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Flamite

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About FlamiteHide

Formula:
Ca8-x(Na,K)x(SiO4)4-x(PO4)x
From structure analysis (Gfeller et al. 2015)
Colour:
Greyish to yellowish
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
5 - 5½
Specific Gravity:
3.264 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
The name is derived from ‘flame’ and refers to the origin of the mineral by ultrahigh-temperature combustion metamorphism triggered by fossil-fuel ignition.
A natural analogue of the P,Na,K-stabilised α-Ca2SiO4 modification which, if chemically pure, is only stable at high temperatures (1425-2150°C) and cannot be quenched. In the cement industry (clinker production) the α-Ca2SiO4 is stabilised by Ba, Sr, P (+- Na, K), Fe, Al and B, and as such can be quenched.

Flamite has an 8a superstructure of the high-temperature phase and is a derivative of this phase known often abbreviated as α-C2S. It is isostructural with synthetic Ca15□(SiO4)6(PO4)2 found in clinker. Its structure may be described as a cyclic triplet of individuals rotated by 120o around the c axis, also described as symplectite-like transformation "twinning".

Closely related to nagelschmidtite (there is a chemical similarity).



Classification of FlamiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
2013

Physical Properties of FlamiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Greyish to yellowish
Streak:
white
Hardness:
5 - 5½ on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN50=706 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Parting:
None
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
3.264 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of FlamiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.643(2) nε = 1.640(2)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.003
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of FlamiteHide

Formula:
Ca8-x(Na,K)x(SiO4)4-x(PO4)x

From structure analysis (Gfeller et al. 2015)
IMA Formula:
Ca8-x(Na,K)x(SiO4)4-x(PO4)x

Crystallography of FlamiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.3845(6) Å, b = 21.7310(14) Å, c = 6.8346(4) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.432 : 1 : 0.315
Unit Cell V:
1393.81 ų
Z:
4
Morphology:
Flamite occurs as 100-250 μm anhedral crystals with typical lamellar textures.
Comment:
Space group is Pnm21; previously though to be hexagonal, sp. gr. P63

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.897Å(19)
2.765Å(44)
2.759Å(42)
2.713Å(100)
2.518Å(29)
2.402Å(23)
1.967Å(18)
1.762Å(32)
Comments:
From Type Description.

Type Occurrence of FlamiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Regular lamellar intergrowths with partially hydrated larnite; the particular lamellae differ in terms of Na, K, and P substitution
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Type material is deposited in the collections of the Central Siberian Geological Museum, V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, 3 Ac. Koptyuga Avenue, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia, catalogue number XIII-341/1
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Ca- and Al-rich paralava (pyrometamorphic rocks)
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of FlamiteHide

Fluorescence of FlamiteHide

Non-fluorescent under ultraviolet light

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for FlamiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sokol, E.V., Seryotkin, Y.V., Kokh, S.N., Vapnik, Y., Nigmatulina, E.N., Goryainov, S.V., Belogub, E.V. and Sharygin, V.V. (2014) Flamite, IMA 2013-122. CNMNC Newsletter No. 20, June 2014, page 550; Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 549-558.
Sokol, E.V., Seryotkin, Y.V., Kokh, S.N., Vapnik, Ye., Nigmatulina, E.N., Goryainov, S.V., Belogub, E.V., Sharygin, V.V. (2015): Flamite, (Ca,Na,K)2(Si,P)O4, a new mineral from ultrahigh-temperature combustion metamorphic rocks, Hatrurim Basin, Negev Desert, Israel. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 583-596.
Gfeller, F., Widmer, R., Krüger, B., Galuskin, E. V., Galuskina, I. O., & Armbruster, T. (2015). The crystal structure of flamite and its relation to Ca2SiO4 polymorphs and nagelschmidtite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27(6), 755-769.

Internet Links for FlamiteHide

Localities for FlamiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Israel
 
  • Southern District (HaDarom District)
    • Tamar Regional Council
      • Hatrurim (Hatrurim Basin)
Galuskina, I.O., Galuskin, E.V., Vapnik, Y., Prusik, K., Stasiak, M., Dzierżanowski, P., Murashko, M. (2017): Gurimite, Ba3(VO4)2, and hexacelsian, BaAl2Si2O8 – two new minerals from schorlomite-rich paralava of the Hatrurim Complex, Negev Desert, Israel. Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 1009-1019.
Krzątała, Arkadiusz & Panikorovskii, Taras & Galuskina, Irina & Galuskin, Evgeny. (2018). Dynamic Disorder of Fe3+ Ions in the Crystal Structure of Natural Barioferrite. Minerals. 8. 340. 10.3390/min8080340.
Sharygin, Victor V.; Yakovlev, Grigory A.; Wirth, Richard; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Sokol, Ellina V.; Nigmatulina, Elena N.; Karmanov, Nikolai S.; Pautov, Leonid A. (2019) Nataliakulikite, Ca4Ti2(Fe3+,Fe2+)(Si,Fe3+,Al)O11, a New Perovskite-Supergroup Mineral from Hatrurim Basin, Negev Desert, Israel. Minerals 9, no. 11: 700.
Sokol, E.V., Seryotkin, Y.V., Kokh, S.N., Vapnik, Y., Nigmatulina, E.N., Goryainov, S.V., Belogub, E.V. and Sharygin, V.V. (2014) Flamite, IMA 2013-122. CNMNC Newsletter No. 20, June 2014, page 550; Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 549-558. ; Sokol, E.V., Seryotkin, Y.V., Kokh, S.N., Vapnik, Ye., Nigmatulina, E.N., Goryainov, S.V., Belogub, E.V., Sharygin, V.V. (2015): Flamite, (Ca,Na,K)2(Si,P)O4, a new mineral from ultrahigh-temperature combustion metamorphic rocks, Hatrurim Basin, Negev Desert, Israel. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 583-596.
Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Gfeller, F., Krüger, B., Kusz, J., Vapnik, Y., Dulski, M., Dzierżanowski, P. (2016): Silicocarnotite, Ca5[(SiO4)(PO4)](PO4), a new ‘old’ mineral from the Negev Desert, Israel, and the ternesite-silicocarnotite solid solution: indicators of high-temperature alteration of pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, Southern Levant. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28: 105-12.
Palestine
 
  • West Bank
    • Hatrurim formation
Juroszek, R.; Krüger, B.; Galuskina, I.; Krüger, H.; Tribus, M.; Kürsten, C. (2020) Raman Spectroscopy and Single-Crystal High-Temperature Investigations of Bentorite, Ca6Cr2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O. Minerals 10, 38.
    • Quds Governorate
Galuskin, E. V., Galuskina, I. O., Widmer, R., & Armbruster, T. (2018). First natural hexaferrite with mixed β‴-ferrite (β-alumina) and magnetoplumbite structure from Jabel Harmun, Palestinian Autonomy. European Journal of Mineralogy, 30(3), 559-567.
 
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