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Brushite

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About BrushiteHide

08885680014947087755554.jpg
George Jarvis Brush
Formula:
Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
Colour:
Colorless, light yellow; colorless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Earthy
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
2.30 - 2.33
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named by Gideon E. Moore in 1865 in honor of American mineralogist George Jarvis Brush (December 15, 1831 Brooklyn, NY, USA - February 6, 1912 New Haven, CT, USA), Professor, Yale University.
Isostructural with:
The phosphate analogue of pharmacolite.


Classification of BrushiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.CJ.50

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
J : With only large cations
39.1.1.1

39 : HYDRATED ACID PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
1 : A[HXO4]·xH2O
19.4.3

19 : Phosphates
4 : Phosphates of Ca

Physical Properties of BrushiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Earthy
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavages.
Colour:
Colorless, light yellow; colorless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010} and {001}, perfect.
Density:
2.30 - 2.33 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.32 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
2.326 (artificial crystals).

Optical Data of BrushiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.539 - 1.540 nβ = 1.544 - 1.546 nγ = 1.551 - 1.552
2V:
Measured: 59° to 87°, Calculated: 80°
Birefringence:
0.012
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.012
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r >v , crossed
Optical Extinction:
X ^ c = 30°, Z=b
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of BrushiteHide

Formula:
Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca(PO3OH) · 2H2O

Crystallography of BrushiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
m - Domatic
Space Group:
Bb
Setting:
Cc
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.812(2) Å, b = 15.180(3) Å, c = 6.239(2) Å
β = 116.43(3)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.383 : 1 : 0.411
Unit Cell V:
492.91 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals minute, acicular or prismatic to tabular {010}. Efflorescences, cavity linings. Earthy, pulverulent, foliated.
Comment:
Cell from Curry and Jones (1971).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.62 Å(100)
4.27 Å(10)
3.80 Å(30)
3.06 Å(10)
2.93 Å(10)
2.63 Å(10)
2.53 Å(10)
1.90 Å(10)
Comments:
ICDD 11-293, also 9-77 (synthetic)

Type Occurrence of BrushiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Cave guano deposit.

Synonyms of BrushiteHide

Other Language Names for BrushiteHide

Relationship of Brushite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
PharmacoliteCa(HAsO4) · 2H2OMon. m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
2 photos of Brushite associated with CalcioferriteCa2Fe3+2(PO4)3(OH) · 7H2O
2 photos of Brushite associated with Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
1 photo of Brushite associated with WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
1 photo of Brushite associated with VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
1 photo of Brushite associated with Whiteite SubgroupXM1M22M32(H2O)8(OH)2(PO4)4
1 photo of Brushite associated with AnataseTiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.CJ.CaesiumpharmacosideriteCsFe4[(AsO4)3(OH)4]·4H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
8.CJ.JeankempiteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 7H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.05StercoriteNa(NH4)HPO4 · 4H2OTric.
8.CJ.10Mundrabillaite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2OMon. m : Pm
8.CJ.10Swaknoite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2OOrth.
8.CJ.15NabaphiteNaBaPO4 · 9H2OIso.
8.CJ.15NastrophiteNa(Sr,Ba)PO4 · 9H2O
8.CJ.20HaidingeriteCaHAsO4 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
8.CJ.25VladimiriteCa4(AsO4)2(AsO3OH) · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.CJ.30FerrarisiteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.35Machatschkiite(Ca,Na)6(AsO4)(HAsO4)3(PO4,SO4) · 15H2OHex.
8.CJ.40PhaunouxiteCa3(AsO4)2 · 11H2OTric.
8.CJ.40RauenthaliteCa3(AsO4)2 · 10H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.45Brockite(Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(La)La(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Tristramite(Ca,U,Fe)(PO4,SO4) · 2H2OHex.
8.CJ.45Smirnovskite(Th,Ca)PO4 · nH2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.50ArdealiteCa2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2OMon. m : Bb
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.CJ.50PharmacoliteCa(HAsO4) · 2H2OMon. m
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · 2H2OMon.
8.CJ.55McneariteNaCa5(AsO4)(HAsO4)4 · 4H2OTric.
8.CJ.60DorfmaniteNa2HPO4 · 2H2OOrth.
8.CJ.65SincositeCa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 5H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/nnm
8.CJ.65BariosincositeBa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 4H2OTet.
8.CJ.70CatalanoiteNa2(HPO4) · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ibca
8.CJ.75GuériniteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.CJ.85NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2OOrth.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

