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Burkeite

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About BurkeiteHide

Formula:
Na6(CO3)(SO4)2
Colour:
White, light buff, grayish; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Greasy
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
2.57
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1935 by William Frederick Foshag in honor of William Edmund Burke [June 9, 1880 Mayfield, Santa Clara County, California, USA - November 17, 1960 Carson City, Nevada, USA], chemical engineer and director of research of the American Potash and Chemical Corporation, who discovered the synthetic salt in 1921. Early in his career, he was a chemist for the Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association.
This page provides mineralogical data about Burkeite.


Classification of BurkeiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.BD.25

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
32.1.1.1

32 : COMPOUND SULFATES
1 : Anhydrous Compound Sulfates
12.2.1

12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate

Physical Properties of BurkeiteHide

Vitreous, Greasy
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
White, light buff, grayish; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness:
3½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.57 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of BurkeiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.448 nβ = 1.489 nγ = 1.493
2V:
Measured: 34° , Calculated: 32°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.045
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v distinct

Chemical Properties of BurkeiteHide

Formula:
Na6(CO3)(SO4)2
IMA Formula:
Na4(SO4)(CO3)

Crystallography of BurkeiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.05 Å, b = 9.21 Å, c = 5.16 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.765 : 1 : 0.56
Unit Cell V:
335.04 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals tabular {100}, with narrow faces of {010}, {110}, and {001}. Crystals faces rough and uneven. Also as reticulated aggregates of platy crystals; pea-shaped nodules; irregular masses.
Twinning:
Commonly as X-shaped penetration twins with {110} as the twin plane and b^_b ~ 59°42'. The re-entrant angles are partially filled with small, rough crystals in apparent random position.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0014823BurkeiteGiuseppetti G, Mazzi F, Tadini C (1988) The crystal structure of synthetic burkeite Na4SO4(CO3)t(SO4)1-t Sample A Note sign of y-coordinate for O3 and O5 altered to reproduce reported bond lengths Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1988 203-2211988synthetic0293
0014824BurkeiteGiuseppetti G, Mazzi F, Tadini C (1988) The crystal structure of synthetic burkeite Sample B Note sign of y-coordinate for O3 and O5 altered to reproduce reported bond lengths Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1988 203-2211988synthetic0293
0014825BurkeiteGiuseppetti G, Mazzi F, Tadini C (1988) The crystal structure of synthetic burkeite Sample C Note sign of y-coordinate for O3 and O5 altered to reproduce reported bond lengths Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1988 203-2211988synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of BurkeiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Clay stratum in a lacustrine salt deposit.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of BurkeiteHide

Other Language Names for BurkeiteHide

Simplified Chinese:碳钠矾
Traditional Chinese:碳鈉礬

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
9 photos of Burkeite associated with HaliteNaCl
1 photo of Burkeite associated with TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.BD.05SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FClIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
7.BD.05SulfohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
7.BD.10GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4ClTrig.
7.BD.10SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.BD.15KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)FMon.
7.BD.20CaracoliteNa3Pb2(SO4)3ClMon.
7.BD.20CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
7.BD.20AiolositeNa4Bi(SO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
7.BD.30HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
7.BD.35CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.BD.40LanarkitePb2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.BD.45GrandreefitePb2(SO4)F2Mon. 2/m
7.BD.50ItoitePb3Ge4+(SO4)2O2(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BD.55ChiluiteBi3Te6+Mo6+O10.5Hex.
7.BD.60HectorfloresiteNa9(SO4)4(IO3)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.BD.65PseudograndreefitePb6(SO4)F10Orth. 2 2 2 : F2 2 2
7.BD.70SundiusitePb10(SO4)O8Cl2Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

