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About WüstiteHide

5 - 5½
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named after Ewald Wüst (1875-1934), geologist and palaeontologist, University of Kiel (Germany).
Periclase Group.

Occurs mainly in meteorites and anthropogenic slags.

Classification of WüstiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
A : Metal: Oxygen = 2:1 and 1:1
B : M:O = 1:1 (and up to 1:1.25); with small to medium-sized cations only

2 : AX

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
20 : Oxides of Fe

Physical Properties of WüstiteHide

5 - 5½ on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of WüstiteHide


Crystallography of WüstiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.296 Å
Unit Cell V:
79.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Modulated structure.

Type Occurrence of WüstiteHide

Synonyms of WüstiteHide

Other Language Names for WüstiteHide

Varieties of WüstiteHide

MagnesiowüstiteFe-bearing variety of periclase.
Used synonymously with ferropericlase.

Relationship of Wüstite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
BunseniteNiOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
ManganositeMnOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
PericlaseMgOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
7 photos of Wüstite associated with Kamacite(Fe,Ni)
3 photos of Wüstite associated with Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
2 photos of Wüstite associated with Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
2 photos of Wüstite associated with Taenite(Fe,Ni)
1 photo of Wüstite associated with IronFe
1 photo of Wüstite associated with GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
1 photo of Wüstite associated with MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
1 photo of Wüstite associated with AragoniteCaCO3
1 photo of Wüstite associated with ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.AB.Carbon Monoxide IceCO
4.AB.05CredneriteCuMnO2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
4.AB.10TenoriteCuOMon. 2/m : B2/b
4.AB.15DelafossiteCuFeO2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.AB.20BromelliteBeOHex. 6mm : P63mc
4.AB.20ZinciteZnOHex. 6mm : P63mc
4.AB.25BunseniteNiOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
4.AB.25LimeCaOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
4.AB.25ManganositeMnOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
4.AB.25MonteponiteCdOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
4.AB.25PericlaseMgOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m m3m (4/m 3 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.20.2MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.3Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
7.20.4HematiteFe2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
7.20.5Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.20.6Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2OMon. 2/m
7.20.8Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
7.20.11MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.12MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.20.13SrebrodolskiteCa2Fe3+2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.20.14HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.15BrownmilleriteCa2(Al,Fe3+)2O5Orth. mm2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for WüstiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brun (1924) Arch. sc. phys. nat.: 6: 253 (as Iozite).
Brun (1924) C.R. soc. phys. hist. nat. Genève: 41: 94.
Brun (1924) Schweiz. min. Mitt.: 4: 355.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 503 (as Iozite).
Walenta, K. (1960) Natürliches Eisen(II)-Oxyd (Wüstit) aus der vulkanischen Tuffbreccie von Scharnhausen bei Stuttgart. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 150-159 (in German with English abstract).
Chandy, K.C. (1965) Short communications: An occurrence of wüstite. Mineralogical Magazine: 35: 664-666.
Yamamoto, A. (1982) Modulated structure of wüstite (Fe1-xO) (three-dimensional modulation). Acta Crystallographica: B38: 1451-1456.
Hazen, R.M., Jeanloz, R. (1984) Wüstite (Fe1-xO): a review of its defect structure and physical properties. Reviews of Geophysics: 22: 37-46.
Stølen, S., Glöckner, R., Grønvold, F., Atake, T., Izumisawa, S. (1996) Heat capacity and nearly stoichiometric wüstite from 13 to 450 K. American Mineralogist: 81: 973-981.
de Faria, D.L.A., Silva, S.V., de Oliveira, M.T. (1997): Raman microspectroscopy of some iron oxides and oxyhydroxides. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 28, 873-878.
Hanesch, M. (2009): Raman spectroscopy of iron oxides and (oxy)hydroxides at low laser power and possible applications in environmental magnetic studies. Geophys. J. Int. 177, 941-948.
Welberry, T.R., Goossens, D.J., Heerdegen, A.P. (2014) Local order in wüstite using a pair distribution function (PDF) approach. Mineralogical Magazine: 78: 373-385.

