 387-395.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C., Eds. Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. (2016)

Internet Links for CannizzariteHide

Localities for CannizzariteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Felber valley
        • Scheelite deposit
Eur. J. Mineral. 13:961-972
  • Hainan
    • Ledong Co.
Bin Shu, Ping'an Wang, Faxian Dong, and Zhongjian Li (2006): Geological Bulletin of China 25(6), 745-755
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Bairin Left Banner (Balin Zuoqi)
Dequan Zhang, Yunfen Lei, Taiyang Luo, Xiupo Bao, and Shengli Wang (1991): Mineral Deposits 10(3), 204-216
  • Jiangxi
    • Ganzhou
      • Anyuan Co.
Yingchen Ren (1998): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 13(4), 1-17; Yingchen Ren (1999): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 14(1), 1-12, 38; American Mineralogist 85, 629 (2000)
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Isère
      • La Mure
BRGM (1981)
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche
Patrice Queneau Collection
  • Pest County
    • Szob District
Zajzon N, Szakáll S, Kristály F, Hartai É, Fehér B (2014) Pb-Bi-(Ag)-sulphosalts from Nagybörzsöny, Hungary. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 136
Szakáll, S., Fehér, B., Kristály, F. and Zajzon, N. (2012): Minerals of the Rózsa Hill ore mineralizations, Nagybörzsöny. Geoda, 22/3, 16-47 (in Hungarian).
  • Piedmont
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Pellice Valley
        • Luserna Valley
- Finello, G., Ambrino, P., Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Blaß, G., Bracco, R. (2007): I minerali della “Pietra di Luserna”, Piemonte, Italia nord-occidentale. I. Alcune cave di gneiss della Val Luserna. Micro (località), 2/2007, 181-226.
  • Sicily
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
          • Vulcano Island
ZAMBONINI F., DE FIORE O., CAROBBI G. (1924): Su un solfobismutito di piombo di Vulcano (Eolie). - Annali del Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano - serie III - 1, 1-6; 31-36.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Gini, C., Bargellini, C., Gamucci, C., Marinai, V., Nannoni, R. (2013). Botro ai Marmi. I minerali delle miniere Maffei e Montorsi. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2013, 63-83.
      • Elba Island
        • Campo nell'Elba
          • San Piero in Campo
Orlandi, P., & Pezzotta, F. (1997). Minerali dell'Isola d'Elba. Edizioni Novecento Grafico, Bergamo, 249 pp.
        • Capoliveri
P. Rögner, M. Hanauer, F. Senesi (2000) - Elba orientale: nuovi ritrovamenti - Riv. Min. It., 24, 2: 102-109.
    • Massa-Carrara Province
      • Carrara
        • Miseglia quarrying basin (Miseglia-Fantiscritti quarrying basin; Fantiscritti quarrying basin)
Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Camarda, S., Chinellato, M., Appiani, R., Del Chiaro, L., and Sanguineti, G. (2019) Minerals from marbles of Carrara and the Apuan Alps. LoGisma editore, Vicchio (Firenze) - Musumeci S.p.A., Quart (Aosta), 144 pp.
        • Torano quarrying basin
Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Camarda, S., Chinellato, M., Appiani, R., Del Chiaro, L., and Sanguineti, G. (2019) Minerals from marbles of Carrara and the Apuan Alps. LoGisma editore, Vicchio (Firenze) - Musumeci S.p.A., Quart (Aosta), 144 pp.
  • Niigata
    • Uetsu
Izumino, Y., & Nakashima, K. (2015). Bismuth minerals from the W–Mo–Sn deposits hosted in the Iwafune granitoids, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 110(6), 300-312.
Izumino, Y., & Nakashima, K. (2015). Bismuth minerals from the W–Mo–Sn deposits hosted in the Iwafune granitoids, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 110(6), 300-312.
Izumino, Y., & Nakashima, K. (2015). Bismuth minerals from the W–Mo–Sn deposits hosted in the Iwafune granitoids, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 110(6), 300-312.
  • Yamagata
Izumino, Y., Nakashima, K., & Nagashima, M. (2014). Cuprobismutite group minerals (cuprobismutite, hodrušhite, kupčíkite and padĕraite), other Bi–sulfosalts and Bi–tellurides from the Obari mine, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 109(4), 177-190.
  • Yamaguchi
    • Hagi City
      • Asahi-son
Nakashima, et al (1981) Jour. of the Jap. Ass. of Min., Petr. and Econ. Geologists, 76, 1-16.
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Akmola Region
Kovalev, K. R., Syzdykov, S. O., Kalinin, Y. A., Naumov, E. A., Baranov, V. V., Sukhorukov, V. P., ... & Zhimulev, F. I. (2018). The Raigorodok stockwork gold-sulfide-quartz deposit in the North Kazakhstan gold ore province. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 59(11), 1482-1496.
