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Augite

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About AugiteHide

Formula:
(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Where 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.9, x+y+z=1 and y1+z1=1

This formula is based on the definition by Morimoto et al. (1988)
Colour:
Brown-green, black, green-black, brown, purplish brown
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Specific Gravity:
3.19 - 3.56
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named by Abraham G. Werner in 1792 from the Greek αυγή ("auge") for "shine" or "luster," in allusion to the appearance of its cleavage surfaces.
Pyroxene Group, Clinopyroxene Subgroup. In the Ca-Fe-Mg (diopside-hedenbergite-augite) quadrilateral, the ideal structural formula is M2M1[Si2O6], where M2 is a distorted octahedral site which preferentially accepts large cations such as alkaline earth/alkali atoms (Ca, but may accept transition metals) and where M1 is a smaller regular octahedral site preferentially accepting transition metals, etc. (most commonly Mg, Fe2+). The substitutions containing no changes in valence within M2 (2+), Mi (2+), and tetrahedral sites, T (4+), is the normal scheme. A variety of additional substitution schemes, which require coupling of substituents, have been identified in these pyroxenes. Often these substitutions result in a change of species designation when they are dominant.

Substitution 1 has Na substitution in M2 and trivalent ions of Al, Fe, Cr, and Sc substituting in M1.

Substitution 2 involves Na substitution in M2 and mixed valance transition metals such as [Fe2+0.5Ti4+0.5] substituting in M1.

Substitution 3, also called Tschermak's Component, involves coupled M1 octahedral and tetrahedral substitutions, such as CaAl[AlSiO6] or CaTi3+[AlSiO6].

Substitution 4 is a variant of Substitution 2 and has dominant Ca in M2 with mixed valence substitution in M1 involving divalent and tetravalent Ti and Al substitution in tetrahedral sites, e.g. Ca[(Mg, Fe2+0.5Ti4+0.5)][AlSiO6]. In highly substituted Ca-Fe-Mg pyroxenes, several substitutional schemes may be identified.

Substitution schemes 2 and 4 have not yet yielded named mineral species.

Augite could be considered to be a sub-calcic member of the diopside-hedenbergite series but, as defined by Morimoto et al. (1988) may have Fe>Mg or Mg>Fe without a change in name. Because of the way augite has been defined (Morimoto et al, 1988), there is the implication that in rare cases, a variety of anions may be dominant in various the various sites, including M2, M1, and T. These extreme compositions are rare in the large majority of augites. The clinopyroxenes with Wo5-20 are classed as pigeonite, another mineral that could be thought of as slightly alkalic clinoenstatite-clinoferrosilite.

However, there is a structural discontinuity between these pyroxenes at low-medium temperatures, and detailed chemical analysis and even structural analysis should be obtained in order to properly classify these unusual compositions. Similarly, extensive substitution of Na, for example, as in scheme 1 (Morimoto et al., 1988) could lead to Aegirine-augite or aegirine compositions depending on the other elements involved.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Augite.


Classification of AugiteHide

TRI__c11e3dbc5bc69bc5d7e34e1c2dd9f28f.png

Augite and its relation to other pyroxenes (after Morimoto et al., 1988).

TRI__a01bb04fb014c1d929e1b2dd36431046.png

Previous petrological nomenclature of clinopyroxenes from basaltic magmas (after Poldervaart & Hess, 1951)

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.DA.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
A : Inosilicates with 2-periodic single chains, Si2O6; pyroxene family
65.1.3a.3

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
1 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
16.23.1

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
23 : Aluminosilicates of Fe, Ca, and Mg

Physical Properties of AugiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Brown-green, black, green-black, brown, purplish brown
Streak:
Greenish gray, light to dark brown
Hardness:
5½ - 6 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Good on {110}
Parting:
on {100} and {010}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.19 - 3.56 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.31 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AugiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.680 - 1.735 nβ = 1.684 - 1.741 nγ = 1.706 - 1.774
2V:
Measured: 40° to 52°, Calculated: 48° to 68°
Birefringence:
0.032
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.026 - 0.039
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v weak to distinct
Optical Extinction:
Z : c = 35°-48°
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X= pale green, pale brown, green, greenish yellow
Y= pale brown, pale yellow-green, violet
Z= pale green, grayish green, violet

Chemical Properties of AugiteHide

Formula:
(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6

Where 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.9, x+y+z=1 and y1+z1=1

This formula is based on the definition by Morimoto et al. (1988)
IMA Formula:
(Ca,Mg,Fe)2Si2O6
Common Impurities:
Ti,Cr,Na,Mn,K

Crystallography of AugiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Setting:
C2/c
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.699 Å, b = 8.844 Å, c = 5.272 Å
β = 106.97°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.097 : 1 : 0.596
Unit Cell V:
432.53 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Stubby prismatic crystals.
Twinning:
Simple or multiple on {100}, also on {001}
Comment:
Axial setting is C1 2/c 1.

Crystallographic forms of AugiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Augite no.24 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Augite no.111 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000001AugiteClark J, Appleman D, Papike J (1969) Crystal-chemical characterization of clinopyroxenes based on eight new structure refinements _cod_database_code 1000035 Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 2 31-501969Kakanui, New Zealand0293
0002990AugiteBindi L, Safonov O G, Yapaskurt V O, Perchuk L L, Menchetti S (2003) Ultrapotassic clinopyroxene from the Kumdy-Kol microdiamond mine, Kokchetav Complex, Kazakhstan: Occurrence, composition and crystal-chemical characterization American Mineralogist 88 464-46820030293
0012864AugiteGualtieri A F (2000) Accuracy of XRPD QPA using the combined Rietveld-RIR method Journal of Applied Crystallography 33 267-2782000Napoli, Italy0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.22 Å(70)
2.99 Å(100)
2.94 Å(60)
2.90 Å(30)
2.56 Å(40)
2.53 Å(30)
2.51 Å(50)
2.13 Å(30)
Comments:
ICDD 41-1483 (titanian augite)

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Major rock forming mineral in mafic igneous rocks, ultramafic rocks, and some high-grade metamorphic rocks.