Internet Links for WüstiteHide

Localities for WüstiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Panjshir
    • Khenj District (Khinj District)
Merkel, S., Bräutigam, B., Klein, S., & Hauptmann, A. (2013). The Analysis of Slag from the Panjhır Mining Region, Afghanistan: An Investigation of (Medieval) Silver Production Technology. Archäologische Mitteilungen, 45, 231-250.
  • Adrar Province
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, vol 2: 632-634. University of California Press.
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land
Kimura, M. & Ikeda, Y. (1992). Mineralogy and Petrology of an unusual Belgica-7904 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Genetic Relationships among the Components. Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 5: 74-119. (March 1992)
  • Chaco Province
    • General Belgrano Department
      • Pampa del Infierno
  • Jujuy Province
    • Humahuaca Department
Voldman, G. G., Genge, M. J., Albanesi, G. L., Barnes, C. R., & Ortega, G. (2013). Cosmic spherules from the Ordovician of Argentina. Geological Journal, 48(2-3), 222-235.
Atlantic Ocean
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
    • Rainbow Massif
Bortnikov, N. S., Vikentyev, I. V., Apollonov, V. N., Stavrova, O. O., Bogdanov, Y. A., Lein, A. Y., ... & Ikorskii, S. V. (2001). The Rainbow serpentinite-related hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 36 14′ N: mineralogical and geochemical features. In Proc. Joint Sixth Meeting. Mineral Deposits at the Beginning of the 21st Century, Krakow, 26–29 August (pp. 265-268).
  • Queensland
    • Barcoo Shire
      • Windorah
        • Tenham Station
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV (2003); American Mineralogist, Volume 84, pages 267–271, 1999
  • Carinthia
    • Sankt Veit an der Glan District
      • Guttaring
        • Waitschach
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
  • Upper Austria
    • Steyr
      • Slag localities
peter neschen collection
  • Gobustan District
    • Caspian Sea
Novgorodova M.I., Mamedov Yu.G.. Native aluminium from mud volcano at the Bulla island (caspian Sea), - Lithology and Mineral Resourses,1996,N4,p. 339-349
  • Yardymli District
    • Baku
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, vol 3. University of California Press.
  • Mato Grosso
    • Juína kimberlite field
      • Juína
        • Sorriso river
Kaminsky, F. V., Wirth, R., & Schreiber, A. (2015). A microinclusion of lower-mantle rock and other mineral and nitrogen lower-mantle inclusions in a diamond. The Canadian Mineralogist, 53(1), 83-104.; Kaminsky, F. V., Ryabchikov, I. D., & Wirth, R. (2015). A primary natrocarbonatitic association in the Deep Earth. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-12.; Kaminsky, F.V., Wirth, R., Schreiber, A. (2015): A microinclusion of lower-mantle rock and other minerals and nitrogen lower-mantle inclusions in a diamond. Canadian Mineralogist: 53(1): 83-104
Burkina Faso
  • Est Region
    • Komondjari Province
      • Gayeri Department
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
  • Anhui
    • Bozhou
      • Qiaocheng District
        • Xiaoyanzhuang
Kuiren Wang (1987): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 7(2), 107-112
  • Hebei
    • Chengde
Zuxiang Yu (1984): Acta Petrologica Mineralogica et Analytica 3(3), 231-240
  • Hubei
    • Suizhou
      • Zengdu District (Cengdou District)
        • Xihe
[AmMin 85:1564]
  • Jiangsu
    • Lianyungang
      • Donghai Co.
        • Maobei
Jingsui Yang, Zhiqin Xu, Wenji Bai, Qingsong Fang, and Zhongming Zhang (2006): 3rd Annual Meeting of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS), July 10-14, 2006, Abstract 59-SE-A0643.
    • Taizhou
      • Gaogang District
        • Sixiangkou
Sharp, T. G., Chen, M., & El Goresy, A. (1996) Microstructures of High-Pressure Minerals in Shocked Chondrites: Constraints on the Duration of Shock Events. Journal: Meteoritics & Planetary Science, vol. 31, page A127
  • Tibet
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
          • Kangjinla Cr deposit
Xiangzhen, X., Jingsui, Y., Songyong, C., Qingsong, F., Wenji, B., & Dengzhu, B. (2009). Unusual mantle mineral group from chromitite ore body Cr-11 in Luobusa ophiolite of Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, Tibet. Journal of Earth Science, 20(2), 284-302.