39.1.1.2PharmacoliteCa(HAsO4) · 2H2OMon. m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.4.1MonetiteCa(HPO4)Tric. 1
19.4.2HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
19.4.4IsoclasiteCa2(PO4)(OH) · 2H2OMon.
19.4.5BuchwalditeNaCa(PO4)Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
19.4.6CanaphiteNa2Ca(P2O7) · 4H2OMon.
19.4.7Mundrabillaite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2OMon. m : Pm
19.4.8WhitlockiteCa9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)Trig. 3m : R3c
19.4.9BrianiteNa2CaMg(PO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.4.10Petersite-(Y)(Y,Ce,Nd)Cu6(PO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2OHex.

Fluorescence of BrushiteHide

Not fluorescent.

Other InformationHide

Electrical:
Piezoelectric
Notes:
Readily soluble in HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BrushiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Shepard (1856) American Journal of Science: 22: 96 (as Epiglaubite).
Julien (1865) American Journal of Science: 40: 369 (as Metabrushite).
Moore (1865) American Journal of Science: 39: 43.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 828.
Klein (1901) Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin: 720 (as Stoffertite).
Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 491.
Koehler (1926) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 37: 93.
Chudoba (1928) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 291.
Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 788.
Sekanina (1935) Publications of the Faculty of Science of the University Masaryk, Brno [220].
Hill and Hendricks (1936) Ind. Eng. Chem.: 28: 441.
Terpstra (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 97: 229.
Frondel, C. (1943) American Mineralogist: 28: 215.
Van Tassel (1944) Bulletin of the Museum of Natural History of Belgium: 22, no. 17.
Mélon and Dallemagne (1946) Bulletin de la Sociètè Belge de Gèologie: 69: B19.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 704-706.
American Mineralogist (1956) 41:616.
Belluomini G. (1968): Brushite in efflorescenze su frammenti ossei umani d'età romana. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 21-29.
Mineralogical Society of London Monograph 4 (1974)
Curry, N.A. & Jones, D.W. (1987): The application of an empirical correction for absorption and secondary extinction to neutron data for crystals of brushite, Ca(HPO4)·2H2O. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 181, 205-214.
American Mineralogist 76: 1722 (1991).
Mohammad H. Alkhraisat, Carmen Rueda, and Enrique López Cabarcos (2011): Strontium Ions Substitution in Brushite Crystals: The Role of Strontium Chloride. J. Funct. Biomater. 2, 31–38.

Internet Links for BrushiteHide

Localities for BrushiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Algeria
 
Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min. Encylopaedia, p.179
    • Oran
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
Anguilla
 
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Princess Elizabeth Land
      • Ingrid Christensen Coast
Gore, D.B., Nichols, G.T., Lehmann, C.E.R., Burgess, J.S., Baird, A.S.&, Creagh, D.C. (2000) An atlas of surficial salts of the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica: composition, distribution and origin ANARE Report 143. 146 pp
  • Western Antarctica
Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
Argentina
 
