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Wairakite

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About WairakiteHide

Formula:
Ca(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Colour:
Colorless to white
Lustre:
Vitreous, Dull
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named after its discovery locality, Wairakei, North Island, New Zealand.

Classification of WairakiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.GB.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
G : Tektosilicates with zeolitic H2O; zeolite family
B : Chains of single connected 4-membered rings
Dana 7th ed.:
77.1.1.3
77.1.1.3

77 : TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
1 : Zeolite group - True zeolites
16.9.20

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
9 : Aluminosilicates of Ca

Physical Properties of WairakiteHide

Vitreous, Dull
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colorless to white
Streak:
White
Hardness:
5½ - 6 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Distinct on the {100}
Fracture:
Conchoidal

Optical Data of WairakiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nα = 1.498 nγ = 1.502
2V:
Measured: 70° to 105°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.004
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
very weak

Chemical Properties of WairakiteHide

Formula:
Ca(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca(Si4Al2)O12 · 2H2O
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mg,Sr,Na,K,Cs

Crystallography of WairakiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.69 Å, b = 13.64 Å, c = 13.56 Å
β = 90.51°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.004 : 1 : 0.994
Unit Cell V:
2,531.98 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of WairakiteHide

Synonyms of WairakiteHide

Other Language Names for WairakiteHide

German:Wairakit
Simplified Chinese:斜钙沸石
Spanish:Wairakita

Relationship of Wairakite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AlflarseniteNaCa2Be3Si4O13(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2 : P21
AmiciteK2Na2Al4Si4O16 · 5H2OMon. 2
Ammonioleucite(NH4)(AlSi2O6)Tet.
AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTric. 1 : P1
Bellbergite(K,Ba,Sr)2Sr2Ca2(Ca,Na)4[Al3Si3O12]6 · 30H2OHex.
BikitaiteLiAlSi2O6 · H2OTric. 1 : P1
BoggsiteCa8Na3(Si,Al)96O192 · 70H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
Brewsterite-Ba(Ba,Sr)[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
Brewsterite-Sr(Sr,Ba,Ca)[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2O
Chabazite-Levyne SubgroupA subgroup of the Zeolite Group.
ChiavenniteCaMnBe2Si5O13(OH)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
ClinoptiloliteNote on the distinguishing differences between clinoptilolite and heulandite (http://rruff.
CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2OOrth.
Dachiardite-Ca(Ca,Na2,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
Dachiardite-KK4(Si20Al4O48)·13H2OMon.
Dachiardite-Na(Na2,Ca,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
DirenzoiteNaK6MgCa2(Al13Si47O120) · 36H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
EdingtoniteBa[Al2Si3O10] · 4H2O
EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2OMon.
ErioniteThis name now refers to a group of related minerals.
Faujasite
Faujasite-Ca(Ca,Na2,Mg)3.5[Al7Si17O48] · 32H2OIso.
FerrieriteZeolite Group.
FerrochiavenniteCa1-2Fe[(Si,Al,Be)5Be2O13(OH)2] · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
Flörkeite(K3Ca2Na)[Al8Si8O32] · 12H2OTric. 1 : P1
Garronite-CaNa2Ca5Al12Si20O64 · 27H2OTet. 4 2m : I4m2