  • District of Kosovska Mitrovica
    • Kosovska Mitrovica
      • Trepča valley
        • Trepča complex
Kołodziejczyk, J., Pršek, J., Melfos, V., Voudouris, P. C., Maliqi, F., & Kozub-Budzyń, G. (2015). Bismuth minerals from the Stan Terg deposit (Trepça, Kosovo). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 192(3), 317-333.
  • Nordland
    • Sørfold
Husdal, T. (2019) Nyfunn av mineraler fra Tysfjord-pegmatittene, Nordland. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2019: 31-46
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Jelenia Góra Co.
      • Szklarska Poręba
Kozłowski, A., & Matyszczak, W. (2018). Oxygenic bismuth minerals in the NE part of the Karkonosze pluton (West Sudetes, SW Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica, 68(4).; Mochnacka, K., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Mayer, W., & Pieczka, A. (2015). Ore mineralization related to geological evolution of the Karkonosze–Izera Massif (the Sudetes, Poland)—Towards a model. Ore Geology Reviews, 64, 215-238.
  • Bihor
    • Nucet
www.minerals-of-the (2009)
  • Kamchatka Krai
American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1312–1324, 2009; American Mineralogist, Volume 91, pages 21-–28, 2006
  • Primorsky Krai
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Sakhalin Oblast
    • Kuril Islands (Kurile Islands)
      • Iturup Island
Curator, Fersman Museum, Moscow.; Chaplygin, I.V., Mozgova, N.N., Magazina, L.O., Kuznetsova, O.Yu., Safonov, Yu.G., Bryzgalov, I.A., Makovcký, E., Balić-Žunić, T. (2005): Kudriavite, (Cd,Pb)Bi2S4, a new mineral species from Kudriavy volcano, Iturup Island, Kuriles. Canadian Mineralogist, 43, 695-701.; Yudovskaya, M. A., Distler, V. V., Chaplygin, I. V., Mokhov, A. V., Trubkin, N. V., & Gorbacheva, S. A. (2006). Gaseous transport and deposition of gold in magmatic fluid: evidence from the active Kudryavy volcano, Kurile Islands. Mineralium Deposita, 40(8), 828.
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Chitinskaya Oblast
Eremin, O. V., Epova, E. S., Yurgenson, G. A., & Smirnova, O. K. (2014). Prognosis of Geoecological Consequences of Development of Deposits of the Bom-Gorkhon Tungsten Deposit (Transbaikalia). Chemistry for Sustainable Development, 22(2), 123-129.
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Podrinje District
Slobodan A. Radosavljević, Jovica N. Stojanović, Ana S. Radosavljević-Mihajlović, Vladan D. Kašić (2013): Polymetallic mineralization of the Boranja orefield, Podrinje Metallogenic District, Serbia: zonality, mineral associations and genetic features. Periodico di Mineralogia, 82, 61-87.; Radosavljević, S. A., Stojanović, J. N., Pačevski, A. M., Radosavljević-Mihajlović, A. S., & Kašić, V. D. (2016). A review of Pb-Sb (As)-S, Cu (Ag)-Fe (Zn)-Sb (As)-S, Ag (Pb)-Bi (Sb)-S and Pb-Bi-S (Te) sulfosalt systems from the Boranja orefield, West Serbia. Geološki Anali Balkanskog Poluostrva, 2016(77), 1-12.
Radosavljevic-Mihajlovic, A. S., Stojanovic, J. N., Dimitrijevic, R. Z. & Radosavljevic, S. A. (2007): Rare Pb-Bi sulfosalt mineralization from the Boranja orefield (Podrinje district, Serbia). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 184, 217-224.
  • Dalarna County
    • Falun
American Mineralogist (1980) 65, pp. 789-796
  • Grisons
    • Medel Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 101
Nowacki, W., Stalder, H.A. (1969): Zwei Wismutsulfosalze von Sta. Maria, Val Medel, Kt. Graubünden. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt.: 49: 97-10l; in: Fleischer, M. (1970): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 55: 533-535
  • Ticino
    • Leventina
      • Bedretto Valley
        • Ronco
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 101
  • Uri
    • Reuss Valley
      • Rien Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 101
  • Valais
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Ayer
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
    • Lötschen valley
Handbook of Mineralogy
      • Lonza Valley
        • Mittal
Schweizer Strahler 4/2001 p 19-23
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin
Graeser S., Reuse G. (2005) - Minéraux provenant du tunnel routier de Martigny. Le Cristallier Suisse, n°1, pp: 23-32
  • Arizona
    • Graham Co.
      • Aravaipa Mining District
        • Santa Teresa Mts
          • Aravaipa
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 154.
  • New Mexico
    • Doña Ana Co.
      • Organ Mts
        • Organ Mining District
Collection of the New Mexico Bureau of Geology Mineral Museum
    • Grant Co.
      • Pinos Altos Mining District
Northrup, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
矿物 and/or 产地  
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