Synonyms of AugiteHide

Other Language Names for AugiteHide

Basque:Augita
Catalan:Augita
Croatian:Augit
Czech:Augit
Dutch:Augiet
Esperanto:Aŭgito
Finnish:Augiitti
Hebrew:אוגיט
Hungarian:Augit
Japanese:普通輝石
Lithuanian:Augitas
Polish:Augit
Portuguese:Augite
Russian:Авгит
Serbian:Аугит
Simplified Chinese:普通辉石
Swedish:Augit
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Авгит
Ukrainian:Авгіт

Varieties of AugiteHide

AsteroiteA stellate radiating iron-rich variety of Augite.
FassaiteAugite with a low iron content.
Originally reported from Fassa Valley, Trento Province, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy.
FerroaugiteAn obsolete term for a pyroxene that would now be categorized as augite.
FerrohedenbergitePreviously defined as a clinopyroxene with Ca: 25-45% and Mg < 10%;
Korea-AugiteDistinguised by its optical properties, from an Alkali-trachyte in Korea.
Soda-AugiteIntermediate between Augite and Aegirine-Augite, unsure how this differs from the latter.
Titanian AugiteA Ti-rich variety of Augite, usually notably pink in thinsection.

Relationship of Augite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
BurnettiteCaVAlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
DavisiteCaScAlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
GrossmaniteCaTi3+ AlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6Mon.
JervisiteNaSc3+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
KosmochlorNaCrSi2O6Mon.
KushiroiteCaAl[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
NamansiliteNaMn3+Si2O6Mon.
NatalyiteNaV3+Si2O6Mon.
Omphacite(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m
PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6Mon.
Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Tissintite(Ca,Na,◻)AlSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
UM2001-19-SiO:AlCaMgNa(Na,Mg,Ca)(Mg,Al)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
UM2003-36-SiO:CaNaNaCrSi2O6 - CaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
56 photos of Augite associated with CalciteCaCO3
26 photos of Augite associated with PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
24 photos of Augite associated with Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
24 photos of Augite associated with Scapolite
21 photos of Augite associated with FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
21 photos of Augite associated with Scapolite Group
18 photos of Augite associated with LeuciteK(AlSi2O6)
18 photos of Augite associated with IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
15 photos of Augite associated with ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
15 photos of Augite associated with TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DA.ProtoenstatiteMg2Si2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
9.DA.05Donpeacorite(Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2Orth.
9.DA.05EnstatiteMg2Si2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.DA.05FerrosiliteFeSiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.DA.10ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.DA.10ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.DA.10KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.DA.10Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.DA.15DiopsideCaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.15DavisiteCaScAlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15KushiroiteCaAl[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15GrossmaniteCaTi3+ AlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.20Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.20Omphacite(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m
9.DA.25AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.25JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.25JervisiteNaSc3+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.25KosmochlorNaCrSi2O6Mon.
9.DA.25NamansiliteNaMn3+Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.25NatalyiteNaV3+Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.30SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

65.1.3a.1DiopsideCaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
65.1.3a.2HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
65.1.3a.4JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
65.1.3a.5PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6Mon.
65.1.3a.6EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.23.2DorriteCa4(Mg3Fe3+9)O4(Si3Al8Fe3+O36)Tric.
16.23.3VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
16.23.5Ferro-hornblende◻Ca2(Fe2+4Al)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2Mon.
16.23.6Magnesio-hornblende◻Ca2(Mg4Al)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
16.23.7Aerinite(Ca5.1Na0.5)(Fe3+,Al,Fe2+,Mg)4(Al,Mg)6[HSi12O36(OH)12][(CO3)1.2(H2O)12]Mon.

Fluorescence of AugiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Augite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for AugiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Dana, E.S. (1892) Dana's System of Mineralogy, 6th edition, New York, NY: 352-364.
Poldervaart, A , Hess, H.H. (1951) , "Pyroxenes in the Crystallization of Basaltic Magma," The Journal of Geology 59, no. 5 (Sep., 1951): 472-489.
Clark, J.R., Appleman, D.E., Papike, J.J. (1969) Crystal-chemical characterization of clinopyroxenes based on eight new structure refinements. MSA Special Paper 2: 31-50.
Robinson, P., Ross, M., Nord, G.L., Smyth, J.R., Jaffe, H.W. (1977) Exsolution lamellae in augite and pigeonite: fossil indicators of lattice parameters at high temperature and pressure. American Mineralogist: 62: 857-873.
Phillips, W.R., Griffin, D.T. (1981) Optical Mineralogy: 196-198.
Morimoto, N., Fabries, J., Ferguson, A. K., Ginzburg, I. V., Ross, M., Seifert, F. A., Zussman, J., Aoki, K., Gottardi, G. (1988) Nomenclature of Pyroxenes. American Mineralogist: 73: 1123-1133.
Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J. (1997) Rock-Forming Minerals. Volume 2A, Geological Society of London, 764pp., 294-398.

Internet Links for AugiteHide

Localities for AugiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

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