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Barstowite

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About BarstowiteHide

Formula:
Pb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O
Colour:
Transparent to white
Lustre:
Adamantine
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
5.71
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named after Richard W. Barstow (1947-1982), Cornish mineral collector and dealer.
Visually indistinguishable from Unnamed (Orthorhombic dimorph of Barstowite).


Classification of BarstowiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1989
5/E.08-100
3.DC.95

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
12.1.7.1

12 : COMPOUND HALIDES
1 : Miscellaneous
12.1.24

12 : Carbonates with other anions
1 : Carbonates with halides

Physical Properties of BarstowiteHide

Adamantine
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Transparent to white
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Hardness:
VHN100=111(4) kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
Prismatic
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
5.71 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.77 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BarstowiteHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
weak to moderate
Bireflectance:
Moderate grey to dark grey
Internal Reflections:
Abundant

Chemical Properties of BarstowiteHide

Formula:
Pb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O
IMA Formula:
Pb4(CO3)Cl6 · H2O

Crystallography of BarstowiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.2043(8) Å, b = 9.199(2) Å, c = 16.663(3) Å
β = 91.82(1)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.457 : 1 : 1.811
Unit Cell V:
644.12 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Comment:
Two published structure refinements are in good agreement.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.16 Å(5)
4.02 Å(10)
3.79 Å(3)
3.045 Å(3)
2.377 Å(6)
2.296 Å(8)
2.108 Å(4)
Comments:
Data for type material.

Type Occurrence of BarstowiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Natural History Museum, London [statutory name: British Museum(Natural History)] as specimen BM 1990, 25 and polished section E. 1353.

Synonyms of BarstowiteHide

Other Language Names for BarstowiteHide

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DC.05LaurionitePbCl(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.DC.05ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DC.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2OMon. 2/m
3.DC.15PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
3.DC.20LaurelitePb7F12Cl2Hex. 6 : P6
3.DC.25BismocliteBiOClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25RorisiteCaFClTet.
3.DC.25Zavaritskite(BiO)FTet.
3.DC.25ZhangpeishaniteBaFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.30NadoritePbSbClO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
3.DC.30PeritePbBiClO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
3.DC.35AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2OTric.
3.DC.37CalcioaravaipaitePbCa2AlF9Tric. 1
3.DC.40ThorikositePb3Cl2(OH)(SbO3,AsO3)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
3.DC.45MereheaditePb47Cl25(OH)13O24(CO3)(BO3)2Mon. m
3.DC.50BlixitePb8O5(OH)2Cl4Orth.
3.DC.55PinalitePb3WO5Cl2Orth.
3.DC.60SymesitePb10(SO4)O7Cl4 · H2OTric. 1 : P1
3.DC.65EcdemitePb6Cl4(As2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
3.DC.65HeliophyllitePb6Cl4(As2O7)Orth.
3.DC.70MendipitePb3Cl2O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
3.DC.75DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2Orth. mm2 : Pmc21
3.DC.80OnoratoiteSb8Cl2O11Tric. 1 : P1
3.DC.85CotunnitePbCl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.DC.90PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

12.1.1NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2ClIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Fd3
12.1.2BarentsiteNa7Al(HCO3)2(CO3)2F4Tric.
12.1.3RouvilleiteNa3(Ca,Mn,Fe)2(CO3)3FMon. 2/m : B2/b
12.1.4ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
12.1.5DeferniteCa6(CO3)2-x(SiO4)x(OH)7(Cl,OH)1-2x (x<0.5)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
12.1.6BrenkiteCa2(CO3)F2Orth.
12.1.7Stenonite(Sr,Ba,Na)2Al(CO3)F5Mon. 2/m
12.1.8Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P6c2
12.1.9Bastnäsite-(La)La(CO3)FHex.
12.1.10Bastnäsite-(Y)Y(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P62c
12.1.11Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2Mon. m : Bb
12.1.12Parisite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
12.1.13Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b
12.1.14Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b
12.1.15Synchysite-(Nd)CaNd(CO3)2FOrth.
12.1.16Röntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3Trig. 3 : R3
12.1.17Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F Hex.
12.1.19Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
12.1.20Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3FTrig.
12.1.21Cebaite-(Ce)Ba3Ce2(CO3)5F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
12.1.22ThorbastnäsiteThCa(CO3)2F2 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
12.1.23PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mbm
12.1.25AlbrechtschraufiteCa4Mg(UO2)2(CO3)6F2 · 17-18H2OTric. 1 : P1
12.1.26KettneriteCaBiCO3OFOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BarstowiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Mel'nikova, V.L. (1972) A lead oxychloride from the zone of oxidation of the baryte-polymetallic deposit of Kairatky, central Kazakhstan. Izvest. Akad. Nauk Kazakh SSR, Ser. Geol. 6: 82-86 (in Russian).
Stanley, C.J., Jones, G.C., Hart, A.D., Keller, P., and Lloyd, D. (1991) Barstowite, 3PbCl2 • PbCO3 • H2O, a new mineral from Bounds Cliff, St. Endellion, Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine: 55: 121–125.
American Mineralogist (1992) 77: 670 (abstract).
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P., and Eggert, G. (1995) Korrosionsprodukte auf den Bleifunden des Schiffswracks von Mahdia. In: Hauptmann, A., Rehren, T., Yalçin, Ü.: Archaeometrie und Denkmalpflege - Kurzberichte, Bochum, 1995, p. 165.
Perchiazzi, N. and Rewitzer, C. (1995) Die weltbesten Barstowite und ein neues Sekundärmineral aus Lavrion. Lapis: 20: 30-31.
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P., Eggert, G., and Klapper, H. (1996) Die Struktur des Barstowits, 3PbCl2.PbCO3.H2O - bestimmt an einem Kristall aus einem Schiffswrack aus römischer Zeit. Zeitschrift für Kristallografie, Suppl. 11, 111.
Merlino, S., Pasero, M., and Perchiazzi, N. (1996) Struttura della barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3).H2O. Plinius: 16: 151-152.
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P., and Eggert, G. (1997) Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation: 42: 176-180.
Kutzke, H., Klapper, H., Merlino, S., Pasero, M., Perchiazzi, N., and Eggert, G. (2000) The crystal structure of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, determined on crystals from Etruscan slags and from a Late-Hellenistic shipwreck. Zeits. Krist.: 215: 110–113.
Jambor, J.L. and Roberts, A.C. (2001) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 86: 197-200.

