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Atheneite

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About AtheneiteHide

00025430014947525781905.jpg
Athena
Formula:
Pd2As0.75Hg0.25
Colour:
Grey
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
5
Specific Gravity:
10.2
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
For the Greek goddess Pallas Athena, in allusion to its palladium content.
The As analogue of UM1974-24-Te:Pd and (the possibly identical to the latter) UM1991-26-Te:AsPd.


Classification of AtheneiteHide

Approved
2.AC.05a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
A : Alloys
C : Alloys of metalloids with PGE
2.2.4.1

2 : SULFIDES
2 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:1
3.12.26

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals

Pronounciation of AtheneiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of AtheneiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Grey
Hardness:
Hardness:
VHN100=419 - 442 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Density:
10.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    10.16 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AtheneiteHide

Anisotropism:
Distinct
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=46.1%R2= 48.3%
420nmR1=47.4%R2= 49.8%
440nmR1=48.5%R2= 50.9%
460nmR1=49.7%R2= 52.4%
480nmR1=50.8%R2= 53.6%
500nmR1=51.9%R2= 54.8%
520nmR1=53.0%R2= 55.8%
540nmR1=54.0%R2= 56.7%
560nmR1=54.8%R2= 57.3%
580nmR1=55.7%R2= 57.8%
600nmR1=56.4%R2= 58.3%
620nmR1=57.0%R2= 58.5%
640nmR1=57.4%R2= 58.6%
660nmR1=57.6%R2= 58.7%
680nmR1=57.9%R2= 59.0%
700nmR1=58.2%R2= 59.1%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 59.1%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
White with a bluish tint
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Pale yellow-white to bluish gray-white

Chemical Properties of AtheneiteHide

Formula:
Pd2As0.75Hg0.25
IMA Formula:
Pd2(As0.75Hg0.25)
Common Impurities:
Au,Cu,Sb

Crystallography of AtheneiteHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6 m2 - Ditrigonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P62m
Setting:
P62m
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.813 Å, c = 3.4892 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.512
Unit Cell V:
140.26 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
Blebs
Comment:
The refinement of an anisotropic model led to an R index of 7.26% for 261 independent reflections

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0017797AtheneiteBindi L (2010) Atheneite, [Pd2][As0.75Hg0.25], from Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Crystal structure and revision of the chemical formula The Canadian Mineralogist 48 1149-11552010Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.423 Å(vvs)
2.246 Å(vs)
1.871 Å(ms)
1.371 Å(s)
1.302 Å(s)
1.259 Å(s)
1.034 Å(ms)
Comments:
Itabira, Brazil (ICDD 26-889). Abbreviations: m = medium, s = strong, v = very.

Type Occurrence of AtheneiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Natural History Museum, London, England, 1934,72, 1977,259; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA, 142504.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Placer
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of AtheneiteHide

Other Language Names for AtheneiteHide

German:Atheneit
Simplified Chinese:砷汞钯矿
Spanish:Atheneita
Traditional Chinese:砷汞鈀礦