  • Mendoza Province
    • Malargüe Department
Benedetto, C., Forti, P., Galli, E., & Rossi, A. (1998). Chemical deposits in volcanic caves of Argentina. International Journal of Speleology, 27(1), 16.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Wooltana homestead area
Snow, M.R., Pring, A., Allen, N. (2014) Minerals of the Wooltana Cave, Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 138:2, 214-230.
  • Victoria
    • Corangamite Shire
      • Skipton
        • Mt. Widderin (Anderson's Hill)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 700.; Webb, J. A., Joyce, E. B., & Stevens, N. C. (1982). Lava caves of Australia. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. International Speleological Foundation, Seattle. p74-85.
    • East Gippsland Shire
      • Buchan
  • Western Australia
    • Dandaragan Shire
      • Jurien Bay
Helictite 13:19-33
    • Dundas Shire
      • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
Mineralogical Magazine (1973): 39,467-469.; Caves: processes, development, and management By David S. Gillieson
      • Madura Roadhouse
Mineralogical Magazine (1974): 39: 889.-890.
    • Meekatharra Shire
      • Milgun Station
R Bottrill, unpub. data;
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Spittal an der Drau District
      • Malta
F. Brandstätter, G. Niedermayr: Carinthia II 186./106.:132-133 (1996)
      • Obervellach
Niedermayr (1997)
      • Rennweg am Katschberg
        • Pölla valley
          • Lanisch
Pichler, A. (2009): Bergbau in Westkärnten. Eine Bestandsaufnahme der noch sichtbaren Merkmale der historischen Bergbaue in Westkärnten. - Carinthia II, 63. Sh., 416 S., Klagenfurt
PICHLER, A. (2009): Bergbau in Westkärnten. Eine Bestandsaufnahme der noch sichtbaren Merkmale der historischen Bergbaue in Westkärnten. p.88, 92-94
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Lower Austria
    • Lilienfeld District
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Salzburg
    • St. Johann im Pongau District
      • Werfen
        • Tennen Mts
          • Tenneck
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
  • Styria
    • Leoben District
Kolitsch, U. & Auer, C. (2019): 2142) Brushit vom Brandberg bei Leoben, Steiermark. Pp. 304-305 in Walter, F. et al. (2019): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVIII. Carinthia II, 209./129., 237-326.
    • Liezen District
      • Schladming
        • Schladminger Tauern
          • Obertalbach valley
            • Eschach Alp (Eschachboden; Martinlager)
Annalen 1999, p.63-70
    • Murtal District
      • Pölstal
A.Alker (1968)
Bahamas
 
  • San Salvador District
    • San Salvador Island
Onac B.P., Mylroie J.E., White W.B. (2001): Mineralogy of cave deposits on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Carbonates and Evaporites, 16, 1, 8-16.; Onac B.P., Sumrall J., Mylroie J.E., Kearns J. (2009): Cave minerals of San Salvador Island, Bahamas. The University of South Florida karst studies series, 1, 70 pp.
Canada
 
  • Yukon
    • Dawson mining district
[Mineralogical Record Vol 23 No.4 pp 37]
Robinson, G.W., Van Velthuizen, J., Ansell, H.G. & Sturman, B.D. (1992): Mineralogy of the Rapid Creek and Big Fish River area, Yukon Territory. Mineralogical Record 23, 1-47.
Handbook for Mineralogy, v. 4
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
Pieczonka, J., Piestrzyński, A., & Zygo, W. (2017). Złoże Cu-Mo Sierra Gorda, północne Chile. Biuletyn Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego.
Denmark
 
  • Southern Denmark Region
    • Fyn
      • Middelfart
Claus Hedegaard collection
Finland
 
  • South Karelia
    • Lappeenranta
Hytönen,K. (1999): Suomen Mineraalit. Geologian tutkimuskeskus. Erillisjulkaisu, Jyväskylä, 399 pp.
France
 
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Limoges
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
Lacroix, A. (1910): Minéralogie de la France et de ses colonies, Librairie Polytechnique, Ch. Béranger Editeur, Tome III, 531.
    • Hérault
      • Cesseras
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
      • Saint-Benoît
Audra, P., De Waele, J., Bentaleb, I., Chroňáková, A., Krištůfek, V., D’Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Madonia, G., Vattano, M., Scopelliti, G., Cailhol, D., Vanara, N., Temovski, M., Bigot, J.-Y., Nobécourt, J.-C., Galli, E., Rull, F., and Sanz-Arranz, A. (2019) Guano-related phosphate-rich minerals in European caves. International Journal of Speleology, 48, 1, 75-105.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
Germany
 