GaultiteNa4Zn2Si7O18 · 5H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
Gismondine-BaBa2Al4Si4O16 · 4-6H2O
Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
GmeliniteIn 1997, gmelinite was split into Gmelinite-Ca, Gmelinite-Na and Gmelinite-K.
GobbinsiteNa5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2OOrth.
GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon.
GottardiiteNa3Mg3Ca5Al19Si117O272 · 93H2OOrth.
Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
Heulandite subgroupNote on the distinguishing differences between heulandite and clinoptilolite (http://rruff.
HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
KirchhoffiteCs(BSi2O6)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
LovdariteK2Na6Be4Si14O36 · 9H2OOrth. mm2
MaricopaitePb7Ca2(Si,Al)48O100 · 32H2OOrth.
MartinandresiteBa2(Al4Si12O32)·10H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
Mazzite-Mg(Mg,K,Ca)5(Si26Al10)O72 · 28H2OHex.
Mazzite-NaNa8[Al4Si14O36]2 · 30H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2OOrth.
Montesommaite(K,Na)9Al9Si23O64 · 10H2OOrth.
Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2OOrth.
MutinaiteNa3Ca4Si85Al11O192 · 60H2OOrth.
NabesiteNa2BeSi4O10 · 4H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
Natrolite SubgroupA subgroup of the Zeolite Group.
OffretiteKCaMg(Si13Al5)O36 · 15H2OHex. 6 m2 : P6m2
PahasapaiteLi8(Ca,Li,K)10.5Be24(PO4)24 · 38H2OIso. 2 3 : I2 3
ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
Paulingite-Ca(Ca,K,Na,Ba,◻)10 (Si, Al)42O84•34H2OIso.
Paulingite-K(K2,Ca,Na2,Ba)5[Al10Si35O90] · 45H2OIso.
Paulingite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Ba)5[Al10Si35O90] · 45H2OIso.
PerlialiteK9Na(Ca,Sr)[Al2Si4O12]6 · 15H2OHex.
PhillipsiteZeolite Group.
Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
RoggianiteCa2Be(OH)2Al2Si4O13 · 2.5H2OTet.
Stilbite subgroupThis name now refers to the zeolite subgroup including the Barrerite - Stilbite-Ca - ...
Terranovaite(Na,Ca)8(Si68Al12)O160 · 29H2OOrth.
Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Thomsonite-SrNa(Sr,Ca)2[Al5Si5O20] · 7H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Tschernichite(Ca,Na2)[Al2Si4O12] · 4-8H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
TschörtneriteCa4(Ca,Sr,K,Ba)3Cu3[Al3Si3O12]4(OH)8 · nH2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
WeinebeneiteCaBe3(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2OHex.
WillhendersoniteKCa[Al3Si3O12] · 5H2OTric.
YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2OMon.
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
2 photos of Wairakite associated with DmisteinbergiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
1 photo of Wairakite associated with CalciteCaCO3
1 photo of Wairakite associated with QuartzSiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.GB.05Ammonioleucite(NH4)(AlSi2O6)Tet.
9.GB.05AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.GB.05HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
9.GB.05LithositeK6Al4Si8O25 · 2H2OMon.
9.GB.05LeuciteK(AlSi2O6)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
9.GB.05Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.GB.05KirchhoffiteCs(BSi2O6)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.GB.10LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.GB.15YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2OMon.
9.GB.20RoggianiteCa2Be(OH)2Al2Si4O13 · 2.5H2OTet.
9.GB.25GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon.
9.GB.30Montesommaite(K,Na)9Al9Si23O64 · 10H2OOrth.
9.GB.35ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