  • Xinjiang
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
        • Fuhai Co. (Burultokay Co.)
Yongheng Chen and Daode Wang (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(2), 119-125
  • Zagreb County
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Havlíčkův Brod District
Janíčková, K., Dolníček, Z., Malý, K. (2012) Fázové složení strusek po tavbě stříbrných rud na Havlíčkobrodsku [Phase composition of slags produced by silver metallurgy in the Havlíčkův Brod Ore District]. Geologické výzkumy na Moravě a ve Slezsku, 19(1-2), 186-189.
    • Kutná Hora District
      • Poličany
        • Vrchlice river valley
Pauliš P. Mineralogické lokality okolí Kutné Hory. Kuttna, Kutná Hora 1999. ISBN 80-902719-0-1.
  • Hradec Králové Region
    • Náchod District
      • Broumov
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
  • Liberec Region
    • Liberec District
      • Frýdlant
Seifert, W.; Thomas, R.; Rhede, D.; Förster, H.-J. (2010): Origin of coexisting wustite, MgFe and REE phosphate minerals in graphite-bearing fluorapatite from the Rumburk granite. European Journal of Mineralogy 22, 495-507.
  • Saare County
Marini, F., Raukas, A., & Tiirmaa, R. (2004). Magnetic fines from the Kaali impact-site (Holocene, Estonia): Preliminary SEM investigation. Geochemical Journal, 38(2), 107-120.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Loire
      • La Pacaudière
        • Le Crozet
Vernay, R. (1997): Le Crozet (Loire, France). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 55(1), 9-22.
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Châteaulin
        • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
  • Occitanie
    • Hérault
      • Lodève
Ambert, P., Balestro, F., Laroche, M., Figueroa, V. and Rovira, S. (2014) Technological aspects of the earliest metallurgy in France: ‘furnaces’ and slags from La Capitelle du Broum (Péret, France). Historical Metallurgy 47(1), 60-74.
    • Lozère
      • Florac
        • Vialas
No reference listed
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
          • Frohnbach valley
Walenta, K. (1992) Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes und ihre Fundstellan. Christian Weise Verlag, München, 336 pages [in German].
    • Stuttgart Region
      • Esslingen
        • Ostfildern
Walenta, K.: Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1960): 150-159.
  • Hesse
    • Kassel Region
      • Schwalm-Eder
        • Schwalmstadt
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Märkischer Kreis
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.;
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Kreuztal
          • Ferndorf
Peter Neschen Collection
    • Cologne
      • Euskirchen
        • Mechernich
Peter Neschen Collection
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Nordfriesland
      • Joldelund
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion slag localities
          • Sounion area
Stephan Wolfsried specimen
  • Qeqertalik
    • Disko Island
Ulff-Møller, F. (1985): Solidification History of the KitdlÎt Lens: Immiscible Metal and Sulphide Liquids from a Basaltic Dyke on Disko, Central West Greenland Journal of Petrology. 26,64-91.
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Visakhapatnam District
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
  • Bihar
    • Muzaffarpur District
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. vol 3: University of California Press. 1418 pages.
  • Rajasthan
    • Alwar district
Bapna, V. S., Sharma, P. N., Sathe, M. D., Mathur, K. N. & Dwivedi, G. L. (1991) The Raghunathpura iron meteorite from Alwar, India: Meteoritics 26 (1): 65-67. (March 1991)
    • Bhilwara District
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
  • Southern District (HaDarom District)
    • Tamar Regional Council
      • Hatrurim Basin
Galuskin, E.; Galuskina, I.; Vapnik, Y.; Murashko, M. Molecular Hydrogen in Natural Mayenite. Minerals 2020, 10, 560.
  • Aosta Valley
    • Saint-Marcel
      • Servette-Chuc mining complex
Gordon, J. (2004): Mineral notes from Italy: Servette Mine and Strahlers' Display. Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, 74, 12;; Tumiati, S., Casartelli, P., Mambretti, A., Martin, S., Frizzo, P., Rottoli, M. (2005): The ancient mine of Servette (Saint-Marcel, Val d' Aosta, western Italian Alps): A mineralogical, metallurgical and charcoal analysis of furnace slags. Archaeometry, 47, 317-340.
