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Voltaite

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About VoltaiteHide

07034610014947722362186.jpg
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta
Formula:
K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Colour:
Green to greenish-black; oil-green to pale green in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Resinous
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Specific Gravity:
2.645
Crystal System:
Isometric
Member of:
Name:
Named after Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745, Como, Italy - 5 March 1827, Como, Italy), physicist and pioneer in electricity who invented the electric battery.
Voltaite Group. The Fe2+ analogue of magnesiovoltaite, and K-Fe2+ analogue of ammoniomagnesiovoltaite.

Belongs to a group of ferrous-ferric sulfate minerals, together with bílinite, copiapite, römerite (purely Fe minerals), metavoltine, and pertlikite.


Classification of VoltaiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.CC.25

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
29.9.1.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
9 : Miscellaneous
25.11.10

25 : Sulphates
11 : Sulphates of Fe and other metals

Physical Properties of VoltaiteHide

Resinous
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Green to greenish-black; oil-green to pale green in transmitted light.
Streak:
Gray-green
Hardness:
3 - 3½ on Mohs scale
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.645 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.663 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of VoltaiteHide

RI values:
n = 1.593 - 1.608
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Type:
Isotropic
Comments:
Anomalously biaxial sectors.

Chemical Properties of VoltaiteHide

Formula:
K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O

Crystallography of VoltaiteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fd3c
Cell Parameters:
a = 27.254(8) Å
Unit Cell V:
20,243.74 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
16
Morphology:
Cubic, octahedral, and, rarely dodecahedral and in combinations of these. Massive, granular.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Fumaroles, solfataras, mud volcanoes and as an alteration product of pyrite-rich deposits in arid regions.

Type Occurrence of VoltaiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Solfatara
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of VoltaiteHide

Other Language Names for VoltaiteHide

German:Voltait
Simplified Chinese:绿钾铁矾
水钾铊矾
Spanish:Voltaita

Relationship of Voltaite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
Ammoniovoltaite(NH4)2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12(H2O)18Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
MagnesiovoltaiteK2Mg5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12·18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
28 photos of Voltaite associated with HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
20 photos of Voltaite associated with RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
18 photos of Voltaite associated with CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
9 photos of Voltaite associated with CopiapiteFe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
9 photos of Voltaite associated with GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7 photos of Voltaite associated with AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
5 photos of Voltaite associated with Millosevichite(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3
3 photos of Voltaite associated with KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
3 photos of Voltaite associated with PyriteFeS2
2 photos of Voltaite associated with MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CC.CobaltoblöditeNa2Co(SO4)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.AndychristyitePbCu2+Te6+O5(H2O)Tric. 1 : P1
7.CC.Ammoniovoltaite(NH4)2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12(H2O)18Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.05KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CC.10TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.15KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CC.15MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.20Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso.
7.CC.20Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20LanmuchangiteTl+Al(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.25ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.25PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
7.CC.25Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.30KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.35FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.CC.40GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.45LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2OTrig.
7.CC.50BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.50NickelblöditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50ChangoiteNa2Zn(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.55LeoniteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.55MereiteriteK2Fe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon.
7.CC.60Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.60Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60Nickelboussingaultite(NH4)2Ni(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.65PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric. 1
7.CC.70LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric.
7.CC.75AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CC.80KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.85WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)Orth.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