  • Lower Saxony
    • Lüneburg
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Cologne
      • Euskirchen
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Bad Schlema
        • Oberschlema
J. Gröbner and U. Kolitsch (2007): Aktuelle Neufunde aus dem Erzgebirge III. Mineralien-Welt 18 (5), 16-19. (in German)
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
  • Thuringia
    • Saalfeld-Rudolstadt
      • Saalfeld
        • Garnsdorf
F. Rüger, L. Senf & T. Witzke: Lapis 1995 (1), 15-26
Ullrich, B. (2018). Zur Mineralogie anthropogen induzierter Alterationsprozesse – Sekundärminerale des historischen Alaunschieferbergbaus von Saalfeld und Schmiedefeld im Thüringischen Schiefergebirge. Geologica Saxonica 64, 67-79. [http://www.senckenberg.de/files/content/forschung/publikationen/geologicasaxonica/64/04_geologica-saxonica_64_ullrich.pdf]
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Putnok District
      • Aggtelek
Audra, P., De Waele, J., Bentaleb, I., Chroňáková, A., Krištůfek, V., D’Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Madonia, G., Vattano, M., Scopelliti, G., Cailhol, D., Vanara, N., Temovski, M., Bigot, J.-Y., Nobécourt, J.-C., Galli, E., Rull, F., and Sanz-Arranz, A. (2019) Guano-related phosphate-rich minerals in European caves. International Journal of Speleology, 48, 1, 75-105.
  • Komárom-Esztergom County
    • Lábatlan
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
  • Veszprém County
    • Balatonfüred district
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985; USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Ireland
 
  • Leinster
    • Co. Kilkenny
Ryback, G., Nawaz, R. and Farley, E. (1988) Seventh Supplementary List of British Isles Minerals (Irish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 52, n° 365, pp. 267-274.
Italy
 