77.1.1.1AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTric. 1 : P1
77.1.1.2Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
77.1.1.4LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
77.1.1.5HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
77.1.1.8KirchhoffiteCs(BSi2O6)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.9.1GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
16.9.2AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Tric. 1 : P1
16.9.3Yoshiokaite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)O4]Trig. 3 : P3
16.9.4SvyatoslaviteCa(Al2Si2O8)Orth.
16.9.5DmisteinbergiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Trig. 3 2 : P3 1 2
16.9.6GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
16.9.7VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)Orth.
16.9.8ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
16.9.9Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
16.9.10PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2Orth. mm2
16.9.11KamaishiliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2Tet.
16.9.12BicchuliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
16.9.13MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
16.9.14ChantaliteCaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
16.9.15CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4Orth.
16.9.17KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x (x = 1.5-3)Iso.
16.9.18LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
16.9.19ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
16.9.21VertumniteCa4Al4Si4O6(OH)24 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
16.9.22ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2OMon. m : Bb
16.9.23LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
16.9.24YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2OMon.
16.9.25Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
16.9.26EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2OMon.
16.9.27GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon.
16.9.28CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2OOrth.
16.9.30StelleriteCa4(Si28Al8)O72 · 28H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fmmm
16.9.31SträtlingiteCa2Al2SiO7 · 8H2OTrig.
16.9.32AmstalliteCaAl(Si,Al)4O8(OH)4 · (H2O,Cl)Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for WairakiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Steiner, A. (1955): Wairakite, the calcium analogue of analcime, a new zeolite mineral. Mineralogical Magazine 30, 691-698.
Kiss, K. & H.T. Page (1969): Electron microscopic identification of single crystals of wairakite, a rare component. Clays and Clay Minerals: 17: 31-35.
Takéuchi, Y., Mazzi, F., Haga, N., Galli, E. (1979): The crystal structure of wairakite. American Mineralogist 64, 993-1001.
Henderson, C.M.B., Bell, A.M.T., Kohn, S.C., Page, C.S. (1998): Leucite-pollucite structure-type variability and the structure of a synthetic end-member calcium wairakite (CaAl2Si4O12·2H2O). Mineralogical Magazine 62, 165-178.
Neuhoff, P.S., J.F. Stebbins, & D.K. Bird (2003): Si-Al disorder and solid solutions in analcime, chabazite, and wairakite. American Mineralogist: 88: 410-423.
Seryotkin, Y.V., Joswig, W., Bakakin, V.V., Belitsky, I.A., Fursenko, B.A. (2003): High-temperature crystal structure of wairakite. European Journal of Mineralogy 15, 475-484.

Internet Links for WairakiteHide

Localities for WairakiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Algeria
 
  • Annaba Province
    • Annaba District
      • Edough-Cap de Fer Massif
Ch. Marignac, Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 359-381.
Argentina
 
  • Neuquén Province
    • Catán Lil department
      • La Amarga
Tschernich, 1992. Zeolites of the World, p.149, 517
    • Lácar department
      • Caleufú
Pablo Rodrigo Leal, María Elena Vattuone, and Carlos Oscar Latorre (2011) Zeolite assemblages from Northern Patagonian Andes, Argentina: A review. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, v.28, núm. 2, 2011, p. 212-225
    • Los Lagos Department
Vattuone, M. E., Latorre, C. O., & Leal, P. R. (2001). Procesos de formación de paragénesis ceolíticas en el metamorfismo de muy bajo grado de las volcanitas paleógenas al sur de Confluencia, Neuquén, República Argentina. Revista geológica de Chile, 28(2), 209-228.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Huon Valley municipality
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
Brazil
 
  • São Paulo
    • Araraquara
Ruiz, M. (2001). Zeólitas em amígdalas do basalto das cidades de Araraquara e Serrana-São Paulo.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Alberni Mining Division
Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, p.50,517
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cumberland Co.
Pe-Piper, Georgia and Miller, Lisa (2002) Zeolite minerals from the North Shore of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia. Atlantic Geology: 38: 11–28.
  • Québec
    • Laurentides
      • Deux-Montagnes RCM
        • Oka
Gold (1969)
GOLD, D.P. (1972): The Monteregian Hills: ultra-alkaline rocks and the Oka carbonatite complex. 24th International Geological Congress (Montreal), Guidebook B-11.
Chile
 
  • Santiago
    • Chacabuco Province
Fuentes, F., Aguirre, L., Vergara, M., Valdebenito, L., & Fonseca, E. (2004). Miocene fossil hydrothermal system associated with a volcanic complex in the Andes of central Chile. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 138(1-2), 139-161.
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Příbram District
      • Psí hory gold district
        • Mokrsko
Jiří Zachariáš, Petr Morávek, Petr Gadas, Jaroslava Pertoldová (2014): The Mokrsko-West gold deposit, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic: Mineralogy, deposit setting and classification. Ore Geology Reviews 58, 238-263.
Ecuador
 