12.2.2HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
12.2.3TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Fd3
12.2.4MotukoreaiteMg6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
12.2.5FerrotychiteNa6(Fe,Mn,Mg)2(CO3)4(SO4)Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Fd3
12.2.6NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2OOrth.
12.2.7CarbonatecyanotrichiteCu4Al2(CO3,SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2OOrth.
12.2.8RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2OOrth.
12.2.9TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2OOrth.
12.2.10Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2OTrig.
12.2.11LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
12.2.12MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
12.2.13SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2Trig. 3 : P3
12.2.14WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
12.2.15CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
12.2.16NasledovitePbMn3Al4(CO3)4(SO4)O5 · 5H2O
12.2.17JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
12.2.18SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2OTric. 1 : P1
12.2.19ManganotychiteNa6Mn2(CO3)4(SO4)Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Fd3
12.2.20HauckiteFe3+3(Mg,Mn2+)24Zn18(SO4)4(CO3)2(OH)81Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
12.2.21ParaotwayiteNi(OH)2-x(SO4,CO3)0.5xMon.
12.2.22Carrboydite(Ni1-xAlx)(SO4)x/2(OH)2 · nH2OHex.
12.2.23Mountkeithite[(Mg1-xFe3+x)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2OHex.
12.2.24CamérolaiteCu6Al3(OH)18(H2O)2[Sb(OH)6](SO4)Tric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Totally soluble in cold water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BurkeiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Burke (1921) Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Washington: 13: 249.
Foshag, W.F. (1935), Burkeite, a new mineral species from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 20: 50-56.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 633-634.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1988): 203-221.
Harvey Eugene Lehman, [Biographical data of William Edmund Burke, chemist with the American Potash Company (now the "Borax Company"), Lehman-Burke Family History (V-285 Carolina Meadows, Chapel Hill N. C. 27517: Author, A.D. 2002).

Internet Links for BurkeiteHide

Localities for BurkeiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
Handbook of Mineralogy
      • Ross Archipelago
        • Ross Island
Handbook of Mineralogy
Argentina
 
  • Neuquén Province
    • Ñorquín department
      • Copahue
        • Copahue Geothermal Field
Mineralogical Magazine 71 (2007) 235-240.
Austria
 
  • Burgenland
    • Neusiedl am See District
      • Apetlon
A.Csaplovics (2014)
      • Illmitz
A.Csaplovics (2014)
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels, Burgenland.
A.Csaplovics (2014)
A.Csaplovics (2014)
A.Csaplovics (2014)
      • Sankt Andrä am Zicksee
A.Csaplovics (2014)
Canada
 
Kohut, C. K., & Dudas, M. J. (1993). Evaporite mineralogy and trace-element content of salt-affected soils in Alberta. Canadian journal of soil science, 73(4), 399-409.
  • British Columbia
    • Similkameen Mining Division
      • Okanagan-Similkameen
S. J. Mills (XRD data)
  • Saskatchewan
Last, W. M. (1990). Paleochemistry and paleohydrology of Ceylon Lake, a salt-dominated playa basin in the northern Great Plains, Canada. Journal of Paleolimnology, 4(3), 219-238.
Shang, Y. (2000). Mineralogy, lithostratigraphy and geochemistry of North Ingebright Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada. PhD thesis University of Manitoba.
Greengrass, K., Last, W. M., Deleqiat, J., & Suklmn, S. (1999). Waldsea lake Revisited: Another look at the Recent History of One of Western Canada's Best-studied Meromictic lakes.
China
 
Kezao Chen (1992): Quaternary Sciences 3(8), 193-202
Kezao Chen (1992): Quaternary Sciences 3(8), 193-202
Czech Republic
 
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
      • Karlovy Vary
Cílek, V., Vylita, T., Filippi, M.: Mineralogie karlovarské vřídelní desky a jejího podloží. Minerál, 2006, 14, 1, 3-10.
Egypt
 
  • Beheira Governorate
Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
Sapsford, M. (2009) The use of sodium salt deposits in medical and medically associated industries in Ancient Egypt. PhD thesis. Cranford University. Salem, S.M., Sayed Ahmed El Gammal, El. (2018) Salt Minerals at Wadi El Natrun Saline Lakes, Egypt. New Implications from Remote Sensing Data. European Chemical Bulletin, 7(2), 72-80. [DOI: 10.17628/ecb.2018.7.72-80].
Salem, S.M., Sayed Ahmed El Gammal, El. (2018) Salt Minerals at Wadi El Natrun Saline Lakes, Egypt. New Implications from Remote Sensing Data. European Chemical Bulletin, 7(2), 72-80. [DOI: 10.17628/ecb.2018.7.72-80].
Melanie Sapsford (2009) The use of sodium salt deposits in medical and medically associated industries in Ancient Egypt. PhD thesis. Cranford University
Sapsford, M. (2009) The use of sodium salt deposits in medical and medically associated industries in Ancient Egypt. PhD thesis. Cranford University.
Greece
 
  • Central Macedonia
    • Kilkis
Dotsika, E., Poutoukis, D., Tzavidopoulos, I., Maniatis, Y., Ignatiadou, D., & Raco, B. (2009). A natron source at Pikrolimni Lake in Greece? Geochemical evidence. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 103(2-3), 133-143.
Japan
 
  • Oita Prefecture
    • Beppu City
Tomonagi et al. (1989) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 58.
Kenya
 
  • Marsabit County
Vergouwen, L. (1979) Two new occurrences and the Gibbs energy of burkeite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:327, 341-345.
Niger
 
