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Benjaminite

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About BenjaminiteHide

Formula:
Ag3Bi7S12
Ag may be replaced by minor Cu and Bi by minor Pb.
Colour:
Grey; tarnishes dull or yellow to copper-red
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
6.34
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
For Marcus Benjamin (1857-1932), American chemist, engineer, and editor of the U.S. National Museum (Smithsonian Institute).
Cu-rich and Cu-poor varieties are described by Makovicky et al. (2010).

Difficult to distinguish from pavonite; single-crystal XRD methods are necessary (Harris & Chen, 1975).


Classification of BenjaminiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.JA.05e

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
A : Galena derivatives with little or no Pb
3.8.10.3

3 : SULFOSALTS
8 : 1 < ø < 2
5.7.39

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
7 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb and other metals

Physical Properties of BenjaminiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Grey; tarnishes dull or yellow to copper-red
Streak:
Dull lead-gray
Hardness:
3½ on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN50=186 - 232 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
Fair in one direction.
Density:
6.34 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.68 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BenjaminiteHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=44.2%R2= 47.2%
420nmR1=44.8%R2= 47.8%
440nmR1=45.2%R2= 48.6%
460nmR1=45.2%R2= 49.0%
480nmR1=45.0%R2= 49.2%
500nmR1=44.8%R2= 49.2%
520nmR1=44.5%R2= 49.0%
540nmR1=44.0%R2= 48.6%
560nmR1=43.6%R2= 48.0%
580nmR1=43.3%R2= 47.6%
600nmR1=43.1%R2= 47.2%
620nmR1=43.0%R2= 46.8%
640nmR1=42.8%R2= 46.3%
660nmR1=42.7%R2= 45.9%
680nmR1=42.6%R2= 45.6%
700nmR1=42.5%R2= 45.2%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 49.2%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
Creamy white to very pale brownish

Chemical Properties of BenjaminiteHide

Formula:
Ag3Bi7S12

Ag may be replaced by minor Cu and Bi by minor Pb.
Idealised Formula:
Ag3Bi7S12

Crystallography of BenjaminiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Setting:
C2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.25(2) Å, b = 4.05(1) Å, c = 20.25(3) Å
β = 103.14(7)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 3.272 : 1 : 5
Unit Cell V:
1,058.21 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Massive and laths.
Twinning:
Commonly polysynthetic.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.539 Å(80)
3.427 Å(80)
3.302 Å(50)
2.851 Å(100)
2.813 Å(60)
2.022 Å(60)
2.007 Å(60)
Comments:
Camsell River, Canada. Easily mistaken for pavonite.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Hydrothermal veins

Type Occurrence of BenjaminiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada, 13805; Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 85749; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA, 95058.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In a quartz vein near the contact of a soda-granite and an intrusive rhyolite.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for BenjaminiteHide

Relationship of Benjaminite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
CupromakopavoniteAg3Cu8Pb4Bi19S38Mon. 2/m : B2/m
CupromakovickyiteCu4AgPb2Bi9S18Mon. 2/m : B2/m
CupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
DantopaiteAg5Bi13S22Mon. 2/m : B2/m
MakovickyiteCu1.12Ag0.81Pb0.27Bi5.35S9Mon. 2/m
MummeiteCu0.58Ag3.11Pb1.10Bi6.65S13Mon.
PavoniteAgBi3S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
3 photos of Benjaminite associated with UM1988-05-S:AgBiCuHgPb(Hg,Ag,Cu,Pb)5Pb5Bi11S27
3 photos of Benjaminite associated with CupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5
2 photos of Benjaminite associated with PyriteFeS2
2 photos of Benjaminite associated with QuartzSiO2
1 photo of Benjaminite associated with PavoniteAgBi3S5