29.9.1.2ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
29.9.1.3PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
29.9.1.4Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.11.1NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
25.11.2SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.11.3MetasideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.11.4FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
25.11.5AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.11.6YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
25.11.7KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.11.8GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.11.9JarositeKFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.11.11UngemachiteK3Na8Fe(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.11.12MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2OTrig.
25.11.13Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
25.11.14Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
25.11.15Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2OTric.
25.11.16Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.11.17Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso.
25.11.18Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
25.11.19BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
25.11.21Slavíkite(H3O+)3Mg6Fe15(SO4)21(OH)18 · 98H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.11.23SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
25.11.24Millosevichite(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3Trig. 3 : R3
25.11.25AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.11.26HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
25.11.27Idrizite(Mg,Fe)(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3(OH)2 · 15H2O or near
25.11.28LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.11.29ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for VoltaiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Breislak (1792) Essai min. sur la solfatara de Pozzuoli, Naples: 155.
Memorie Mineralogische e Geologiche - Napoli (1840) 17.
Scacchi (1841): 17.
Scacchi (1843) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 28: 487.
Scacchi (1852) Zeitschrift der Deutsche geologische Gesellschaft, Berlin: 4: 164.
Paulinyi (1867) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 457.
Blaas (1881) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 3: 499.
Blaas (1883) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 87: 143.
Collins (1923) Mineralogical Magazine: 20: 32 (Serrano analysis).
Ulrich (1923) Casopis pro min. a geol.
Anderson (1927) American Mineralogist: 12: 287.
Ulrich (1927) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 330.
Lausen (1928) American Mineralogist: 13: 226.
Gossner and Arm (1929) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 72: 202.
Gossner and Besslein (1934) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 358.
Mélon and Donnay (1936) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Bulletin: 59: B162.
Bandy (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 749.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 464-465.
American Mineralogist (1967) 52: 617-634.
Mereiter, K. (1972) Die Kristallstruktur des Voltaits, K2Fe52+Fe33+Al[SO4]12.18H2O. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 18, 185—202.
Majzlan, J., Schlicht, H., Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, M., Giester, G., Pöllmann, H., Brömme, B., Doyle, S., Buth, G., and Bender Koch, C. (2013) A contribution to the crystal chemistry of the voltaite group: solid solutions, Mössbauer and infrared spectra, and anomalous anisotropy. Mineralogy and Petrology, 107, 221-233.

Internet Links for VoltaiteHide

Localities for VoltaiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca Province
    • Andalgalá Department
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
Marquez Zavalia, M. F. (1986): Challantite of Capillitas Mine, Catamarca. Revista de la Asociacion Argentina de Mineralogia, Petrologia y Sedimentologia 17, 19-22. (in Spanish); MARQUEZ-ZAVALIA, M.F.. The As-rich end-member of the jordanite-geocronite series of the Capillitas Mine, Catamarca. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2006, vol.61, n.2, pp. 231-235.
  • Jujuy Province
    • Santa Bárbara Department
      • Cerros de Santa Bárbara (Cerro Santa Bárbara)
        • El Palmar hot springs
Marquez-Zavalia, Maria Florencia, Lomniczi de Upton, Irene & Galliski, Miguel Angel (2001): Krausite in fumaroles from Santa Barbara mine, northwestern Argentina. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 2001, 378-384. ; Zavalia, Maria Florencia Marquez & Galliski, Miguel Angel (1995): Goldichite of fumarolic origin from the Santa Barbara mine, Jujuy, northwestern Argentina. Canadian Mineralogist 33, 1059-1062.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
No reference listed
    • Mount Isa City Shire
      • Mount Isa
Sielecki, R. (1988) The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field. Mineralogical Record, Vol. 19, pg. 469-490.
Sielecki, R (1985): Voltaite and Römerite from the Mt Isa Mine, Queensland: The First Occurrence in Australia, The Australian Mineralogist, Vol 1 Nos. 1 - 51 (March 1985 p 285).
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Leibnitz District
      • Leutschach an der Weinstraße
Taucher, J. (1997)
    • Voitsberg District
      • Köflach
        • Köflach - Voitsberg lignite deposit
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Walter, F. and Postl, W. (1983) Ammoniojarosit und Voltait vom Muttlkogel, Zangtaler Kohlenrevier bei Voitsberg, Steiermark. Mitteilungen der Abteilung für Mineralogie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, 51, 29-32.
Belgium
 
  • Wallonia
    • Hainaut
      • Fleurus
        • Soleimont (Soleilmont)
Richard de Nul communication
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí
    • Potosí City
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 605; Mineralogical Record: 32: 465.; Lindgren, W. and Creveling, J.G. (1928) The ores of Potosi, Bolivia. Economic Geology, 23, #3, 233-262.
Bulgaria
 
