SUPPORT US. Covid-19 has significantly affected our fundraising. Please help!
主页关于 MindatMindat手册Mindat的历史版权Who We Are联系我们于 Mindat.org刊登广告
捐赠给 MindatCorporate Sponsorship赞助板页已赞助的板页在 Mindat刊登 广告的广告商于 Mindat.org刊登广告
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe Elements书籍及杂志
搜索矿物的性质搜索矿物的化学Advanced Locality Search随意显示任何一 种矿物Random Locality使用minID搜索邻近产地Search Articles搜索词汇表更多搜索选项
Mindat手册添加新照片Rate Photos产区编辑报告Coordinate Completion Report添加词汇表项目
Mining Companies统计会员列表Mineral Museums矿物展及活动The Mindat目录表设备设置The Mineral Quiz
照片搜索Photo GalleriesSearch by Color今天最新的照片昨天最新的照片用户照片相集过去每日精选照片相集Mineral Photography


This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About ButleriteHide

Gurdon M. Butler
Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Dark orange; light yellow-orange in transmitted light.
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named by Carl Lausen in 1928 in honor of Gurdon Montague "Monty" Butler (March 26, 1881 Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, USA - February 21, 1961 California, USA), mining geologist and professor, University of Arizona. The Butler Mountains of Camino del Diablo, Arizona were also named for Gurdon Montague Butler.
Compare the anhydrous counterpart: 'Unnamed (Fe Sulphate Hydroxide)'.

Classification of ButleriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
C : With only medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra

9 : (AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O

25 : Sulphates
10 : Sulphates of Fe alone

Physical Properties of ButleriteHide

Dark orange; light yellow-orange in transmitted light.
Pale yellow
2½ on Mohs scale
On {100}, perfect. another cleavage direction (pinacoidal) is imperfect
2.548 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.53 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ButleriteHide

Biaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nα = 1.593 - 1.604 nβ = 1.665 - 1.674 nγ = 1.731 - 1.741
moderately high
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.138
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v weak
X ^c - 18° = Colourless
Y = Faint yellow
Z = b = Light yellow
2V large.

Chemical Properties of ButleriteHide

Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O

Crystallography of ButleriteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.51 Å, b = 7.37 Å, c = 5.85 Å
β = 108.87°
a:b:c = 0.883 : 1 : 0.794
Unit Cell V:
265.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals commonly tabular {001} or {100} with a propensity for elongation [010]; also octahedral (anthropogenic).
Very common on {105}.

Crystal StructureHide

Unit Cell | Unit Cell Packed
2x2x2 | 3x3x3 | 4x4x4
Big Balls | Small Balls | Just Balls | Spacefill
Polyhedra Off | Si Polyhedra | All Polyhedra
Remove metal-metal sticks
Display Options
Black Background | White Background
Perspective On | Perspective Off
2D | Stereo | Red-Blue | Red-Cyan
CIF File    Best | x | y | z | a | b | c
Stop | Start
Console Off | On | Grey | Yellow
IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000232ButleriteFanfani L, Nunzi A, Zanazzi P F (1971) The crystal structure of butlerite American Mineralogist 56 751-75719710293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Epitaxial Relationships of ButleriteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Epitaxy Comments:
Oriented growths.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Oxidation of pyritic ore; may be formed under pseudo-fumarolic
conditions from mine fires.

Type Occurrence of ButleriteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
University of Arizona Mineral Museum, Tucson, Arizona, M52; Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 90539; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA, 95953.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Oxidation of pyrite in a mine fire with reactions to fire fighting techniques (water, steam, CO2)
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for ButleriteHide


Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
9 photos of Butlerite associated with ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
7 photos of Butlerite associated with CopiapiteFe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
6 photos of Butlerite associated with BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
1 photo of Butlerite associated with AmarantiteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 7H2O
1 photo of Butlerite associated with AragoniteCaCO3
1 photo of Butlerite associated with AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
1 photo of Butlerite associated with AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
1 photo of Butlerite associated with HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
1 photo of Butlerite associated with PyriteFeS2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DC.05AluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DC.05Meta-aluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 5H2OMon. 2/m
7.DC.10ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.DC.15FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon.
7.DC.20XitieshaniteFe3+(SO4)Cl · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DC.25BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
7.DC.25Zincobotryogen(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)Fe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
7.DC.30ChaidamuiteZnFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DC.30GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.10.1SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.10.2RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.3SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
25.10.4FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.10.5MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.6Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.10.7LauseniteFe2(SO4)3 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.8KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.9CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12 · 6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
25.10.10ParacoquimbiteFe4(SO4)6(H2O)12 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.10.11QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.12FerricopiapiteFe3+0.67Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.13MetahohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.14HohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 8H2OTric. 1
25.10.16ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.10.17AmarantiteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 7H2OTric. 1
25.10.18FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon.
25.10.19Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.10.20RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.21BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.22CopiapiteFe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ButleriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Posnjak, E., Merwin, H. (1922) The system, Fe2O3—SO3—H2O. Journal of the American Chemical Society: 44: 1965–1994.
Lausen, C. (1928) Hydrous sulphates formed under fumerolic conditions at the United Verde Mine. American Mineralogist: 13: 203-229.
Bandy, M.C. (1938) Mineralogy of three sulphate deposits of northern Chile. American Mineralogist: 23: 669-760.
Gordon (1941) Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, Not. Nat., no. 89.
Frondel, C., Fleischer, M. (1942) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 27: 144-144.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 608-609.
Fanfani, L., Nunzi, A., Zanazzi, P.F. (1971) The crystal structure of butlerite. American Mineralogist: 56: 751-757.
Rossman, G.R. (1976) Spectroscopic and magnetic studies of ferric iron hydroxy sulfates: the series Fe(OH)SO4·nH2O and jarosites. American Mineralogist: 61: 398-404.
Scordari, F. (1981) Fibroferrite: a mineral with a {Fe(OH)(H2O)2SO4} spiral chain and its relationship to Fe(OH)SO4, butlerite and parabutlerite. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 28: 17-29.