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.JA.05gBorodaeviteAg5(Bi,Pb,Fe)8(Sb,Bi)2S17Mon.
2.JA.05aCupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05aKitaibeliteAg10PbBi30S51
2.JA.05iLivingstoniteHgSb4S6(S2)Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.JA.05dMakovickyiteCu1.12Ag0.81Pb0.27Bi5.35S9Mon. 2/m
2.JA.05fMummeiteCu0.58Ag3.11Pb1.10Bi6.65S13Mon.
2.JA.05aPavoniteAgBi3S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05bGrumipluciteHgBi2S4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05hMozgovaitePbBi4S7Orth.
2.JA.05dCupromakovickyiteCu4AgPb2Bi9S18Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05cKudriavite(Cd,Pb)Bi2S4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05aCupromakopavoniteAg3Cu8Pb4Bi19S38Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05DantopaiteAg5Bi13S22Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10aCuprobismutiteCu8AgBi13S24Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10cHodrušiteCu8Bi12S22Mon.
2.JA.10ePadĕraiteCu7[(Cu,Ag)0.33Pb1.33Bi11.33]S22Mon.
2.JA.10dPizgrischite(Cu,Fe)Cu14PbBi17S35Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10bKupčíkiteCu3.4Fe0.6Bi5S10Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.15SchapbachiteAg0.4Pb0.2Bi0.4SIso.
2.JA.15CuboargyriteAgSbS2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
2.JA.20BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.JA.20MatilditeAgBiS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.JA.20VolynskiteAgBiTe2Orth.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

3.8.10.1PavoniteAgBi3S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.8.10.2MakovickyiteCu1.12Ag0.81Pb0.27Bi5.35S9Mon. 2/m
3.8.10.4MummeiteCu0.58Ag3.11Pb1.10Bi6.65S13Mon.
3.8.10.5BorodaeviteAg5(Bi,Pb,Fe)8(Sb,Bi)2S17Mon.
3.8.10.6CupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.8.10.9DantopaiteAg5Bi13S22Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.7.1SeligmannitePbCuAsS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
5.7.2BournonitePbCuSbS3Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
5.7.3MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.4GladitePbCuBi5S9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.5LindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.6KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6Orth.
5.7.7HammaritePb2Cu2Bi4S9Orth.
5.7.8FriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18Orth. mm2
5.7.9AikinitePbCuBiS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
5.7.10NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7Orth.
5.7.11JaskólskiiteCuxPb2+x(Sb,Bi)2-xS5 (x ~ 0.15)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.12TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
5.7.13KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
5.7.14ProuditeCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.7.15NordströmiteCuPb3Bi7(Se4S10)Mon.
5.7.16WatkinsoniteCu2PbBi4(Se,S,Te)8Mon.
5.7.17PekoitePbCuBi11S18Orth.
5.7.18PetroviciteCu3HgPbBiSe5Orth.
5.7.19Eclarite(Cu,Fe)Pb9Bi12S28Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
5.7.20MarriteAgPbAsS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.21ArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72Tric. 1 : P1
5.7.22AndoriteAgPbSb3S6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.23RamdohritePb5.9Fe0.1Mn0.1In0.1Cd0.2Ag2.8Sb10.8S24Mon. 2/m
5.7.24RoshchiniteAg19Pb10Sb51S96Orth.
5.7.25OurayiteAg3Pb4Bi5S13Orth.
5.7.26EskimoiteAg7Pb10Bi15S36Mon.
5.7.27FizélyiteAg5Pb14Sb21S48Mon. 2/m
5.7.28OwyheeiteAg3+xPb10-2xSb11+xS28, -0.13 < x > +0.20Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.29FreieslebeniteAgPbSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.30DiaphoriteAg3Pb2Sb3S8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.31SterryiteCu(Ag,Cu)3Pb19(Sb,As)22(As-As)S56Mon. 2/m
5.7.32VikingiteAg5Pb8Bi13S30Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.7.33ZoubekiteAgPb4Sb4S10Orth.
5.7.34SchirmeritePbAgBi3S6 - Pb3Ag1.5Bi3.5S9Orth.
5.7.36GustaviteAgPbBi3S6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.37KitaibeliteAg10PbBi30S51
5.7.38TreasuriteAg7Pb6Bi15S32Mon.
5.7.40Lengenbachite Ag4Cu2Pb18As12S39Tric.
5.7.41BerryiteCu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.7.42NeyiteAg2Cu6Pb25Bi26S68Mon.
5.7.43Larosite(Cu,Ag)21PbBiS13Orth.
5.7.44CupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.7.45PadĕraiteCu7[(Cu,Ag)0.33Pb1.33Bi11.33]S22Mon.
5.7.46RayitePb8(Ag,Tl)2Sb8S21Mon.
5.7.47RathiteAg2Pb12-xTlx/2As18+x/2S40Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.48HatchiteAgTlPbAs2S5Tric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BenjaminiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
SHANNON, E.V. (1924): Benjaminite, a new sulfosalt mineral of the klaprothite group. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 65(24), 1-9. (check 1925)
NUFFIELD, E.W. (1953): Benjaminite. American Mineralogist 38, 550-552.
NUFFIELD, E.W. (1975): Benjaminite B a re-examination of the type material. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 394-401.
HARRIS, D.C. & CHEN, T.T. (1975): Benjaminite, reinstated as valid species. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 402-407.
MAKOVICKY, E. & MUMME, W.G. (1979): The crystal structure of benjaminite Cu0.5Pb0.4Ag2.3Bi6.8S12. Canadian Mineralogist 17, 607 618.
Herbert, H.K. & Mumme, W.G. (1981): Unsubstituted benjaminite from the AW mine, New South Wales: a discussion of metal substitutions and stability. Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Monatsh., 69-80.
Chang, L. L. Y.; Wu, D.; Knowles, C. R. (1988): Phase relations in the system Ag2S-Cu2S-PbS-Bi2S3. Economic Geology 83, 405-418.
Makovicky, E., Paar, W.H., Putz, H., Zagler, G. (2010): Dantopaite, Ag5Bi13S22, the 6P natural member of the pavonite homologous series, from Erzwies, Austria. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 467-481