  • Montana Province
    • Chiprovtsi Obshtina
Dimitrova, D. A., Mladenova, V. G., & Hecht, L. (2008). Hydrous sulphates formed during oxidation of colloform pyrite from Chiprovtsi Ag-Pb deposit, NW Bulgaria. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Supplement, 72, A217.; Dimitrova, D.; Mladenova, V.; Hecht, L. (2020) Efflorescent Sulfate Crystallization on Fractured and Polished Colloform Pyrite Surfaces: A Migration Pathway of Trace Elements. Minerals10, 12.
Canada
 
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cape Breton Co.
Zodrow, E.L. (1989) Summary report of secondary sulphate minerals, Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada. Nova Scotia Department of Mines & Energy, Report 89-3, Mines & Minerals Branch Report of Activities, Part A: 141-143.
  • Ontario
    • Algoma District
      • Nicolet Township
Sabina, Ann P. (1991) Rocks and Minerals for the Collector: Sudbury to Winnipeg, Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 49.
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49.
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49.
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.58
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Bomby Township
        • Hemlo gold deposit
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.86
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
      • Mejillones
        • Mejillones peninsula
identified by Gerhard Möhn
      • Sierra Gorda
Malcherek, T. & Schlüter, J. (2010): Anatacamite from La Vendida mine, Sierra Gorda, Atacama desert, Chile: a triclinic polymorph of Cu2(OH)3Cl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 187, 307-312.
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Cerritos Bayos
Kampf, A.R.; Mills, S.J.; Housley, R.M.; Williams, P.A.; Dini, M. (2012): Alcaparrosaite, K3Ti4+Fe3+(SO4)4O(H2O)2, a new hydrophobic Ti4+ sulfate from Alcaparrosa, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine 76, 851-861.
        • Chuquicamata District
Handbook of Mineralogy
          • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
Natural History Museum Vienna collection (Uwe Kolitsch SXRD on Arturo Molina material)
  • Atacama
    • Huasco Province
      • Alto del Carmen
Chouinard, A., Paquette, J., & Williams-Jones, A. E. (2005). Crystallographic controls on trace-element incorporation in auriferous pyrite from the Pascua epithermal high-sulfidation deposit, Chile–Argentina. The Canadian Mineralogist, 43(3), 951-963.
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Wuhai (Wuhai Prefecture)
      • Wuda District
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 39, No. 2, p. 81
American Mineralogist: 90: 1729-1739.
  • Xinjiang
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Yizhou District
Yingxia Xu, Kezhang Qin, Kuishou Ding, Yu Miao, Tonghui Fang, Xingwang Xu, and He Sun (2007): Mineral Deposits 26(1), 58-69; Yingxia Xu, Kezhang Qin, Kunshou Ding, Jinxiang Li, Yu Miao, Tonghui Fang, Xingwang Xu, Daming Li, and Xiuquan Luo (2008): Acta Petrologica Sinica 24(10), 2371-2383
Costa Rica
 
  • Alajuela Province
Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
  • Cartago Province
    • Irazú Volcano
Ulloa, A., Gázquez, F., Sanz Arranz, A., Medina García, J., Rull Pérez, F., Calaforra, J. M., ... & De Waele, J. (2018). Extremely high diversity of sulfate minerals in caves of the Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) related to crater lake and fumarolic activity.
Cyprus
 