Internet Links for ButleriteHide

Localities for ButleriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • San Juan Province
    • Calingasta Department
      • Calingasta
        • Quebrada Alcaparrosa
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 480, 609, 1014.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Catas Altas
ATENCIO, D.; LUCHESI, I ; SCHORSCHER, H D . Hohmannite and other supergene sulfates from Quebra-Osso mine, district of Santa Bárbara, MG, Brazil.. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, v. 66, p. 501-501, 1994
  • Ontario
    • Sudbury District
Schindler, M., Mantha, N., Kyser, K. T., Murayama, M., & Hochella Jr, M. F. (2012). Shining light on black rock coatings in smelter-impacted areas. Geoscience Canada, 39(3).
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Mejillones
        • Mejillones peninsula
Gunnar Färber specimens
XRD by Joachim Lorenz
      • Sierra Gorda
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Cerritos Bayos
samples analysed by Gerhard Moehn and Joy Desor
        • Chuquicamata District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 609.
          • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Atacama
  • Tarapacá
    • Tamarugal Province
Peter G. Seroka collection
  • Qinghai
    • Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Da Qaidam (Dachaidan Co.)
        • Xitieshan
Wanmao Li, Guoying Chen, and Zhizhong Peng (1986): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 6(2), 109-114
  • Isla de la Juventud special municipality
    • Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Pines; Island of Youth)
Zwahr, H. & Gonzales, R. (1999): Secondary sulfate mineralization of the kaolin deposit of Rio del Callejon, Cuba. Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften 27, 219-233.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar District
      • Langelsheim
        • Astfeld
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1988) Mineralogische Notizen IV. Der Aufschluss, 39, 153-168.
  • Baranya County
    • Pécs District
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F. (2008): Ammonium sulphates from burning coal dumps at Komló and Pécs-Vasas, Mecsek Mts., South Hungary. Mineralogia, Special Papers, Vol. 32 (2nd Central-European Mineralogical Conference 2008 (CEMC)), 154.
  • Kerman Province
    • Sirjan County
      • Pariz
Khorasanipour, M. (2015). Environmental mineralogy of Cu-porphyry mine tailings, a case study of semi-arid climate conditions, Sarcheshmeh mine, SE Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 153, 40-52.
  • Yazd Province
    • Ardakan County
      • Saghand
Bariand, P., Cesbron, F. & Berthelon, J. P. (1977): Iron sulfates of Saghand near Yazd (Iran). Memoire Hors-Série de la Société Géologique de France 8, 77-85.; Bariand, P., Berthelon, J. P., Cesbron, F. & Sadrzadeh, M. (1973): New aluminum sulfate hydrate, khademite of Saghand (Iran). Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Académie des Sciences, Série C, 277, 1585-1588 (in French).
  • Marrakesh-Safi Region
    • Marrakech Prefecture
      • Bour Cercle
Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Rybnik County
      • Gmina Czerwionka-Leszczyny
Kruszewski, Ł. (2013): Supergene minerals from the burning coal mining dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, South Poland. International Journal of Coal Geology: 105: 91-109 (
Kruszewski, Ł. (2013). Supergene sulphate minerals from the burning coal mining dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, South Poland. International Journal of Coal Geology, 105, 91-109.
    • Wodzisław County
      • Radlin
Kruszewski, Ł., Fabiańska, M.J., Segit, T., Kusy, D., Motyliński, R., Ciesielczuk, J., Deput, E., (2019): Carbon-nitrogen compounds, alcohols, mercaptans, monoterpenes, acetates, aldehydes, ketones, SF6, PH3, and other fire gases in coal-mining waste heaps of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) – a re-investigation by means of in situ FTIR external database approach. Science of The Total Environment (in press); Kruszewski, Ł., Sierny, W. (2019): Radlin coal fire heap: thiosulfate- and dithionate-bearing alkaline mineralization; Cu, Fe, As, and P mineralization; and second worldwide occurrence of tsaregorodtsevite. Miner. - Spec. Pap.: 49: 54
  • Beja
    • Aljustrel
      • Aljustrel e Rio de Moinhos
        • Aljustrel Mine
Miguel Rocha's mineral collection
Pedro Alves collection and analytical data.
  • Kamchatka Krai
Bortnikova, S. B., Bortnikova, S. P., Manstein Yu, A., Kiryuhin, A. V., Vernikovskaya, I. V., & Palchik, N. A. (2009, February). Thermal springs hydrogeochemistry and structure at North-Mutnovskoe fumarole field (South Kamchatka, Russia). In Proceedings, thirty–fourth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, pp SGP-TR-187.
  • Sakhalin Oblast
    • Kuril Islands (Kurile Islands)
      • Iturup Island
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica District
Szakáll, S., Fehér, B., Kristály, F., Zajzon, N. (2014) Mineralogical mozaics from the Carpathian–Pannonian region 2. Földtani Közlöny: 144: 345-357.
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Black Hills (Black Hill Range)
        • Verde Mining District
          • Jerome
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 149; Lausen, C. (1928), Hydrous sulphates formed under fumerolic conditions at the United Verde mine, AmMin: 13: 203-229; Cesbron, F. (1964), Contribution à la minéralogie des sulfates de fer hydraté, Bull. Soc. Franc. Min. Crist: 87:125-143; Fanfani, L.A., et al (1971), The crystal structure of butlerite, Am.Min.: 56: 751-757; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 66.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Coso Hot Springs
        • Coso Hot Springs deposit
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
      • Steamboat Springs Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Santa Fe Co.
      • La Bajada District
Northrup, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael Mining District (San Rafael Swell)
        • Calf Mesa
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Aeolis quadrangle
    • Gusev Crater
      • Columbia Hills
        • Husband Hill
          • Cumberland Ridge
Lane, M.D., Bishop, J.L., Dyar, M.D., King, P.L., Parene, M., Hyde, B.C. (2008) Mineralogy of the Paso Robles soils on Mars. American Mineralogist, 93 (5-6), 728-739.
矿物 and/or 产地  
Mindat Discussions Facebook Logo Instagram Logo Discord Logo
版权所有© mindat.org1993年至2021年,除了规定的地方。 Mindat.org全赖于全球数千个以上成员和支持者们的参与。
隐私政策 - 条款和条款细则 - 联络我们 - Report a bug/vulnerability Current server date and time: 2021.4.20 10:46:30 Page generated: 2021.3.10 02:27:05
Go to top of page