Internet Links for BenjaminiteHide

Localities for BenjaminiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Jujuy Province
    • Rinconada Department
Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Sureda, R. J. (2005, January). Occurrence and paragenesis of tellurium in mineral deposits of Argentina. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1419-1422). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.; Coira, B. L., & de Brodtkorb, M. K. (1995) Polymetallic mineralization associated with Cenozoic volcanism in Northern Puna, Argentina. In Pacrim (Vol. 95, pp. 135-140).
Amer.Min.(2000) 85, 1066-1075
  • Salta Province
    • Los Andes department
      • San Antonio de los Cobres
        • Organullo mining district
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.; Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Sureda, R. J. (2005, January). Occurrence and paragenesis of tellurium in mineral deposits of Argentina. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1419-1422). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Clive Co.
      • Bolivia
Herbert, H.K. & Mumme, W.G. (1981): Unsubstituted benjaminite from the AW mine, New South Wales: a discussion of metal substitutions and stability. Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Monatsh., 69-80.; Handbook of Mineralogy
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Cherry Gardens
Grguric, B.A. & Toma, J. (2017): Ore and gangue mineralogy of the Almanda mine, Cherry, Gardens, South Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 18 (1), 51-61.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Spittal an der Drau District
      • Zirknitz
        • Kleine Zirknitz valley
          • Kluidscharte
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995; Paar, W. H., & Chen, T. T. (1982). Ore mineralogy of the Waschgang gold-copper deposit, Upper Carinthia, Austria. Tschermaks mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, 30(3), 157-175.
  • Salzburg
    • St. Johann im Pongau District
      • Bad Hofgastein
Makovicky, E., Paar, W.H., Putz, H., Zagler, G. (2010): Dantopaite, Ag5Bi13S22, the 6P natural member of the pavonite homologous series, from Erzwies, Austria. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 467-481.
Belgium
 