  • Nicosia District
    • Skouriotissa
Dana 7:II: 465,467.
Czech Republic
 
  • South Moravian Region
    • Brno-Country District
      • Zastávka
David Parfitt collection
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Gard
      • Saint-Laurent-le-Minier
        • Les Malines District
Chollet Pascal collection
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Hautes-Alpes
      • La Chapelle-en-Valgaudemar (La Chapelle-en-Valgaudémar)
Bourgoin, V., Favreau, G., Boulliard, J.-C. (2011): Jas Roux: un gisement exceptionnel à minéraux de thallium. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2011, 2-91.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Tirschenreuth
        • Leonberg
          • Pfaffenreuth
Lapis, 10 (9), 13-20+50.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Rammelsberg
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 465.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Soest
        • Rüthen
          • Kallenhardt
Rösler, H.G. (1984) Lehrbuch der Mineralogie. VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig, 844 pages, at p.676.
    • Cologne
      • Aachen
        • Alsdorf
Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German); XRD analysis (T. Witzke); Sindern, S., Warnsloh, J. M., Witzke, T., Havenith, V., Neef, R. & Etoundi, Y. (2005): Mineralogy and geochemistry of vents formed on the burning coal mining waste dump Anna I, Alsdorf, Germany. Eur. J. Mineral. 17, Beih. 1, 130; Witzke, T., de Wit, F., Kolitsch, U. and Blaß, G. (2015): Mineralogy of the Burning Anna I Coal Mine Dump, Alsdorf, Germany. Chapter 7, pp. 203-240, in: Stracher, G. B., Prakash, A. and Sokol, E. V.: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3: Case Studies - Coal Fires, Elsevier, 786 pp.
    • The Ruhr
      • Herne
No reference listed
      • Marl
        • Marl-Hüls
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Oberharz am Brocken
        • Elbingerode
Lapis 2003(2), 13-20
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
      • Freital
Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Plaka
Katerinopoulos, A. & Zissimopoulou, E. (1994): New mineral occurences from the Laurium mines. Mineralogical Record, 25, 279-280. [from "Plaka mine", probably from Plaka Sulfate Locality ("Hydrosulfatstollen")] ]
Hanke, H. (1994): Neues aus Lavrion: Eisen-, kupfer- und kobalthaltige Hydro-Sulfate aus dem Revier Plaka. Emser Hefte, 1994 (2); Schnorrer, G. & Breitenbach, H. (1996): Lavrion: Neufunde aus dem antiken Bergbau und in historischen Schlacken. Lapis, 21 (1), 45-48; 62.
Branko Rieck Collection
Rieck, B., Kolitsch, U., Voudouris, P., Giester, G. and Tzeferis, P. (2018): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Mineralien-Welt 29 (5), 32-77 (in German).
          • Sounion area
Branko Rieck Collection
Hungary
 
  • Baranya County
    • Pécs
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F. (2008): Ammonium sulphates from burning coal dumps at Komló and Pécs-Vasas, Mecsek Mts., South Hungary. Mineralogia, Special Papers, Vol. 32 (2nd Central-European Mineralogical Conference 2008 (CEMC)), 154.
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Kazincbarcika District
      • Rudabánya
Szakáll: Minerals of Rudabánya, 2001
    • Miskolc District
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
  • Heves County
    • Mátraszentimre
collector: Gábor Koller, XRD: Ferenc Kristály, EDS: Sándor Szakáll; Szakáll-Kristály-2018
  • Pest County
    • Szob District
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
Sánoor Szakáll, Mária Foldvári, Gábor Papp, Péter Kovács-pálffy, Árpád Kovács (1997) Secondary Sulphate Minerals From Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-petrographica, Szeged, Xxxviii, Supplementum, 7-63.
Sánoor Szakáll, Mária Foldvári, Gábor Papp, Péter Kovács-pálffy, Árpád Kovács (1997) Secondary Sulphate Minerals From Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-petrographica, Szeged, Xxxviii, Supplementum, 7-63.
  • Veszprém County
    • Tapolca district
      • Lesenceistvánd
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
  • Zala County
    • Keszthely district
      • Rezi
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
Iran
 