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
4 photos of Atheneite associated with GoldAu
4 photos of Atheneite associated with FuchsiteK(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
4 photos of Atheneite associated with HematiteFe2O3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.AC.TörnroositePd11As2Te2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
2.AC.05bVincentitePd3AsTet.
2.AC.10cArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3Tric. 1 : P1
2.AC.10bMertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
2.AC.10aStillwateritePd8As3Trig.
2.AC.15aIsomertieitePd11Sb2As2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
2.AC.15bMertieite-IPd11(Sb,As)4Hex.
2.AC.15aMiessiitePd11Te2Se2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
2.AC.20bPalarstanidePd5(Sn,As)2Hex.
2.AC.20aStibiopalladinitePd5Sb2Hex.
2.AC.20cMenshikovitePd3Ni2As3Hex. 6/m : P63/m
2.AC.25eMajakitePdNiAsHex.
2.AC.25aPalladoarsenidePd2AsMon. 2/m : P2/m
2.AC.25fPalladobismutharsenidePd2(As,Bi)Orth.
2.AC.25cPalladodymite(Pd,Rh)2AsOrth.
2.AC.25bRhodarsenide(Rh,Pd)2AsOrth.
2.AC.25dNaldrettitePd2SbOrth. mm2 : Cmc21
2.AC.30UM1999-02-As:NiRh(Rh,Ni)7As4
2.AC.30PolkanoviteRh12As7Hex.
2.AC.35aGenkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2
2.AC.35bUngavaitePd4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
2.AC.40PolaritePd(Bi,Pb)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
2.AC.45cBorishanskiitePd1+x(As,Pb)2 , x = 0-0.2Orth. mm2
2.AC.45aFrooditeα-PdBi2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.AC.45bIridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.12.1Seinäjokite(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)2Orth.
3.12.2LauriteRuS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)AsOrth.
3.12.4Anduoite(Ru,Os)As2Orth.
3.12.5Ruarsite(Ru,Os)AsSMon.
3.12.6XingzhongitePb2+Ir3+2S4Iso.
3.12.7RhodplumsiteRh3Pb2S2Trig.
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite(Cu1+0.5Fe3+0.5)Rh3+2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.9KonderiteCu3Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)8S16Hex. 6/m : P6/m
3.12.10Bowieite(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.12.11CherepanoviteRhAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.12.12Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
3.12.13Vysotskite(Pd,Ni)STet.
3.12.14Vasilite(Pd,Cu)16(S,Te)7Iso.
3.12.15PalladseitePd17Se15Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
3.12.16Oosterboschite(Pd,Cu)7Se5Orth.
3.12.17TelluropalladinitePd9Te4Mon.
3.12.18TemagamitePd3HgTe3Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.19SopcheiteAg4Pd3Te4Orth.
3.12.20MicheneritePdBiTeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
3.12.21KotulskitePd(Te,Bi)2-x (x ≈ 0.4)Hex.
3.12.22Telargpalite(Pd,Ag)3(Te,Bi)Iso.
3.12.23MerenskyitePdTe2Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.24PalladoarsenidePd2AsMon. 2/m : P2/m
3.12.25StillwateritePd8As3Trig.
3.12.27MajakitePdNiAsHex.
3.12.28PalarstanidePd5(Sn,As)2Hex.
3.12.29ArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3Tric. 1 : P1
3.12.30VincentitePd3AsTet.
3.12.31PalladobismutharsenidePd2(As,Bi)Orth.
3.12.32StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2Hex.
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)Hex.
3.12.34SudburyitePdSbHex.
3.12.35TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.
3.12.36BorovskitePd3SbTe4Iso.
3.12.37IsomertieitePd11Sb2As2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.38Mertieite-IPd11(Sb,As)4Hex.
3.12.39Mertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
3.12.40SobolevskitePdBiHex.
3.12.41Frooditeα-PdBi2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.12.42PolaritePd(Bi,Pb)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
3.12.43UrvantsevitePd(Bi,Pb)2Tet.
3.12.44CooperitePtSTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mmc
3.12.45Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)STet.
3.12.46Kharaelakhite(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)9S8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
3.12.47MalaniteCu1+(Ir3+Pt4+)S4Iso.
3.12.48Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2Trig.
3.12.49MaslovitePtBiTeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
3.12.50SperrylitePtAs2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.51PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
3.12.52GeversitePtSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.53DaomaniteCuPtAsS2Orth.
3.12.54Genkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2
3.12.55StumpflitePtSbHex.
3.12.56InsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.57ErlichmaniteOsS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.58Omeiite(Os,Ru)As2Orth.
3.12.59Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsSMon.
3.12.60Kashinite(Ir,Rh)2S3Orth.
3.12.61InaglyiteCu3Pb(Ir,Pt)8S16Hex.
3.12.62Cuproiridsite(Cu,Fe)Ir2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.63Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2Mon.
3.12.64Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
3.12.65TolovkiteIrSbSIso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AtheneiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
American Mineralogist: 59: 1330.
Clark, A.M., Criddle, A.J. and Fejer, E.E. (1974): Palladium arsenide–antimonides from Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Magazine: 39: 528-543.
Cabral, A.R., Lehmann, B., Kwitko-Ribeiro, R. and Cravo Costa, C.H. (2002): Palladium and platinum minerals from the Serra Pelada Au–Pd–Pt deposit, Carajás mineral province, northern Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 1451–1463.
Bindi, L. (2010): Atheneite, [Pd2][As0.75Hg0.25], from Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil: crystal structure and revision of the chemical formula. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 1149-1155.