  • Wallonia
    • Liège
      • Eupen
        • Ternell
Godfroid, E. (1999) Minéralogie des sulfures des massifs métamorphiques ardennais (Libramont-Bastogne, Rocroi et Stavelot). Mémoire de Licence, Université de Liège, 52 pages.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).; Hatert, F., Baijot, M., Dal Bo, F. (2014) Occurrence of tellurides in the Stavelot Massif, Belgium. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association, 131.
Bolivia
 
  • La Paz
    • Aroma Province
      • Laurani District
Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
  • Oruro
    • Cercado Province
      • Oruro City
Keutsch, F. & Brodtkorb, M. (2007) Metalliferous parageneses of the San Jose mine. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 26, 485-491.; Keutsch, F., & Brodtkorb, M. D. (2008). Metalliferous paragenesis of the San José mine, Oruro, Bolivia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 25(4), 485-491.
  • Potosí
    • Sud Lípez Province
      • Cerro Bonete
Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), page 239-240, (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
USGS Bulletin # 1975 (1992)
Handbook of Mineralogy
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Mariana (Marianna de Itacolumy)
      • Passagem de Mariana district
Oberthür, T., Weiser, T.W. (2008) Gold-bismuth-telluride-sulphide assemblages at the Viceroy Mine, Harare-Bindura-Shamva greenstone belt, Zimbabwe. Mineralogical Magazine: 72: 953-970. [contains also data on Passagem de Mariana Mine]
Canada (TL)
 
  • Northwest Territories
    • Camsell River area
SHANNON, E.V. (1924): Benjaminite, a new sulfosalt mineral of the klaprothite group. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 65(24), 1-9. (check 1925) NUFFIELD, E.W. (1953): Benjaminite. American Mineralogist 38, 550-552. NUFFIELD, E.W. (1975): Benjaminite B a re-examination of the type material. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 394-401. HARRIS, D.C. & CHEN, T.T. (1975): Benjaminite, reinstated as valid species. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 402-407.
  • Ontario
    • Timiskaming District
      • Cobalt-Gowganda region
        • South Lorrain Township
NUFFIELD, E.W. (1953): Benjaminite. American Mineralogist 38, 550-552. NUFFIELD, E.W. (1975): Benjaminite B a re-examination of the type material. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 394-401. HARRIS, D.C. & CHEN, T.T. (1975): Benjaminite, reinstated as valid species. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 402-407.
China
 
  • Guangxi
    • Hechi
      • Nandan County
        • Dachang Sn-polymetallic ore field
Yingchen Ren (1999): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 14(1), 1-12, 38
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Chifeng City (Ulanhad League; Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Linxi County
Yuhua Xie and Jiayin Zhang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 24-29
  • Jiangsu
    • Nanjing
      • Jiangning District
Xiangping, G., Watanabe, M., Ohkawa, M., Hoshino, K., Shibata, Y., and Desong, C. (2001): Canadian Mineralogist 39(6), 1641-1652.
Europe
 
  • Balkan Mountains
http://www.bgd.bg/summanual_2003_5.htm; Mladenova, V., Kerestedjian, T., & Dimitrova, D. (2001). Ag-Cu-Pb-Bi mineralization from the Svishti Plaz gold deposit, Central Balkan Mountain, Bulgaria. Geochem. Mineral. Petrol, 38, 55-66.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Nordrach
          • Moosbach valley
Staude, S., Dorn, A., Pfaff, K., & Markl, G. (2010). Assemblages of Ag–Bi sulfosalts and conditions of their formation: the type locality of schapbachite (Ag0. 4Pb0. 2Bi0. 4S) and neighboring mines in the Schwarzwald ore district, southern Germany. The Canadian Mineralogist, 48(3), 441-466.
        • Oberwolfach
Blaß, G. & Graf, H.W. (2001): Neue Funde aus dem Schwarzwald. Mineralien-Welt, 12 (4), 24-26.; Staude, S., Dorn, A., Pfaff, K., & Markl, G. (2010). Assemblages of Ag–Bi sulfosalts and conditions of their formation: the type locality of schapbachite (Ag0. 4Pb0. 2Bi0. 4S) and neighboring mines in the Schwarzwald ore district, southern Germany. The Canadian Mineralogist, 48(3), 441-466.
    • Karlsruhe
      • Freudenstadt
        • Bad Rippoldsau-Schapbach
Staude, S., Dorn, A., Pfaff, K., & Markl, G. (2010). Assemblages of Ag–Bi sulfosalts and conditions of their formation: the type locality of schapbachite (Ag0. 4Pb0. 2Bi0. 4S) and neighboring mines in the Schwarzwald ore district, southern Germany. The Canadian Mineralogist, 48(3), 441-466.
Japan
 