  • Hormozgan Province
    • Bandar-Abbas County
      • Bandar Abbas (Bandar-e Abbas)
        • Haji Abad town
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 465.
  • Yazd Province
    • Ardakan County
      • Saghand
Bariand, P., Cesbron, F. & Berthelon, J. P. (1977): Iron sulfates of Saghand near Yazd (Iran). Memoire Hors-Série de la Société Géologique de France 8, 77-85.
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Bacoli
        • Miseno
Bellini R. (1901): La Grotta dello Zolfo nei Campi Flegrei. Boll. Soc. Geol. It., 20, (3), 470-475; Francesco Civero collection
      • Pozzuoli
- Russo, M., Campostrini, I., Demartin, F. (2017): I minerali di origine fumarolica dei Campi Flegrei: Solfatara di Pozzuoli (Napoli) e dintorni. Micro, 15, 122-192.
- Russo, M., Campostrini, I., Demartin, F. (2017): I minerali di origine fumarolica dei Campi Flegrei: Solfatara di Pozzuoli (Napoli) e dintorni. Micro, 15, 122-192.
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Russo, M., 2006: I minerali di formazione fumarolica della grande eruzione vesuviana del 1906
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
  • Sicily
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
          • Vulcano Island
            • Porto Levante
              • Faraglioni di Levante (Grotte dei Faraglioni; Grotte del Faraglione; "Grotte de Faraglione")
I. Campostrini, 2008, pers. com. [M.E. Ciriotti]. PANICHI U. (1924): Contributo allo studio dei minerali dell'Isola di Vulcano. - Memorie della Società Italiana delle Scienze (detta dei XL) - serie 3 - 19, 3-55.
PANICHI U. (1924): Contributo allo studio dei minerali dell'Isola di Vulcano. - Memorie della Società Italiana delle Scienze (detta dei XL) - serie 3 - 19, 3-55.
PANICHI U. (1924): Contributo allo studio dei minerali dell'Isola di Vulcano. - Memorie della Società Italiana delle Scienze (detta dei XL) - serie 3 - 19, 3-55.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Montieri
Brizzi G., Masotti A., 1989. Campiano: un vanto d'Italia. La miniera e i suoi minerali. Riv. Miner. Ital., 12: 1-20.
      • Scansano
        • Pereta
Brizzi, G. & Meli, R. (1995): La miniera antimonifera di Pereta con un cenno a quella solfo-cinabrifera di Zolfiere in comune di Scansano (GR). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 19:, 217-240.
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Capoliveri
J. Göske, T. Witzke, H. Pöllmann, S. Stöber (1997) - Neufunde von Sekundarmineralen in der Lagerstatte Calamita/Insel Elba - Der Aufschluss, 48: 305-313.
    • Lucca Province
      • Stazzema
        • Sant'Anna di Stazzema
Biagioni C, Bindi L, Mauro D, Hålenius U. (2019) Crystal Chemistry of Sulfates from the Apuan Alps (Tuscany, Italy). V. Scordariite, K8(Fe3+0.67□0.33)[Fe3+3O(SO4)6(H2O)3]2(H2O)11: A New Metavoltine-Related Mineral. Minerals. 9(11):702.
      • Vergemoli
        • Fornovolasco
Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., & Bonini, M. (2008). Fornovolasco. Storia e minerali delle miniere di ferro presso Vergemoli (Alpi Apuane). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2008, 230-252; Mauro D. (2016): Studio cristallochimico di alcuni solfati di ferro della mineralizzazione a pirite tallifera di Fornovolasco (Alpi Apuane). Tesi magistrale, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Unviersità di Pisa, 137 pp.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaidō Prefecture
    • Hidaka Subprefecture
      • Saru District
        • Monbetsu (Mombetsu)
Okamoto collection (curated at the Geological Survey museum, Japan); Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
    • Sorachi Subprefecture
      • Mikasa City
Shimobayashi, N., Ohnishi, M., & Miura, H. (2011). Ammonium sulfate minerals from Mikasa, Hokkaido, Japan: boussingaultite, godovikovite, efremovite and tschermigite. Journal of mineralogical and petrological sciences, 106(3), 158-163.
  • Kagoshima Prefecture
    • Kagoshima District
      • Tokara Archipelago
Alfredo Petrov collection.
Lebanon
 
  • South Governate
    • Jezzine District
Kruszewski, Ł., 2018/2019. Secondary sulfate minerals from Bhanine valley coals (South Lebanon) – a crystallochemical and geochemical study. Geological Quarterly (in press)
Mexico
 
  • Durango
    • Cuencamé Municipality
      • Velardeña District
        • Velardeña
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 463; Panczner (1987): 391.; Am Min (1931), 16:352-360
Peru
 