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Ferrara Province
      • Vigarano Mainarda
        • Vigarano Pieve
E. K. Zinner, C. Caillet & A. El Goresy (1991). Evidence for extraneous origin of a magnesiowüstite-metal Fremdling from the Vigarano CV3 chondrite. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 102, #33-34, 252-264.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Piombino
Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N. (1992): I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77; Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N., Bartoli, M.L., Chiappino, L. (1992): Baratti (LI): una nuova località mineralogica italiana analoga al Laurion. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 15, 1 (1-1992), 1-14 [1a parte]; Benvenuti, M., Mascaro, I., Costagliola, P., Tanelli, G., Romualdi, A. (2000): Iron, copper and tin at Baratti (Populonia): smelting processes and metal provenances. Historical Metallurgy, 34, 2, 67-76.
    • Metropolitan City of Florence
      • Firenzuola
Carapezza, M., Nuccio, P.M. & Valenza, M. (1975) Piancaldoli meteorite: chemistry and mineralogy: Meteoritics 10: p.379. (Dec 1975).
  • Jufra District
    • Dar al Gani
Masaaki Miyahara1, Eiji Ohtani, Shin Ozawa, Makoto Kimura, Ahmed El Goresy, Takeshi Sakai1, Toshiro Nagase1, Kenji Hiraga, Naohisa Hirao, Yasuo Ohishi (2011) Dissociation of olivine to silicate-perovskite and magesiowustite in the shocked Martian meteorite DaG 735. Japan Geooscience Union Meeting Makuhari, Chiba Japan.
  • Oaxaca
    • Santo Domingo de Yanhuitlan Municipality
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
  • Zacatecas
    • Mazapil Municipality
      • Mazapil
Handbook of Iron Meteorites, vol 2: 808—813. University of California Press.
  • Töv Province
    • Choir-Nyalga basin
Peretyazhko, I. S., Savina, E. A., Khromova, E. A., Karmanov, N. S., & Ivanov, A. V. (2018) Unique Clinkers and Paralavas from a New Nyalga Combustion Metamorphic Complex in Central Mongolia: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Genesis. Petrology, 26(2), 181-211.; Peretyazhko, I. S., Savina, E. A., Khrоmova, E. A., & Mills, S. (2017) Minerals of the rhönite-kuratite series in paralavas from a new combustion metamorphic complex in the Choir–Nyalga basin (Central Mongolia): composition, mineral assemblages and formation conditions. Mineralogical Magazine, 81(4), 949-974.
  • Souss-Massa Region
    • Tata Province
Ma, C., Tschauner, O., Liu, Y., Beckett, J. R., Rossman, G. R., Zuravlev, K., ... & Taylor, L. A. (2014, March). Discovery of Ahrensite gamma-Fe2SiO4 and Tissintite (Ca, Na, □) AlSi2O6: Two New High Pressure Minerals from the Tissint Martian Meteorite. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 45, p. 1222).
  • Kachin State
    • Mohnyin District
      • Hpakant Township (Hpakan; Phakant; Phakan)
Shi, G. H., Zhu, X. K., Deng, J., Mao, Q., Liu, Y. X., & Li, G. W. (2011). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(6), 1608-1620
Shi, G.-H., Zhu, X.-K., Deng, J., Mao, Q., Liu, Y.-X, & Li, G.-W. (2011). Spherules with pure iron cores from Myanmar jadeitite: Type-I deep-sea spherules? Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 75, 1608-1620.
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
  • Dhofar Governorate
D.D. Badjukov et al. , Lunar and Planetary Science, XXXVI (2005), 1684.pdf
  • Sindh Province
    • Sukkur District
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
  • Lesser Poland Voivodeship
    • Olkusz County
Ref.: Kucha H., Jędrzejczyk B. 1995: Primary minerals of mining and metallurgical Zn-Pb dumps at Bukowno, Poland, and their stability during weathering. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 26, No 2, 75-99
  • Évora
    • Alandroal
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, vol 2. University of California Press.
  • Galați
Hirtopanu, P. (2006). One hundred minerals for one hundred years (dedicated to the Centennial of the Geological Institute of Romania). In 3rd Conference on Mineral Sciences in the Carpathians, Miskolc Hungary. Acta Mineralogica–Petrographica, Abstract series (Vol. 5, p. 86).