  • Hyogo Prefecture
    • Asago City
      • Ikuno-cho-ono
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara; Shimizu, M., Kato, A., & Matsuyama, F. (1998). Two Se‐bearing Ag–Bi Sulphosalts, Benjaminite and Matildite from the Ikuno Deposits, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan–Au–Ag Mineralization in Polymetallic Zone. Resource Geology, 48(2), 117-124.
Handbook of Mineralogy
Handbook of Mineralogy
Kazakhstan
 
  • Akmola Region
Kovalev, K. R., Syzdykov, S. O., Kalinin, Y. A., Naumov, E. A., Baranov, V. V., Sukhorukov, V. P., ... & Zhimulev, F. I. (2018). The Raigorodok stockwork gold-sulfide-quartz deposit in the North Kazakhstan gold ore province. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 59(11), 1482-1496.
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Tokke
      • Skafså
Larsen, A. O. & Topa, D. (2018) Bi-sulfosalts from Tokke, Telemark, Norway. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2018: 71-78
Larsen, A. O. & Topa, D. (2018) Bi-sulfosalts from Tokke, Telemark, Norway. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2018: 71-78
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kamienna Góra County
      • Gmina Kamienna Góra
        • Rędziny
Gołębiowska B., Pieczka A., Parafiniuk J. 2006: Cu(Ag)-Pb-Bi(Sb) sulphosalts from Rędziny (Western Sudetes, Poland). Mineralogia Polonica - Special Papers, vol. 28, 78-80; Pieczka, A., Gołębiowska, B., & Parafiniuk, J. (2011). Gold in sulfide-telluride assemblages at Rędziny, Rudawy Janowickie Range. Gold in Poland, AM Monograph, (2), 119-134.
Romania
 
  • Bihor
    • Nucet
www.minerals-of-the carpathians.eu (2009)
  • Maramureș
    • Băiuț
Nigel G. Cook : "Bismuth Sulphosalts from Hydrothermal Vein Deposits of Neogen Age, N.W. Romania, Mitt. Österr. Miner. Ges. , 143, 1998 / Lecture to the Austrian Mineralogical Society, 23rd June 1997, Salzburg.
Russia
 