  • Apulia
    • Brindisi Province
      • Fasano
Dell'Anna, L., Fiore, S., Laviano, R. (1989): I fosfati di cavità carsiche pugliesi: giaciture, natura e genesi. Atti del XV Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia. Castellana Grotte 10-13 settembre 1987. Comune di Castellana Grotte e Gruppo Puglia Grotte, Castellana Grotte, 171-187.
    • Metropolitan City of Bari
      • Altamura
Balenzano, F., Dell’Anna, L., Di Pierro, M., Fiore, S. (1984): Ardealite, CaHPO4CaSO4 • 4H2O: a new occurrence and new data. Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Monatsh., 461-467; Dell'Anna, L., Fiore, S., Laviano, R. (1989): I fosfati di cavità carsiche pugliesi: giaciture, natura e genesi. Atti del XV Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia. Castellana Grotte 10-13 settembre 1987. Comune di Castellana Grotte e Gruppo Puglia Grotte, Castellana Grotte, 171-187.
      • Castellana Grotte
Balenzano, F., Dell'Anna, L., Di Pierro, M. (1974) Ricerche mineralogiche su alcuni fosfati rinvenuti nelle Grotte di Castellana (Bari): strengite alluminifera, vivianite, taranakite, brushite e idrossiapatite. Società Italiana Mineralogia e Petrologia, Milano, Vol. XXX(2), 543-573.
      • Polignano a Mare
Dell'Anna, L., Fiore, S., Laviano, R. (1989): I fosfati di cavità carsiche pugliesi: giaciture, natura e genesi. Atti del XV Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia. Castellana Grotte 10-13 settembre 1987. Comune di Castellana Grotte e Gruppo Puglia Grotte, Castellana Grotte, 171-187.
    • Taranto Province
      • Martina Franca
Dell'Anna, L., Fiore, S., Laviano, R. (1989): I fosfati di cavità carsiche pugliesi: giaciture, natura e genesi. Atti del XV Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia. Castellana Grotte 10-13 settembre 1987. Comune di Castellana Grotte e Gruppo Puglia Grotte, Castellana Grotte, 171-187.
Dell'Anna, L., Fiore, S., Laviano, R. (1989): I fosfati di cavità carsiche pugliesi: giaciture, natura e genesi. Atti del XV Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia. Castellana Grotte 10-13 settembre 1987. Comune di Castellana Grotte e Gruppo Puglia Grotte, Castellana Grotte, 171-187.
Dell'Anna, L., Fiore, S., Laviano, R. (1989): I fosfati di cavità carsiche pugliesi: giaciture, natura e genesi. Atti del XV Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia. Castellana Grotte 10-13 settembre 1987. Comune di Castellana Grotte e Gruppo Puglia Grotte, Castellana Grotte, 171-187.
  • Friuli-Venezia Giulia
    • Gorizia Province
      • Sagrado
        • San Martino del Carso
Cancian, G. (1984): I fosfati della "Grotta ad Est di San Martino del Carso" (Gorizia): brushite, idrossiapatite, francoanellite, taranakite. Atti III Covegno Triveneto di Speleologia, 17-18 nov. 1984, Vicenza, 1-8.
  • Liguria
    • La Spezia Province
      • Rocchetta di Vara
Balestra, C., Kolitsch, U., Blaß, G., Callegari, A.M., Baiocchi, M., Armellino, G., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P., Bracco, R.: Mineralogia ligure 2007-2008: novità caratterizzate dal servizio UK dell'AMI. Micro (UK report) 1/2009 pp. 78-99
    • Savona Province
      • Toirano
Audra, P., De Waele, J., Bentaleb, I., Chroňáková, A., Krištůfek, V., D’Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Madonia, G., Vattano, M., Scopelliti, G., Cailhol, D., Vanara, N., Temovski, M., Bigot, J.-Y., Nobécourt, J.-C., Galli, E., Rull, F., and Sanz-Arranz, A. (2019) Guano-related phosphate-rich minerals in European caves. International Journal of Speleology, 48, 1, 75-105.
  • Sicily
    • Agrigento Province
      • Sambuca di Sicilia
Audra, P., De Waele, J., Bentaleb, I., Chroňáková, A., Krištůfek, V., D’Angeli, I. M., ... & Cailhol, D. (2019). Guano-related phosphate-rich minerals in European caves. International Journal of Speleology, 48(1), 75-105.
Japan
 
  • Iwate
    • Kamaishi City
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Kanagawa
Matsubara & Chiba (1982) Shizenkagaku To Hakubutsukan, 49, 151-153.
  • Kumamoto
    • Kuma village
Nobuhide Sawamura & Hitoshi Momoi: “Cave minerals and the guano from Kyusendo cave in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan”, Journal of the Speleological Society of Japan; N. Kashiima: “The phosphate minerals from Kyusen-do cave, southern Kyushu”, Journal of the Speleological Society of Japan.)
Kenya
 
  • Kajiado County
    • Mount Suswa (Suswa Volcano)
Forti, P., E. Galli & A. Rossi (2004):"Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya" , Int. J. Speleol. 32, 3-18
Kiribati
 
Van King
Van King
Malaysia
 
  • Sarawak
Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 79-80.
Mexico
 
  • Coahuila
    • Cuatrociénegas Municipality
      • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
        • Limestone caves
Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Tazenakht
WALENTA (1981) Grüner Helvin von Azegour, Der Aufschluß, 32, 443-449
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib
      • Tsaobismund Farm 85
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek Rural
      • Friedenau Farm 16
DILL, H.G., PÖLLMANN, H. , BOSECKER, K., HAHN, L. and MWIYA, S.(2002) Supergene mineralization in mining residues of the Matchless cupreous pyrite deposit (Namibia) – A clue to the origin of modern and fossil duricrusts in semiarid climates.- Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 75: 43-70
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
Netherlands
 