  • Arequipa
    • Caylloma Province
      • Chivay District
Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
Poland
 
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Rybnik Co.
      • Gmina Czerwionka-Leszczyny
Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf (esp. p. 347)]
    • Wodzisław Co.
      • Radlin
Kruszewski, Ł., Fabiańska, M.J., Segit, T., Kusy, D., Motyliński, R., Ciesielczuk, J., Deput, E., (2019): Carbon-nitrogen compounds, alcohols, mercaptans, monoterpenes, acetates, aldehydes, ketones, SF6, PH3, and other fire gases in coal-mining waste heaps of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) – a re-investigation by means of in situ FTIR external database approach. Science of The Total Environment (in press)
Portugal
 
  • Beja
    • Aljustrel
      • Aljustrel
        • Aljustrel Mine
Pedro Alves collection and analytical data.
Romania
 
  • Maramureș
    • Baia Sprie (Felsőbánya)
      • Baia Sprie mine (Felsőbánya mine)
Buzatu, A., Damian, G., & Buzgar, N. (2012) Raman And Infrared Studies Of Weathering Products From Baia Sprie Ore Deposit (Romania). Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits, 85:7-10
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Štiavnica District
    • Žiar nad Hronom District
- Ďuďa R., 1993: Die mineralien der Gold und Silber - Lagersttäte von Kremnitz (Kremnica) in der Slowakei. Mineralien Welt,5, 20-32.
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 531; Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Huelva
      • Minas de Riotinto
        • Rio Tinto Mines (Riotinto Mines)
Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Switzerland
 
  • Valais
    • Le Trient Valley
      • Les Marécottes
- Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 121.
Tajikistan
 
