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Bieberite

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About BieberiteHide

Formula:
CoSO4 · 7H2O
Colour:
Red-pink, flesh-red; colourless to pale rose in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Earthy
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
1.96
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
After the discovery locality, Bieber, Hessen, Germany.
Melanterite Group.

A secondary mineral formed by the oxidation of sulfide and arsenide ores containing cobalt. Often a post-mining product.

May dehydrate to moorhouseite.


Classification of BieberiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.CB.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
29.6.10.4

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
6 : AXO4·xH2O
25.12.1

25 : Sulphates
12 : Sulphates of Co and Ni

Pronounciation of BieberiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of BieberiteHide

Vitreous, Earthy
Transparency:
Translucent, Opaque
Comment:
Luster/texture becomes mealy upon dehydration to the hexahydrate.
Colour:
Red-pink, flesh-red; colourless to pale rose in transmitted light.
Hardness:
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {001} perfect; on {110} fair.
Density:
1.96 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.83 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BieberiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.477 nβ = 1.483 nγ = 1.489
2V:
Measured: 88° , Calculated: 88°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.012
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of BieberiteHide

Formula:
CoSO4 · 7H2O
IMA Formula:
Co(SO4) · 7H2O

Crystallography of BieberiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 14.04 Å, b = 6.49 Å, c = 10.92 Å
β = 105.27°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.163 : 1 : 1.683
Unit Cell V:
959.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
As crusts and stalactites.

Crystallographic forms of BieberiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Bieberite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Type Occurrence of BieberiteHide

Synonyms of BieberiteHide

Other Language Names for BieberiteHide

Relationship of Bieberite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AlpersiteMg(SO4) · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
4 photos of Bieberite associated with BismuthBi
2 photos of Bieberite associated with ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
2 photos of Bieberite associated with ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
1 photo of Bieberite associated with GalenaPbS
1 photo of Bieberite associated with UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
1 photo of Bieberite associated with PitchblendeUO2
1 photo of Bieberite associated with GuarinoiteZn6(SO4)(OH)10 · 5H2O
1 photo of Bieberite associated with HeterogeniteCo3+O(OH)

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe)SO4 · H2OTric.
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2OMon.
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2OMon.
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. m : Bb
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2OTet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35AlpersiteMg(SO4) · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2OTric. 1
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteAl2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe4(SO4)6(H2O)12· 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon.
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

29.6.10.1MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
29.6.10.2BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
29.6.10.3Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2OMon.
29.6.10.5MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.12.2CobaltzippeiteCo(UO2)2(SO4)O2 · 3.5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.12.3Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
25.12.4Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
25.12.5RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2OTet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
25.12.6MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.12.7NickelblöditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2O
25.12.8Nickelboussingaultite(NH4)2Ni(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.12.9NickelzippeiteNi2(UO2)6(SO4)3(OH)10 · 16H2O Mon.
25.12.10Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.12.11Honessite(Ni1-xFe3+x)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OTrig.
25.12.12Hydrohonessite(Ni1-xFe3+x)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2OHex.
25.12.13Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BieberiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sage (1791) Le Journal de physique et le radium, Paris: 39: 53 (as Cobalt Vitriol).
Klaproth, M.H. (1797) Untersuchung des natürlichen Kobaltvitriols von Herrengrund, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Zweiter Band, Rottmann Berlin, pp. 320.
Kopp (1808) Allgemeines Journal der Chemie, Berlin 1798-1803 (Scherer’s Journal): 6: 157 (as Kobaltvitriol).
Beudant, F.S. (1832) Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 481 (as Rhodhalose).
Haidinger (1845) 489 (as Bieberit).
Winkelblech (1845) Ann. Chem.: 13: 265.
Marignac (1855) Mém. soc. phys. nat. Genève: 14: 245 (re: artificial material).
Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 1: 194.
Larsen, E.S. and Glenn (1920) American Journal of Science: 50: 225.
Westenbrink (1926) Proceedings of the Academy of Science Amsterdam: 29: 1223.
Porter (1928) Festschr. V. Goldschmidt, Heidelberg: 210.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 505-507.
Periodico di Mineralogia (1985) 54: 1.