  • Agadez
    • Bilma
Saidou, H., Hamzaoui, A. H., & Mnif, A. (2015). Insoluble Content, Ionic Composition, Density, and X-Ray Diffraction Spectra of 6 Evaporites from Niger Republic. Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015.
Saidou, H., Hamzaoui, A. H., & Mnif, A. (2015). Insoluble Content, Ionic Composition, Density, and X-Ray Diffraction Spectra of 6 Evaporites from Niger Republic. Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015.
Saidou, H., Hamzaoui, A. H., & Mnif, A. (2015). Insoluble Content, Ionic Composition, Density, and X-Ray Diffraction Spectra of 6 Evaporites from Niger Republic. Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015.
Peru
 
  • La Libertad
    • Pacasmayo Province
      • Jequetepeque
Mees, F., & Stoops, G. (1991). Mineralogical study of salt efflorescences on soils of the Jequetepeque Valley, northern Peru. Geoderma, 49(3-4), 255-272.
Russia
 
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Mirninsky District
      • Daldyn
Sharygin, I. S., Golovin, A. V., Korsakov, A. V., & Pokhilenko, N. P. (2013). Eitelite in sheared peridotite xenoliths from Udachnaya-East kimberlite pipe (Russia)–a new locality and host rock type. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(5), 825-834.
Spain
 
  • Aragón
    • Huesca
Handbook of Mineralogy; Vizcayno, C., Garcia-Gonzalez, M. T., Gutierrez, M., & Rodriguez, R. (1995). Mineralogical, chemical and morphological features of salt accumulations in the Flumen-Monegros district, NE Spain. Geoderma, 68(3), 193-210.
      • Grañén
Vizcayno, C., Garcia-Gonzalez, M. T., Gutierrez, M., & Rodriguez, R. (1995). Mineralogical, chemical and morphological features of salt accumulations in the Flumen-Monegros district, NE Spain. Geoderma, 68(3), 193-210.
      • Lalueza
Vizcayno, C., Garcia-Gonzalez, M. T., Gutierrez, M., & Rodriguez, R. (1995). Mineralogical, chemical and morphological features of salt accumulations in the Flumen-Monegros district, NE Spain. Geoderma, 68(3), 193-210.
      • Sariñena
Vizcayno, C., Garcia-Gonzalez, M. T., Gutierrez, M., & Rodriguez, R. (1995). Mineralogical, chemical and morphological features of salt accumulations in the Flumen-Monegros district, NE Spain. Geoderma, 68(3), 193-210.
Tunisia
 
  • Tataouine
Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
Turkey
 
  • Konya Province
    • Ereğli District
Lideke Vergouwen (1979) Two New Occurrences and the Gibbs Energy of Burkeite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:341-345.
Uganda
 
  • Western Region
    • Kasese
Nielsen, Joan M. (1999): East African magadi (trona): fluoride concentration and mineralogical composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences 29, 423-428.; Mineralogical Recoed 8:396
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Deep Springs Valley
Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Jones, Blair Francis (1963), Layer sequence of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Program, New York Meeting: 88A; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 283.
      • Owens Valley
        • Olancha
Brown, N., Lamos, P. & Scarr, I. (2003): Present-day features related to the deposition of trona at Owens Lake, California, and a comparison of the trona deposits of the Green River Basin, 36-40.
    • San Bernardino Co.
Foshag, William Frederick (1935), Burkeite, a new mineral species from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 20: 50-56; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 50; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 283; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340, 633; Mineralogical Magazine (1979): 43: 341.
Foshag, William Frederick (1920c), Apthitalite (glaserite) from Searles Lake, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 49: 367-368; Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 29; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 50; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 116.
  • Colorado
    • Chaffee Co.
      • Chalk Creek District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Garfield Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Moffat Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Rio Blanco Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
Handbook of Mineralogy; Cahit Helvaci, Federico Ortí, Javier García-Veigas, Laura Rosell, Ibrahim Gündoğan (2012). Neogene Borate Deposits: Mineralogy, Petrology and Sedimentology; A workshop with special emphasis on the Anatolian deposits International Earth Science Colloquium on the Aegean Region (IESCA-2012, İzmir, Turkey). 64pp.
  • New Mexico
Northrup, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
10th Annual New Mexico Mineral Symposium; Rogers, B. W. (1991, August). General geology and development of lava tubes in New Mexico’s El Malpais National Monument. In Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology: Hilo, Hawaii (pp. 58-62).
  • Washington
    • Grant Co.
      • Warden
Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.63
www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/okanogan.htm.
 
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