  • Sughd
    • Zeravshan Range
      • Yagnob River
PXRD (Lukasz Kruszewski)
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • City of Edinburgh
Livingstone, A. and Macpherson, H.G. (1983) Fifth supplementary list of British minerals (Scottish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 47, n° 342, p. 99-105.
    • Renfrewshire
Livingstone, A. and Macpherson, H.G. (1983) Fifth supplementary list of British minerals (Scottish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 47, n° 342, p. 99-105.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Handbook of Mineralogy; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:69
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 297; Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 7.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 352.
        • Queen Hill
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 531; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 184, 415; Merwin, H.E. & E. Posnjak (1937), Sulphate encrustations in the Copper Queen mine, Bisbee, AZ, Am.Min.: 22: 567-571; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 59.
    • Coconino County
      • San Franciscan volcanic field (San Francisco Peaks; San Francisco Mts)
Hanson, S. L., A. U. Fastner, W. B. Simmons (2008) Mineralogy of the Fumerole deposits at Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, Northern Arizona. Rocks & Mnerals 83:6 pp 534-544.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Pinal Mountains
        • Pioneer Mining District
          • Superior
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 354, 388, 416.; Presmyk, L. (2020). The Magma Mine, Pioneer District, Superior, Pinal County, Arizona. Rocks & Minerals, 95(1), 68-91.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Black Hills (Black Hill Range)
        • Verde Mining District
          • Jerome
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 416; Lausen, C. (1928), Hydrous sulphates formed under fumerolic conditions at the United Verde mine, AmMin: 13: 203-229; Anderson, C.A. (1927), Voltaite from Jerome, AZ, Am.Min.: 12: 287-290; Hutton, C.O. (1959a), Yavapaiite, an anhydrous potassium, ferric sulfate from Jerome, AZ: Am.Min.: 44: 1105-1114; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 59.
  • California
    • Contra Costa Co.
      • Clayton
        • Mount Diablo (Mt Diablo)
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 382; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 278.
    • Imperial Co.
      • Niland
Adams, P., & Lynch, D. (2014). A mineralogical inventory of geothermal features southeast of the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California. Trough to trough: The Colorado River and the Salton Sea (Reynolds, R, 39-43.
    • Inyo Co.
      • Coso Hot Springs
www.mineralsocal.org
    • Napa Co.
      • Knoxville Mining District
        • Knoxville
Melville, William Harlow & Waldemar Lindgren (1890), Contributions to the mineralogy of the Pacific coast: USGS Bulletin 61, 40pp.: 23; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 278.
    • San Benito Co.
      • New Idria Mining District
        • Idria (New Idria)
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 278; www.mineralsocal.org.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
        • Calico District (Daggett District; Calico-Daggett area)
          • Calico
Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 14-15; Scordari, F., Vurro, F., and Menchetti, S. (1975) The metavoltine problem: relationships between metavoltine and Maus’ salt. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 22: 88-97; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 278; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
    • Shasta Co.
      • Klamath Mountains
        • West Shasta Copper - Zinc Mining District
          • Iron Mountain [town]
            • Iron Mountain
Mineralogical Record 22:381-382; Nordstrom, D. K. and Alpers, C. N. (1999): Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restauration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 96, 3455-3462.; Majzlan, J., Alpers, C. N., Koch, C. B., McCleskey, R. B., Myneni, S. C., & Neil, J. M. (2011). Vibrational, X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of sulfate minerals from the weathered massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, California. Chemical Geology, 284(3), 296-305.
Jamieson, H. E., Robinson, C., Alpers, C. N., McCleskey, R. B., Nordstrom, D. K., & Peterson, R. C. (2005). Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California. Chemical Geology, 215(1), 387-405.
      • Lassen Volcanic National Park
        • Lassen Peak
Day, Arthur L. & E.T. Allen (1925), The volcanic activity and hot springs of Lassen Peak, California: Carnegie Instit. Washington Pub. 360, 190 pp.; […Volcano Letter o. 293: 1-3 1930]: 118; Anderson, Charles A. (1927), Voltaite from Jerome, Arizona: American Mineralogist: 12: 290; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 382.
    • Sonoma Co.
      • West Mayacmas Mining District
Allen, Eugene T. & Arthur L. Day (1927), Steam wells and other thermal activity at “The Geysers,” California: Carnegie Institute Washington Publication 378: 40; Vonsen, Magnus (1941) Preliminary report on minerals of The Geysers of Sonoma County, California. Mineralogist: 9: 246; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 476.
          • Geyser Canyon (Geyser Creek Canyon)
Vonsen, Magnus (1941) Preliminary report on minerals of The Geysers of Sonoma County, California. Mineralogist: 9: 247; Vonsen, Magnus (1946), Minerals at “The Geysers,” Sonoma County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 291; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 278.
  • Kentucky
    • Lincoln Co.
MinRec 28 (5), 369-384.
Rocks & Minerals 81:420-440
  • Missouri
    • Wayne Co.
Sherwood, M. D., & Williams, G. A. (1998). Missouri mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 73(2), 98-117.
  • Montana
    • Butte-Silver Bow (Butte; Silver Bow Co.)
      • Butte Mining District (Summit Valley Mining District)
The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Elko Co.
      • Bootstrap Mining District
        • Goldstrike Mines
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Lodi Hills
        • Lodi Mining District
          • Quartz Mountain camp
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada; Rocks & Minerals (2010) 85:512-524
  • New Mexico
    • Santa Fe Co.
      • La Bajada District
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd rev. ed., 1996
  • Ohio
    • Huron Co.
      • Huron River
Dr Pete Richards
  • Pennsylvania
    • Columbia Co.
STRACHER, Glenn B., (2007) GAS VENT MINERALOGY OF COAL FIRES BURNING AROUND THE WORLD Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 39, No. 2, p. 81
  • Tennessee
    • Monroe Co.
      • Tellico Plains
Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
  • Utah
    • Beaver Co.
      • San Francisco Mountains
        • San Francisco Mining District (Frisco Mining District)
          • Frisco
Mike Scott S101981 fm Cureton #FUO
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael Mining District (San Rafael Swell)
        • Calf Mesa
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Am.Min.40:469; Min Rec 19:331-338
    • San Juan Co.
      • Red Canyon
  • Virginia
    • Wise Co.
      • Big Stone Gap
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
 
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