Internet Links for BieberiteHide

Localities for BieberiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Zell am See District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507; Poeverlein, R. & Hochleitner, R. (1987): Die Sekundärmineralien von Leogang. LAPIS 12 (9), 25-32 + 58
        • Hütten
          • Schwarzleograben
R.Poeverlein (2016)
      • Rauris
        • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
          • Kolm-Saigurn
A. Strasser: Die MInerale Salzburgs (1989)
Niedermayr, G. & Wittern, A. (2009): Mineralreiches Österreich - Tirol, Salzburg, Vorarlberg. Bode Verlag, Haltern, 144 pp.
  • Styria
    • Leoben District
      • Kalwang
        • Langteichengraben (Lange Teichen)
          • Teichen Mine
peter neschen collection
Chile
 
  • Atacama
    • Copiapó Province
      • Chimberos
        • Tres Puntas district
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507.
Costa Rica
 
  • Cartago Province
    • Irazú Volcano
Ulloa, A., Gázquez, F., Sanz Arranz, A., Medina García, J., Rull Pérez, F., Calaforra, J. M., ... & De Waele, J. (2018). Extremely high diversity of sulfate minerals in caves of the Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) related to crater lake and fumarolic activity.
Czech Republic
 
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
      • Jáchymov
Lapis 2002(7/8)
DR Congo
 
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kambove District
Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992)
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Isère
      • Allemont (Allemond)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507; http://www.zampano.com/minmax/fundort.php3?lang=US&fp=1322&foid=1066.
  • Corsica
    • Haute-Corse
      • Corte
        • Ghisoni
Fiche BSS BRGM n° 11183X4002/GT
  • Occitanie
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
Le Règne Minéral 47: 5-21
Gourault C. (1997), Indice de Beyrède-Jumet (Hautes Pyrénées), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°2, pp: 5-9
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Rottweil
        • Schenkenzell
          • Wittichen
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
    • Karlsruhe
      • Freudenstadt
        • Alpirsbach
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Hesse
    • Main-Kinzig
      • Gelnhausen
        • Bieber
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507; Periodico di Mineralogia, 54, 1 (1985); Nickel & Nichols, 1991 - "Mineral Reference Manual", p22.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Hilchenbach
          • Müsen
Weiss: Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
Weiss. "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Der Aufschluss 2000(2), 71-123
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507.
    • Cologne
      • Düren
        • Untermaubach
Graf, HW., (1982): Die Mineralien von Maubach, Emser Hefte, Vol. 4, Nr. 2
      • Euskirchen
        • Mechernich
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
      • Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis
        • Eckenhagen
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
        • Reichshof
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
        • Rösrath
          • Altenrath
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Altenkirchen
      • Wissen
        • Niederhövels
Dana 7:II:506.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Bad Schlema
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
No reference listed
        • Neustädtel
Christophe Boutry Collection
  • Thuringia
    • Saalfeld-Rudolstadt
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
Skarpelis, N. and Argyraki, A. (2009): The geology and origin of supergene ores in Lavrion (Attica, Greece). Resource Geology, 59, 1-14.
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Sestri Levante
Carbone, C. , Marescotti, P., Cabella, R., Lucchetti, G. (2002): Sulfide alteration and related secondary minerals from the Libiola mine (Eastern Liguria, Italy). Poster at the 82° SIMP Congress , Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 18-20/09/2002. Abstract in Plinius 28 , 88-89.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province (Trentino)
      • Levico Terme
Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Capoliveri
C.L. Garavelli (1957) – Minerali di cobalto nel giacimento elbano di Capo Calamita – Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., P.V., 64: 16-32.
Japan
 
  • Nara Prefecture
    • Yoshino district
      • Totsukawa village
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
  • Yamanashi Prefecture
    • Kitakoma district
      • Horai-mura
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
Portugal
 
  • Aveiro
    • Albergaria-a-Velha
      • Branca
Antonio Jesus Pimentel specimens; www.mindat.org/mesg-25-107652.html
  • Beja
    • Odemira
      • São Luís
Pedro Alves collection and analytical data.
Russia
 