  • Santa Elena Province
    • Manglaralto Canton
R. S. Bowman and S. E. Delap (Eds.) Zeolite ’06—7th International Conference on the Occurrence, Properties, and Utilization of Natural Zeolites Socorro, New Mexico USA, 16–21 July 2006
El Salvador
 
  • Usulután Department
Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145 (1), 81-96.
Ethiopia
 
  • Afar Region
Gebregziabher, Z. (1998). Geology and hydrothermal alteration in wells TD-5 and TD-6, Tendaho geothermal field, Ethiopia. United Nations University.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • Lavoûte-Chilhac
        • Saint-Privat-du-Dragon
B; Lasnier : "Persistance d'une série granulitique au coeur du Massif Central Français - Haut-Allier. Les termes basiques, ultrabasiques et carbonatés". Thesis, 1977.
  • Guadeloupe
    • Basse-Terre
Mas, A., Guisseau, D., Mas, P. P., Beaufort, D., Genter, A., Sanjuan, B., & Girard, J. P. (2006). Clay minerals related to the hydrothermal activity of the Bouillante geothermal field (Guadeloupe). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158(3), 380-400.
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Vulkaneifel
      • Daun
        • Üdersdorf
Hentschel, G., Neufunde von Üdersdorf, Lapis, Weise Verlag, München, 09/1993
Iceland
Econ Geol (1984) 79:671-695
  • Eastern Region
    • Fjarðabyggð
      • Reydarfjörđur
Viereck, L. G., Griffin, B. J., Schmincke, H. U., & Pritchard, R. G. (1982). Volcaniclastic rocks of the Reydarfjordur drill hole, eastern Iceland: 2. Alteration. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 87(B8), 6459-6476.
  • Northeastern Region
    • Skútustaðahreppur
      • Myvatn
Tamjidi, A. Borehole geology and hydrotermal alteration of well KJ-29 in the Krafla high-temperature area, NE-Iceland. United Nations University.
  • Southern Peninsula
    • Grindavíkurbær
Lahan, M. M. (2012). Geological and geothermal mapping in the Trölladyngja field, SW-Iceland. United Nations University Geothermal Training Programme Report 19
  • Vatnajökull Glacier
Ágústsdóttir, A. M., & Brantley, S. L. (1994). Volatile fluxes integrated over four decades at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 99(B5), 9505-9522.
Indonesia
 
  • Sumatra
    • Lampung Province
www.geothermie.de/egec-geothernet/ci_prof/asia/indonesia/0418.PDF.
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Pisa Province
      • Pomarance
Econ Geol (1984) 79:671-695
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Cornedo Vicentino
        • Spagnago
Lapis, 15 (12), 27-32+50.
Japan
 