Internet Links for BarstowiteHide

Localities for BarstowiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • Kufstein District
      • Brixlegg
        • St Gertraudi
Lapis 19 (7/8):69 (1994)
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Příbram District
C.Auer (2017)
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion slag localities
          • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, P., van Kalmthout, P., and Rewitzer, C. (1996) Laurion: The minerals of the ancient slags. Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
          • Sounion area
Gelaude, P., van Kalmthout, P., and Rewitzer, C. (1996) Laurion: The minerals of the ancient slags. Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
          • Vrissaki area
Uwe Kolitsch (SXRD analysis)
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
Kutzke, H., Klapper, H., Merlino, S., Pasero, M., Perchiazzi, N., and Eggert, G. (2000) The crystal structure of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, determined on crystals from Etruscan slags and from a Late-Hellenistic shipwreck. Zeits. Kristallogr., 215, 110-113.
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
      • Piombino
Franzini, M. and Perchiazzi, N. (1992) I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77.; Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N., Bartoli, M.L., and Chiappino, L. (1992) Baratti (LI): una nuova località mineralogica italiana analoga al Laurion. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 15, 1 (1-1992), 1-14 [1a parte].; Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995) Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20, 4, 13-18 and 50.; Kutzke, H., Klapper, H., Merlino, S., Pasero, M., Perchiazzi, N., and Eggert, G. (2000) The crystal structure of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, determined on crystals from Etruscan slags and from a Late-Hellenistic shipwreck. Zeitschrift für Kristallografie, 215, 110-113.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karaganda Region
    • Shet
      • Kayrakty (Kairakty)
Mel'nikova, V.L. (1972) A lead oxychloride from the zone of oxidation of the baryte-polymetallic deposit of Kairatky, central Kazakhstan. Izvest. Akad. Nauk [Kazakh?!] SSSR, Ser. Geol., 6, 82-86 (in Russian).; Kutzke, H., Klapper, H., Merlino, S., Pasero, M., Perchiazzi, N., and Eggert, G. (2000) The crystal structure of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, determined on crystals from Etruscan slags and from a Late-Hellenistic shipwreck. Zeits. Kristallogr., 215, 110-113.
Tunisia
 
  • Mahdia
    • Mahdia
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P., Eggert, G., and Klapper, H. (1996) Die Struktur des Barstowits, 3PbCl2.PbCO3.H2O - bestimmt an einem Kristall aus einem Schiffswrack aus römischer Zeit. Zeitschrift für Kristallografie, Suppl. 11, 111.; Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P., and Eggert, G. (1997) Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.; Kutzke, H., Klapper, H., Merlino, S., Pasero, M., Perchiazzi, N., and Eggert, G. (2000) The crystal structure of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, determined on crystals from Etruscan slags and from a Late-Hellenistic shipwreck. Zeitschrift für Kristallografie, 215, 110-113.
UK (TL)
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Endellion
Keller, P. and Lloyd, D. (1991) Barstowite, 3PbCb.PbC03.H20, a new mineral from Bounds Cliff, St. Endellion, Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine: 55: 121-125.; Kutzke, H., Klapper, H., Merlino, S., Pasero, M., Perchiazzi, N., and Eggert, G. (2000) The crystal structure of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, determined on crystals from Etruscan slags and from a Late-Hellenistic shipwreck. Zeits. Kristallogr., 215, 110-113.
 
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