  • Caribbean Netherlands
    • Aruba
Stienstra, P. (1985). Geology of a small rock-phosphate deposit, Ceru Colorado, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 55(1).
Nicaragua
 
  • León Department
    • Cerro Negro volcano
Hynek, B. M., McCollom, T. M., Marcucci, E. C., Brugman, K., & Rogers, K. L. (2013). Assessment of environmental controls on acid‐sulfate alteration at active volcanoes in Nicaragua: Applications to relic hydrothermal systems on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 118(10), 2083-2104.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Lubin Co.
      • Gmina Lubin
Łukasz Kruszewski PXRD & EPMA data (2018) (coll. Mateusz Świerk)
Portugal
 
  • Vila Real
    • Chaves
      • Vidago
Neiva, A. M. R., Silva, M. M. V. G., Antunes, I. M. H. R., & Ramos, J. M. F. (2000). Phosphate minerals of some granitic rocks associated quartz veins from northern and central Portugal.
Romania
 
  • Bihor
    • Pietroasa
Onac, B. P., Bengeanu, M., Botez, M., & Zih, J. (1995). Preliminary report on the mineralogy of Pestera din Valea Rea (Bihor Mountains, Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology, 8, 75.
  • Bistrița-Năsăud
    • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
Tămaş, T., Kristály, F., & Barbu-Tudoran, L. (2011). Mineralogy of Iza Cave (Rodnei Mountains, N. Romania). International Journal of Speleology, 40(2), 10.
al României, I. G. (2003) The 5 Th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp11-12
  • Brașov
Puşcaş, C. M., Kristaly, F., Stremţan, C. C., Onac, B. P., & Effenberger, H. S. (2014). Stability of cave phosphates: Case study from Liliecilor Cave (Trascău Mountains, Romania). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 191(2), 157-168.; Marincea, Ş., Dumitraş, D. g., Diaconu, G., & Fransolet, a. m. (2004) Mineralogical Data on the Bat Guano Deposit from Gura Ponicovei Cave (Almaj Mountains, Romania). Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits 81:126-129
  • Constanța
Dumitras D, Marincea S, Diaconu G (2004) Thermal diagenesis in the phosphate-sulfate sequence from Gura Dobrogei Cave, Dobrogea, Romania. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 71
  • Hunedoara
    • Cerna valley
Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
B. Onac et al (2009, July) Mineralogical and Stable Isotope Investigations of Minerals from Caves on Cerna Valley (Romania). Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. pp318-323
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
European Journal of Mineralogy; April 2009; v. 21; no. 2; p. 507-514; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
  • Maramureș
    • Chioarului District
      • Chioarului Hills
Neacșu Antonela, Cioacă Mihaela (2007) Gemological occurrences in Romania. PROIECT ROMANIT, Raport 2b. Geologie, p.29-30
  • Sălaj
    • Boiului Plateau
Tudor Tămaș, Răzvan Ungureanu (2010)-Mineralogy of Speleothems from four caves in the Purcăreț-Boiu Mare Plateau and the Baia Mare Depression (NW Romania). Studia Universitatis Babeș-Boyai, Geologia, 55 (2), 43-49.
  • Suceava
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Kamchatka Krai
[Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p163-180]; Okrugin, V. M. (2004). Miocene to Quaternary center volcanic, hydrothermal and ore-forming activity in the Southern Kamchatka. In Metallogeny of the Pacific Northwest (Russian Far East)-Tectonics, Magmatism and Metallogeny of Active Continental Margin, Interim IAGOD Conference, Excursion Guidebook, Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 2004 (pp. 147-176).
[Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p.163-180]
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Košice Co.
      • Jasov (Jossau; Joss)
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    • Rožňava Co.
      • Ardovo
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
      • Kečovo
Kettner, R. (1948) O netopyrím guanu a guanovych korosích v jeskynie Domici. Sbornik Státního geologického ústavu, Praha, XV, pages 41-64; Koděra, M. et al. (1986 to 1990) Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k; Audra, P., De Waele, J., Bentaleb, I., Chroňáková, A., Krištůfek, V., D’Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Madonia, G., Vattano, M., Scopelliti, G., Cailhol, D., Vanara, N., Temovski, M., Bigot, J.-Y., Nobécourt, J.-C., Galli, E., Rull, F., and Sanz-Arranz, A. (2019) Guano-related phosphate-rich minerals in European caves. International Journal of Speleology, 48, 1, 75-105.
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
      • Červenica
        • Dubník
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
South Africa
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995), Minerals of South Africa.
  • Gauteng
    • West Rand District (West Rand)
      • Far West Rand (West Wits Line)
        • Oberholzer
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, pg 191.
        • Western Sector
          • Carletonville
Minerals of South Africa; Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
  • Mpumalanga
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Nelspruit
Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
South Korea
 