  • Akita
Yotaro Seki (1973) Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Wairakites in the Japanese Island Arc The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 79:521-527
  • Aomori
INOUE, A., & UTADA, M. (1991). Hydrothermal Alteration in the Kamikita Kuroko Mineralization Area. Mining Geology, 41(228), 203-218.
    • Kuroishi City
Onuki et al (1988) Journal of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology, 83, 311-317.
Yotaro Seki (1973) Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Wairakites in the Japanese Island Arc The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 79:521-527
  • Fukushima
    • Koriyama
Aoki, M. & Minato, H. (1980) Lattice constants of Wairakite as a function of chemical composition. American Mineralogist, 65, 1212-1216
  • Gunma
    • Katashina
Alfredo Petrov specimen confirmed by powder XRD; Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
Yotaro Seki (1973) Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Wairakites in the Japanese Island Arc The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 79:521-527
  • Hokkaidō
    • Oshima Subprefecture
      • Kameda Peninsula
        • Ofuna river
Scott, A.-M., and Watanabe, Y. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 568-578.
  • Ishikawa
Yotaro Seki (1973) Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Wairakites in the Japanese Island Arc The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 79:521-527
  • Iwate
Yotaro Seki (1973) Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Wairakites in the Japanese Island Arc The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 79:521-527
  • Kanagawa
Yotaro Seki (1973) Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Wairakites in the Japanese Island Arc The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 79:521-527
Econ Geol (1984) 79:671-695
  • Mie
    • Toba City
Harada, K., & Sudo, T. (1976) A consideration on the wairakite–analcime series.—Is valid a new mineral name for sodium analogue of monoclinic wairakite?—. Mineralogical Journal, 8(4), 247-251.
  • Miyagi
Econ Geol (1984) 79:671-695; Yotaro Seki (1973) Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Wairakites in the Japanese Island Arc The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 79:521-527
  • Oita
Econ Geol (1984) 79:671-695; Yotaro Seki (1973) Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Wairakites in the Japanese Island Arc The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 79:521-527
  • Shimane
Yotaro Seki (1973) Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Wairakites in the Japanese Island Arc The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 79:521-527
  • Shizuoka
    • Kawazu
Aoki, M. & Minato, H. (1980) Lattice constants of Wairakite as a function of chemical composition. American Mineralogist, 65, 1212-1216
    • Toi-cho
Yotaro Seki (1973) Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Wairakites in the Japanese Island Arc The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 79:521-527; Aoki, M. & Minato, H. (1980) Lattice constants of Wairakite as a function of chemical composition. American Mineralogist, 65, 1212-1216
Knut Eldjarn specimen
  • Tochigi
Yotaro Seki (1973) Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Wairakites in the Japanese Island Arc The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 79:521-527
Jordan
 
  • Irbid
    • Maqarin area
Khoury, H. N., Salameh, E., & Abdul-Jaber, Q. (1985). Characteristics of an unusual highly alkaline water from the Maqarin area, northern Jordan. Journal of Hydrology, 81(1), 79-91.
Mexico
 
  • Baja California
    • Mexicali Municipality
Econ Geol (1984) 79:671-695; Peter Schiffman, Dennis K. Bird and Wilfred A. Elders (1985) Hydrothermal Mineralogy of Calcareous Sandstones from the Colorado River Delta in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal System, Baja California, Mexico. Mineralogical Magazine 49:435-449
  • Baja California Sur
    • Mulegé Municipality
Hinojosa, E. T., Verma, M. P., & Partida, E. G. (2005). Geochemical characteristics of reservoir fluids in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico. In Proceedings world geothermal congress, 24–29 April.
Namibia
 
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek Rural
      • Aris
Wartha, R., Palfi, A., Niedermayr, G., Brandstätter, F. and Petersen, O. V. (2006): Der Aris-Phonolith-Komplex und seine Mineralien. In: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Niedermayr, G. & Schneider, G., Eds. (2006): Namibia – Zauberwelt edler Steine und Kristalle. 2nd ed., Bode-Verlag, Haltern, Germany, pp. 228-239 (in German).
New Zealand
 
  • Bay of Plenty Region
    • Kawerau District
R. Martin collection
    • Rotorua District
Econ Geol (1985) 80:1640-1668
  • Waikato Region
    • Matamata-Piako District
      • Te Aroha
Courtney, S.F., King, P. & Rodgers, K.A., (1990). A Check List of Minerals from the Tui Mine, Te Aroha, New Zealand. New Zealand Natural Sciences 17: 95-98.
    • Taupo District
Bird, D.K., Schiffman, P., Elders, W.A., Williams, A.E., McDowell, S.D. (1984) Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems. Economic Geology 79:4, 671-695. Simmons, S.F. Browne, P.L. (1997) Saline fluid inclusions in sphalerite from the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal system; a coincidental trapping of fluids being boiled toward drynes. Economic Geology, 92:4, 485-489.
      • Wairakei
Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Browne, P.R.L., Courtney, S.F., Wood, C.P. (1989) Formation rates of calc-silicate minerals deposited inside drillhole casing, Ngatamariki geothermal field, New Zealand. American Mineralogist, 74(7-8), 759-763.
Tschernich, R. (1992) Zeolites of the World, Geoscience Press, Inc. Bird, D.K., Schiffman, P., Elders, W.A., Williams, A.E., McDowell, S.D. (1984) Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems. Economic Geology 79:4, 671-695. Steiner, A. (1955) Wairakite, the calcium analogue of analcime, a new zeolite mineral. Mineralogical Magazine, 30, 691-708. Mineralogical Magazine(1955) 30, 691-708
Nicaragua
 