Internet Links for AtheneiteHide

Localities for AtheneiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Roebourne Shire
      • Karratha
Barnes, S. J., 1993 Partitioning of the Platinum Group Elements and Gold Between Silicate and Sulphide Magmas in the Munni Munni Complex, Western Australia Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 57, p. 1277 - 1290; HOATSON,DM, WALLACE,DA, SUN,S-S, MACIAS,LF, SIMPSON,CJ and KEAYS,RR (1992) Petrology and platinum-group-element geochemistry of Archaean layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions, west Pilbara block, Western Australia. AGSO Bull. 242, 319pp. plus map.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
Handbook of Mineralogy
Clark, A.M., Criddle, A.J., Fejer, E.E. (1974) Palladium arsenide-antimonides from habira, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Magazine: 39(305): 528-543.
Kwitko, R., Cabral, A.R., Lehmann, B., Laflamme, J.G., Cabri, L.J., Criddle, A.J., Galbiatti, H.F. (2002) Hongshiite, PtCu, from itabirite-hosted Au–Pd–Pt mineralization (jacutinga), Itabira district, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Canadian Mineralogist: 40(2): 711-723.
  • Pará
    • Carajás mineral province
      • Curionópolis
Villas, R.N., and Dias Santos, M. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 300-331; Cabral, A. R. (2006). Palladiferous gold mineralisation (ouro preto) in Brazil: Gongo Soco, Itabira and Serra Pelada. Sonderhefte Reihe D - Geol. Jahrb., Heft 8; Cabral, A.R., Lehmann, B., Kwitko-Ribeiro, R., Cravo Costa, C.H. (2002): Palladium and platinum minerals from the Serra Pelada Au-Pd-Pt deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Northern Brazil. Can. Mineral.: 40(5): 1451-1463
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Ring of Fire
        • BMA527861 Area
Musa Karkus (2010)
Pakistan
 
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province
    • Upper Kohistan District
Miller, D., & Loucks, R. R. (1991). Platinum-group Element Mineralization in the Jijal Layered Ultramafic-mafic Complex, Pakistani Himalayas. Economic Geology, 86:1093-1102.
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Komi Republic
    • Kozhim River Basin
      • Maldynyrd range (Maldy-nyrd range)
P.M. Kartashov data; Moralev, G. V., Borisov, A. V., Surenkov, S. V., Nagaeva, S. P., Tarbaev, M. B., Kuznetsov, S. K., ... & Soboleva, A. A. (2005). Distribution and modes of occurrence of REE at the Chudnoe and Nesterovskoe occurrences of Au-Pd-REE ore mineralization in the Maldynyrd Range, Nether-Polar Urals. Geochemistry International, 43(11), 1078-1097.
Moralev, G. V., Borisov, A. V., Surenkov, S. V., Nagaeva, S. P., Tarbaev, M. B., Kuznetsov, S. K., ... & Soboleva, A. A. (2005). Distribution and modes of occurrence of REE at the Chudnoe and Nesterovskoe occurrences of Au-Pd-REE ore mineralization in the Maldynyrd Range, Nether-Polar Urals. Geochemistry International, 43(11), 1078-1097.
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Fedorovo-Pansky massif (Pana layered complex)
Groshev, N.Y.; Rundkvist, T.V.; Karykowski, B.T.; Maier, W.D.; Korchagin, A.U.; Ivanov, A.N.; Junge, M. (2019) Low-Sulfide Platinum–Palladium Deposits of the Paleoproterozoic Fedorova–Pana Layered Complex, Kola Region, Russia. Minerals 9, 764.
    • Monche tundra intrusion
Chashchin, V. V., Petrov, S. V., & Drogobuzhskaya, S. V. (2018). Loypishnyun Low-Sulfide Pt–Pd Deposit of the Monchetundra Basic Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 60(5), 418-448.
Chashchin, V. V., & Petrov, S. V. (2013). Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(5), 357-382.
Chashchin, V. V., & Petrov, S. V. (2013). Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(5), 357-382.
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
      • Dovyren Highlands
Rudashevskiy N.S., Krecer D.A., Orsoev D.A., Kislov E.V. (2003) Palladium-platinum mineralization in vein Cu-Ni-ores of Yoko-Dovyrenskiy laiered massif, - DAN, 391(4), p. 519-522 (in Rus.)
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo
    • Sekhukhune District
      • Burgersfort
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
  • North West
    • Bojanala Platinum District
Handbook of Mineralogy
Zimbabwe
 
  • Masvingo
    • Chiredzi mining district (Hartley mining district)
Oberthür, T., Weiser, T. W., Gast, L., & Kojonen, K. (2003). Geochemistry and mineralogy of platinum-group elements at Hartley Platinum Mine, Zimbabwe. Mineralium Deposita, 38(3), 327-343.
 
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