  • Gangwon Province
    • Yeongwol-gun (Yongwol-gun)
Jun, Chang-Pyo ; Lee, Seong-Joo ; Kong, Dal-Yong ; Kang, Il-Mo ; Song, Yun-Goo (2010) Mineralogy of Secondary Phosphates and Sulfates Precipitated within the Sequence of Bat Guano Deposits in the Gossi Cave, Korea. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 395-402
Spain
 
  • Balearic Islands
B. Onac et al (2009) Mineral Diversity in Caves from Mallorca Island, Spain. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 325
      • Inca
Onac, B.P., Fornós, J.J., Ginés, A., Ginés, J. (2005): Mineralogical reconnaissance of caves from Mallorca Island. Endins, 27, 131-140.
      • Llucmajor
Onac, B.P., Fornós, J.J., Merino, A., Ginés, J., Diehl, J. (2014): Linking mineral deposits to speleogenetic processes in Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca, Spain). International Journal of Speleology, 43, 2, 143-157.
Onac, B.P., Fornós, J.J., Ginés, A., Ginés, J. (2005): Mineralogical reconnaissance of caves from Mallorca Island. Endins, 27, 131-140.
  • Catalonia
    • Barcelona
      • Baix Llobregat
        • Gavà
          • Bruguers
Bareche, E (2005) "Els minerals de Catalunya. Segle XX" Ed. Grup Mineralògic Català, Barcelona, 269 p.
Switzerland
 
  • Bern
    • Emmental
      • Burgdorf
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 88
  • Vaud
    • Payerne
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 88
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Just
        • Botallack
          • Botallack Mine
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
      • Whetstone Mining District
www.caves.org; Hill, C.A. (1999) Mineralogy of Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies: 61(2): 73-78
  • California
    • Mono Co.
      • Mono Lake
Walker, J. (1988) Paoha Island phosphates. Quarterly of San Bernardino County Museum Association, 35, 46–47.
  • Illinois
    • Kankakee Co.
      • Bourbonnais
Handbook for Mineralogy, v. 4
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Whitmore & Lawrence, 2004. The Pegmatite Mines Known As Palermo, p.95.
  • Puerto Rico
    • Mayagüez
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
Wise, W. (1997), J. Cave and Karst Studies, 53,170.
  • Tennessee
    • DeKalb Co.
Handbook for Mineralogy, v. 4
  • Virginia
    • Giles Co.
Murray, J. W. & Dietrich, R. V. (1956): Brushite and taranakite from Pig Hole Cave, Giles County, Virginia. American Mineralogist 41, 616-626.
Venezuela
 
  • Aragua
Urbani, F. (1996) Venezuelan cave minerals: a review. Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleología, No.30, 1-13.
  • Miranda
Urbani, F. (1996) Venezuelan cave minerals: a review. Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleología, No.30, 1-13.
Urbani, F. (1996) Venezuelan cave minerals: a review. Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleología, No.30, 1-13.
  • Nueva Esparta
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
 
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