  • Maramureș; Hîrtopanu, P. (2006) One Hundred Minerals For One Hundred Years (dedicated To The Centennial Of The Geological Institute Of Romania) Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p38; Hirtopanu, P. (2006). One hundred minerals for one hundred years (dedicated to the Centennial of the Geological Institute of Romania). In 3rd Conference on Mineral Sciences in the Carpathians, Miskolc Hungary. Acta Mineralogica–Petrographica, Abstract series (Vol. 5, p. 86).
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
    • Targhasa massif
L. N. Novoselova, A. Yu. Lyul (1986) Geochemical characteristics of iron silicides from Lower Cambrian reefal limestones, Krasnoyarsk. International Geology Review 28:114-118
    • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
      • Taimyr Peninsula
        • Khatanga
          • Malaya Romanikha River
Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District
      • Kureika river
        • Dzheltul'skii massif (Dzhaltul)
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Primorsky Krai
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
    • Paseka
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Republic of Karelia
[World of Stones 12:49]
    • Mirninsky District
      • Daldyn
Skvortsova V, Samoylovich M, Belyanin A (2014) Iron containing surfaces of contact of diamond with kimberlite. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association.
  • Tyumen Oblast
6th orogenic lherzolite conference 2014 Morocco; Yang, J., Meng, F., Xu, X., Robinson, P. T., Dilek, Y., Makeyev, A. B., ... & Cliff, J. (2015). Diamonds, native elements and metal alloys from chromitites of the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals. Gondwana Research, 27(2), 459-485.
Sierra Leone
  • Eastern Province
    • Kono District
Haggerty, S. E., Hargraves, R. B., & Tompkins, L. A. (1990). Oxide mineralogy and magnetic properties of the Koidu kimberlite complex, Sierra Leone, west Africa. Geophysical Journal International, 100(2), 275-283.
South Africa
  • KwaZulu-Natal
    • Zululand District
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Minerals of South Africa
  • Basque Country
    • Vizcaya
      • Valle de Trápaga (Trapagaran)
Portillo-Blanco, H.; Zuluaga, M.C.; Ortega, L.A.; Alonso-Olazabal, A.; Cepeda-Ocampo, J.J.; Martínez Salcedo, A. (2020) Mineralogical Characterization of Slags from the Oiola Site (Biscay, Spain) to Assess the Development in Bloomery Iron Smelting Technology from the Roman Period to the Middle Ages. Minerals 10, 321.
  • Canary Islands
    • Las Palmas Province
      • Fuerteventura
        • Fuerteventura basal complex
Groznova M.V., Kogarko L.N.. Senin V.G. (2001) Mineral composition of silicocarbonatites from Fuertaventura Island. in Abstracts – GEODE field workshop 8-12th July 2001 on ilmenite deposits in the Rogaland anorthosite province, S. Norway.
  • River Nile
Mariam Horstmann, M. Humayun, D. Harries, F. Langenhorst, N. L. Chabot & Addi Bischoff (2012). 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held March 19-23, 2012 at The Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1659, id.1876.
  • Grisons
    • Maloja Region
      • Bregaglia
        • Val Bregaglia
          • Casaccia
Wenk, H.-R.; Yu, R.; Tamura, N.; Bischoff, D.; Hunkeler, W. (2019) Slags as Evidence for Copper Mining above Casaccia, Val Bregaglia (Central Alps). Minerals 9, 292.
  • Eskişehir Province
    • Günyüzü District
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.;
  • England
    • Telford and Wrekin
      • Waters Upton
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.;
  • Arizona
    • Coconino County
      • Meteor Crater area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 129, 273, 427.
  • Georgia
    • Wilcox Co.
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
  • Kentucky
    • Casey Co.
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 3 volumes, 1418 pages.
  • Montana
    • Butte-Silver Bow (Butte; Silver Bow Co.)
      • Butte Mining District (Summit Valley Mining District)
Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
  • Pennsylvania
    • Chester Co.
      • State Line Chromite Mining District
Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology v. 41, no. 3/4.
    • Lancaster Co.
      • State Line Chromite Mining District
Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology Fall/Winter 2011
The Moon
Frondel, J.W. (2009) Lunar Mineralogy, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 332 pages.
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