  • Orenburg Oblast
E. Shcherbakova et al. : "The rarest Cobalt-Containing Sulfates from the South Ural, Russia", 5th International Conference "Mineralogy & Museums", Paris, Sept. 5-8th 2004, Bull. de Liaison de la Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie et Cristallographie, 2004, Vol 16, N°2.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica District
Koděra, M., a kol.: Topografická mineralogie Slovenska. Sv. 3 Sed-Ž, Bratislava, Veda 1990, s. 1247-1256.
    • Banská Štiavnica District
Spain
 
  • Valencian Community
    • Castellón
      • Chóvar
Joan Viñals. Barcelona University. analized
Switzerland
 
  • Ticino
    • Riviera
      • Claro
        • Molino Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 77
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Hilary
Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Coconino County
      • Cameron Mining District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 136; Austin, S.R. (1964), Mineralogy of the Cameron area, Coconino Co., AZ, US Atomic Energy Comm. RME 99. Tech Inf. Serv., Oak Ridge, TN: 99.; Bollin, E. M., & Kerr, P. F. (1958). Uranium mineralization near Cameron, Arizona. In Guidebook of the Black Mesa Basin, northern Arizona: New Mexico Geological Society, 9th Field Conference Society Guidebook (Vol. 9, pp. 161-168).
          • Huskon Mines (Huskon group)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 136.
      • Orphan Mining District
        • Grand Canyon Village
Gornitz, V. (2004), Grand Canyon Uranium: The Orphan Mine, Mineral News: 20(6): 7.
    • Mohave County
      • Hack Canyon Mining District
        • Hack Canyon
MRDS file #10027310.; Robert B. Scarborough (1981) Radioactive occurrences and uranium production in Arizona GJBX – 143(81)
    • Pima Co.
      • Ajo Mining District
        • Little Ajo Mountains
          • Ajo
Thomas, W.J. & R.B. Gibbs (1983), Famous mineral localities: The New Cornelia mine, Ajo, AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 283-298; Gilluly, J. (1946), The Ajo mining district, Arizona, USGS PP 209: 98.
  • California
    • Nevada Co.
      • Meadow Lake Mining District
        • Summit City
          • Excelsior Mine (Excelsior group; Wotall; Lake/Blue Fox/C.B.C./Mammoth; Great Western Extension/California; Green Emigrant/Indian Boy/Pacific; New Hope/North Mammoth/Dam End; Great Eastern/Great Western; Confidence/Golden Eagle; Union No. 1 & 2 claims; Of What No. 1 & 2 claims)
J.F. Cooper, P.C.
    • San Luis Obispo Co.
      • Santa Lucia Mts (Santa Lucia Range)
        • Adelaide Mining District (Adelaide Klau Mining District)
          • Adelaida
            • Klau Mine group
Woodhouse, C.D. & R.M. Norris (1957a), A new occurrence of millerite American Mineralogist: 42: 113-115; Davis, Fenelon Francis and E.H. Bailey (1966) Mercury. California Division Mines and Geology Bulletin 191: 267, 270; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 78.
    • Trinity Co.
      • Coastal Range
        • Island Mountain
          • Moose Peak
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507; Landon, Robert Emmanuel (1927), Roemerite from California: American Mineralogist: 12: 279-283; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 104; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 270.
  • Missouri
    • Iron Co.
      • Bixby
Kevin Conroy Collection
    • Madison Co.
      • Fredericktown Mining District
        • Mine La Motte
Rocks & Minerals: 21: 750-753.; American Mineralogist 6:7-10
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lebanon Co.
      • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael Mining District (San Rafael Swell)
Am Min 40:201-206
    • Garfield Co.
      • Circle Cliffs
Analyzed by SEM EDS and in the collection of Brent Thorne
    • San Juan Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • White Canyon
No reference listed
Zimbabwe
 
  • Mashonaland West
    • Kadoma District
Vetter, U., Weck, H.-D., Weale, T., Klosa, D., Wittich, C. and Hoffmann, K. (1999): A provisional inventory of the Sanyati oxide-zone minerals, Zimbabwe. Z. Angew. Geol. 45, 15-21.; Frei, Martina (2005) Composition, formation, and leaching behaviour of supergene, polymetallic ores from the Sanyati deposit (Zimbabwe): A case study
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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