  • Primorsky Krai
    • Karadubsky ore field
http://www.fegi.ru/FEGI/museum/polisk_e.htm
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Indigirka River Basin
      • Ust'-Nera
American Mineralogist, Volume 79, pages 763-767, 1994
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Poltár District
      • Kokava nad Rimavicou
Ferenc Š, Bakoš F.,2006: Au-Bi-Te mineralizácia v sineckej astrižnej zóne (Kokava nad Rimavicou) – nový typ mineralizácie v Západných Karpatoch. Min.Slovaca, 38, 223-240
    • Žarnovica District
      • Hodruša-Hámre (Hodritsch)
Jeleň, S., Pršek, J., Kovalenker, V. A., Topa, D., Sejkora, J., Števko, M., & Ozdín, D. (2012). Bismuth Sulfosalts Of The Cuprobismutite, Pavonite And Aikinite Series From The Rozália Mine, Hodruša–Hámre, Slovakia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(2), 325-340.
  • Košice Region
    • Košice
      • Medzev (Metzenseifen)
Mikuš T., Bakos F. & Hönig S. (2019): Bismuth sulphosalts from the siderite–sulphidic and As-Co mineralization in Medzev area, Slovakia. Acta Geologica Slovaca, 11, 2, 91-102.
    • Rožňava Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    • Sobrance District
Bacsó,Z.,Ďuďa,R.,1988: Metalogenéza a rudné formácie rudného poľa Remetské Hámre. Min.Slovaca,Bratislava, 3, 193-220p
    • Trebišov District
Kaličiak, M., Ďuďa, R., 1996: Geolgický vývoj, stavba a metalogenéza neovulkanitov na Východnom Slovensku. Manuskript, Archív Geofond, Bratislava, 83p
  • Žilina Region
    • Liptovský Mikuláš District
Ozdin D., Chovan M., 1999: New mineralogical and paragenetic knowledge about siderite veins in the vicinity of Vyšná Boca, Nízke Tatry Mts. Slov. Geol. Magazine, Bratislava, 5, 4, 255-271
Sweden
 
  • Värmland County
    • Säffle
No reference listed
Tajikistan
 
  • Gorno-Badakhshan
    • Pamir Silver District
      • Bazardara ore cluster
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
  • Sughd
Lur'ye, L. M., Shadlun, T. N., Ugaste, Y. A., & Vyal'sov, L. N. (1971). Lead, silver, and copper sulfobismuthite from the benjaminite-pavonite group in Kaptarkhan ore deposit, East Karamazar, Central Asia. International Geology Review, 13(11), 1628-1642.
Ukraine
 
  • Zakarpattia Oblast
    • Berehivskyi Raion
      • Berehove
Biruk, S., & Skakun, L. (2012). Bismuth minerals of the Beregovo ore field: mineral assemblages and spatial zonation (Transcarpathian, Ukraine). Geological Quarterly, 44(1), 39-46.
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
      • Alice Mining District (Yankee Mining District; Lincoln Mining District)
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 13, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Min Rec 18:3 pp185-187
      • Montezuma (Summit Co.)
        • Cinnamon Gulch
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Ouray Co.
      • Gold Hill Mining District
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1753
    • Park Co.
      • Montezuma Mining District
        • Hall Valley (Hall's Valley)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • San Juan Co.
      • Poughkeepsie Gulch
Handbook of Mineralogy
      • Red Mountain Mining District
        • Poughkeepsie Gulch
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; Karup-Møller, S. (1977). Mineralogy of some Ag-(Cu)-Pb-Bi sulphide associations. Bulletin Geological Society Denmark, 26, 41-68.
    • Summit Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Montana
    • Jefferson Co.
      • Whitehall Mining District (Cardwell Mining District)
Spry, P.G., Foster, F., Truckle, J.S., and Chadwick, T.H. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology 59, 143-164.; Economic Geology,(1996) Vol. 91-3, pp.507-526
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Toquima Range
        • Round Mountain Mining District
SHANNON, E.V. (1924): Benjaminite, a new sulfosalt mineral of the klaprothite group. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 65(24), 1-9. (check 1925) NUFFIELD, E.W. (1953): Benjaminite. American Mineralogist 38, 550-552. NUFFIELD, E.W. (1975): Benjaminite B a re-examination of the type material. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 394-401. HARRIS, D.C. & CHEN, T.T. (1975): Benjaminite, reinstated as valid species. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 402-407.
  • Utah
    • Utah Co.
SEM-EDS analyzed by Dr. Rob Bowell.
Uzbekistan
 
  • Tashkent
    • Okhangaron District
Kovalenker, V. A., Safonov, Y. G., Naumov, V. B., & Rusinov, V. L. (1997). The Epithermal Gold-Telluride Kochbulak Deposit. Geology of Ore Deposits C/C of Geologiia Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 39, 107-128.
 
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