  • Chontales Department
Darce (1995) Econ Geol 85:1059-1071
Philippines
 
  • Visayas
    • Eastern Visayas Region
      • Samar Island
        • Leyte
Econ Geol (1984) 79:671-695
Romania
 
  • Harghita
Hirtopanu Paulina, Andersen C. Jens, Fairhurst J. Robert and Jakab Gyula (2013) Allanite-(Ce) and its associations, from the Ditrau alkaline intrusive massif. Proc. Rom. Acad., Series B, 2013, 15(1), p. 59–74; Hirtopanu, P. (2006). One hundred minerals for one hundred years (dedicated to the Centennial of the Geological Institute of Romania). In 3rd Conference on Mineral Sciences in the Carpathians, Miskolc Hungary. Acta Mineralogica–Petrographica, Abstract series (Vol. 5, p. 86).
Spain
 
  • Canary Islands
    • Las Palmas Province
      • Lanzarote
        • Haría
Strasser, A., Kirchner, E., (2006): Minerale aus einem Alkali-Basalt-Differentiat vom Risco Famara, Lanzarote, Kanarische Inseln, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 57, 335-338
Taiwan
 
  • Taiwan Province
    • Taipei City
Econ Geol (1984) 79:671-695
Ukraine
 
  • Volyn Oblast
Emetz, A. V., Zagnitko, V. M., & Prykhod’ko, V. L. (2005). Mineral compositions and genesis of the ore bodies of the Zhyrychi Cu deposit (North-Western Ukraine). Mineralogical Journal (Ukraine), 27, 77-91.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Aleutians East Borough
      • Unalaska Island
wwwdggs.dnr.state.ak.us/scan1/ri/text/RI84-23.PDF.
  • California
    • Imperial Co.
      • Heber
Econ Geol (1984) 79:671-695
    • Kern Co.
      • Mojave-Rosamond Mining District (Mojave Mining District)
        • Rosamond
Kiss, K. and Page, H.T. (1969) Electron microscope identification of single crystals of wairakite, a rare component. Calys and Clay Minerals: 17: 31-35; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 371; Tschernich, Rudy (1992) Zeolites of the World.
    • Sonoma Co.
      • West Mayacmas Mining District
Steiner, A. (1958), Occurrence of wairakite at The Geysers, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 781; White, D.E. (1967) Mercury and base-metal deposits with associated thermal and mineral waters. In: H.L. Barnes (Editor), Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits. Holt Reinhart and Winston, New York: 590; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 371; Tschernich, R. (1975), Zeolites of the world, 1975; Economic Geology (1984): 79: 671-695; http://www.mineralsocal.org.
  • Colorado
    • Huerfano Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Las Animas Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Michigan
    • Keweenaw Co.
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Beowawe Mining District
Econ Geol (1984) 79:759-767
    • Storey Co.
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Oregon
    • Columbia Co.
      • Goble
Micro Probe Vol. 6 No. 5 Fall 1987
  • U.S. Virgin Islands
    • St Croix
AmMin 50:752
    • St Thomas
Am Min (1962) 47:794-802
  • Washington
    • Cowlitz Co.
      • Wolf Point
Micro Probe Vol. 10 N0. 3 Spring '01
    • Lewis Co.
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
    • Pierce Co.
Zeolites of the World, Rudy W. Tschernich 1992
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
  • Wyoming
    • Park Co.
Bargar, K.E.; Beeson, M.H. & Keith, T.E.C. (1981): Zeolites in Yellowstone National Park. Mineralogical Record 12, 29-38
Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 71; Econ Geol (1984) 79:671-695
 
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