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Bentorite

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About BentoriteHide

Formula:
Ca6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Colour:
Violet to rose-purple
Lustre:
Resinous, Waxy, Earthy
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
2.025
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named in 1977 by Shulamit Gross in honor of Professor Yaakov K. Ben-Tor [February 13, 1910 Königsberg, East Prussia, Germany - October 29, 2002 La Jolla, California, USA], petrologist and geologist, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, USA and Department head of Geology, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel from 1954-1966, for his contributions to the geology and mineralogy of Israel and the Middle East.
Ettringite Group.
The Cr(III) analogue of ettringite.

Not to be confused with bentonite.


Classification of BentoriteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1979
7.DG.15

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
G : With large and medium-sized cations; with NO3, CO3, B(OH)4, SiO4 or IO3
31.10.2.2

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
10 : Miscellaneous
25.4.14

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba

Physical Properties of BentoriteHide

Resinous, Waxy, Earthy
Transparency:
Transparent
Comment:
Originally said to be vitreous
Colour:
Violet to rose-purple
Streak:
Very pale purple
Hardness:
Cleavage:
Perfect
{1010} perfect; {0001} good
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
2.025 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.021 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BentoriteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.478 nε = 1.484
Birefringence:
0.006
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.006
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
O = colorless; E = pale violet purple
Comments:
Absorption E > O

Chemical Properties of BentoriteHide

Formula:
Ca6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca6Cr2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O

Crystallography of BentoriteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
P3 1c
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.1927 (5) Å, c = 21.7121(5) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.94
Unit Cell V:
2,355.60 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Euhedral crystals very rare. Minute crystals (<< 1 mm) show first- and second-order prisms.
Twinning:
{1010}

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
9.66 Å(100)
5.59 Å(40)
3.89 Å(10)
3.60 Å(10)
3.23 Å(10)
2.77 Å(10)
2.21 Å(10)
1.94 Å(20)
Comments:
ICDD 33-248

Type Occurrence of BentoriteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Fine-grained deep purple to light rosey purple masses and veinlet filling.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Auto-metamorphosed marble: Hatrurim Formation
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of BentoriteHide

Other Language Names for BentoriteHide

German:Bentorit
Spanish:Bentorita

Relationship of Bentorite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BuryatiteCa3(Si,Fe,Al)(SO4)[B(OH)4]O(OH)5 · 12H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
CarraraiteCa3(SO4)[Ge(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex.
CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
ChiyokoiteCa3Si(CO3){[B(OH)4]0.5(AsO3)0.5}(OH)6·12H2OHex. 6 : P63
EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
HielscheriteCa3Si(SO4)(SO3)(OH)6 · 11H2OHex. 6 : P63
ImayoshiiteCa3Al(CO3)[B(OH)4](OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
KottenheimiteCa 3Si(SO4)2(OH)6·12H2O Hex. 6/m : P63/m
Micheelsenite(Ca,Y)3Al(HPO4,CO3)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex.
SiwaqaiteCa6Al2(CrO4)3(OH)12·26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
TatarinoviteСа3Al(SO4)[B(OH)4](OH)6·12H2OHex. 6 : P63
ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DG.MathesiusiteK5(UO2)4(SO4)4(VO5)·4H2OTet. 4/m : P4/n
7.DG.05DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2OMon. 2/m
7.DG.10Clinoungemachite(Na, K, Fe, SO4)Mon. 2/m
7.DG.10HumberstoniteNa7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.DG.10UngemachiteK3Na8Fe(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.DG.15CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
7.DG.15SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
7.DG.15CarraraiteCa3(SO4)[Ge(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex.
7.DG.15BuryatiteCa3(Si,Fe,Al)(SO4)[B(OH)4]O(OH)5 · 12H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.20RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2OOrth.
7.DG.20KorkinoiteCa4(SO4)2(CO3)2 · 9(H2O)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
7.DG.25TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2OOrth.
7.DG.30NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2OOrth.
7.DG.35Chessexite(Na,K)4Ca2(Mg,Zn)3Al8(SO4)10(SiO4)2 · 40H2OOrth.
7.DG.40CarlosruiziteK6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SeO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
7.DG.40FuenzalidaiteK6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
7.DG.45Chelyabinskite(Ca,Mg)3(SO4,CO3)2[Si(OH)6] · 9H2O (?)Orth.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

31.10.2.1EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.4.1AnhydriteCaSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.4.2BassaniteCa(SO4) · 0.5H2OMon. 2 : B2
25.4.3GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
25.4.4GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
25.4.5CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
25.4.6EugsteriteNa4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2OMon.
25.4.7HydroglauberiteNa10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2OMon.
25.4.8SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.4.9GörgeyiteK2Ca5(SO4)6 · H2OMon.
25.4.10PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric. 1
25.4.11Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2OMon.
25.4.12Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12Iso.
25.4.13EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
25.4.15CelestineSrSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.4.16KalistrontiteK2Sr(SO4)2Trig.
25.4.17BaryteBaSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma

Fluorescence of BentoriteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BentoriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Gross, S. (1980) Bentorite. A new mineral from the Hatrurim Area, west of the Dead Sea, Israel. Israel J. of Earth Sci., 29, 81–84. [abstract in Amer. Mineral., 66 (1981), 639]
Yurii V. Seryotkin, Ella V. Sokol, Svetlana N. Kokh, Mikhail N. Murashko (2018): Natural Cr3+-rich ettringite: occurrence, properties, and crystal structure. Phys. Chem. Minerals 45, 279-292. [Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios up to 0.40–0.50]
Juroszek, R.; Krüger, B.; Galuskina, I.; Krüger, H.; Tribus, M.; Kürsten, C. (2020) Raman Spectroscopy and Single-Crystal High-Temperature Investigations of Bentorite, Ca6Cr2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O. Minerals 10, 38.

Internet Links for BentoriteHide

Localities for BentoriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Israel (TL)
 
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
Juroszek, R.; Krüger, B.; Galuskina, I.; Krüger, H.; Tribus, M.; Kürsten, C. (2020) Raman Spectroscopy and Single-Crystal High-Temperature Investigations of Bentorite, Ca6Cr2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O. Minerals 10, 38.
Palestine
 
  • West Bank
    • Hatrurim formation
Sokol, E.V., Gaskova, O.L., Kokh, S.N., Kozmenko, O.A., Seryotkin, Y.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M.N. (2011): Chromatite and its Cr3+- and Cr6+-bearing precursor minerals from the Nabi Musa Mottled Zone complex, Judean Desert. American Mineralogist 96, 659-674.; Natural History Museum Vienna collection; http://nnhc.huji.ac.il/mineralogy-petrology/?page_id=70&lang=en; Juroszek, R.; Krüger, B.; Galuskina, I.; Krüger, H.; Tribus, M.; Kürsten, C. (2020) Raman Spectroscopy and Single-Crystal High-Temperature Investigations of Bentorite, Ca6Cr2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O. Minerals 10, 38.
Ella V. Sokol, Olga L. Gaskova, Svetlana N. Kokh, Olga A. Kozmenko, Yuri V. Seryotkin, Yevgeny Vapnik, and Michail N. Murashko (2011): Chromatite and its Cr3+- and Cr6+-bearing precursor minerals from the Nabi Musa Mottled Zone complex, Judean Desert. American Mineralogist, 96, 659-674.
 
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