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Tobelite

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About TobeliteHide

Formula:
(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Colour:
White, yellow-green
Lustre:
Silky, Dull
Hardness:
2
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named after its discovery locality, Tobe, Ehime Prefecture, Japan.

Classification of TobeliteHide

Approved
First Published:
1982
8/H.10-100
9.EC.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.2.2a.7

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
2 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
16.5.5

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
5 : Aluminosilicates of Cs, NH4 and Cu

Physical Properties of TobeliteHide

Silky, Dull
Transparency:
Translucent
Colour:
White, yellow-green
Hardness:
Cleavage:
Perfect
{001}

Optical Data of TobeliteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.555 - 1.560 nβ = 1.575 - 1.587 nγ = 1.581 - 1.595
2V:
Measured: 28° to 30°, Calculated: 56°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.026 - 0.035
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
weak

Chemical Properties of TobeliteHide

Formula:
(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
IMA Formula:
(NH4)Al2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
Common Impurities:
Ti,Fe,Mg,Na,H2O

Crystallography of TobeliteHide

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Tobelite-1MTobelite-2M2
  
  
  
  
  


  
  
  

Type Occurrence of TobeliteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Aggregates of minute flakes (a few microns) in a groundmass or replacing feldspar and biotite phenocrysts, and occasionally forms lamellar crystals up to 0.2 mm.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
1) Hydrothermally altered biotite-andesite dyke 2) Hydrothermal alteration product of Cretaceous rhyolitic tuff
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Reference:
Higashi, S. (1982) Tobelite, a new ammonium dioctahedral mica. Mineralogical Journal: 11: 138-146.

Other Language Names for TobeliteHide

German:Tobelit
Spanish:Tobelita

Relationship of Tobelite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
Celadonite FamilyA subgroup of the dioctahedral mica group.
Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2Mon.
ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
Natro-glauconite(Na,K)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
PhengiteKAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Tobelite associated with GalenaPbS
1 photo of Tobelite associated with QuartzSiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EC.05MinnesotaiteFe2+3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05WillemseiteNi3Si4O10(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.9.EC.VoloshiniteRb(LiAl1.51.5)(Al0.5Si3.5)O10F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.10FerripyrophylliteFe3+Si2O5(OH)Mon.
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1
9.EC.15BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
9.EC.15ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon.
9.EC.15Ganterite(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20AnniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Tric.
9.EC.20HendricksiteKZn3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20SiderophylliteKFe2+2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20EastoniteKMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TetraferrianniteKFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20FluoranniteKFe2+3(Si3Al)O10F2Mon.
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20ShirozuliteKMn2+3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2Mon.
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi(Cs,K)(Al,Li)2.6((Si,Al)4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OFMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.30MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35Kinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn2+,Al)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.35Ferrokinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V5+2Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)Orth.
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
9.EC.45HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.EC.45SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.50VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric. 1
9.EC.55Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8Mon.
9.EC.55ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8Orth.
9.EC.55Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8Mon.
9.EC.55Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55PennantiteMn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Tric.
9.EC.55SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8Mon.
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.55BorocookeiteLi1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.
9.EC.60DozyiteMg7Al2(Al2Si4O15)(OH)12Mon.
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)Mon.
9.EC.60KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10Mon.
9.EC.60LunijianlaiteLi0.7Al6.2(AlSi7O20)(OH,O)10Mon.
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.EC.60Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5Mon.
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2OMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2OMon.
9.EC.65Macaulayite(Fe,Al)24Si4O43(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe3+2(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.75Surite(Pb,Ca)3(Al,Fe2+,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(CO3)2(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.80KegelitePb8Al4(Si8O20)(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8Mon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

71.2.2a.1MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
71.2.2a.2ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
71.2.2a.3Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2Mon.
71.2.2a.4RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
71.2.2a.5Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
71.2.2a.6CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
71.2.2a.8NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
71.2.2a.9BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
71.2.2a.10Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.5.1Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
16.5.2NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
16.5.3Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8Mon. 2 : P21
16.5.4Ammonioleucite(NH4)(AlSi2O6)Tet.
16.5.6Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2OTric.
16.5.7PapagoiteCaCu[H3AlSi2O9]Mon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for TobeliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Higashi, S. (1982) Tobelite, a new ammonium dioctahedral mica. Mineralogical Journal: 11: 138-146.
Dunn, P.J., Cabri, L.J., Clark, A.M., Fleischer, M. (1983) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 68: 849-852.
Voncken, J.H.L., Wevers, J.M.A.R., van der Eerden, A.M.J., Bos, A., Jansen, J.B.H. (1987) Hydrothermal synthesis of tobelite, NH4Al2Si3AlO10(OH)2, from various starting materials and implications for its occurrence in nature. Geologie en Mijnbouw: 66: 259-269.
Rieder, M., Cavazzini, G., D’Yakonov, Y.S., Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A., Gottardt, G., Guggenheim, S., Koval, P.V., Muller, G., Neiva, A.M.R., Radoslovich, E.W., Robert, J.L., Sassi, F.P., Takeda, H., Weiss, Z., Wones, D.R. (1998) Nomenclature of the micas. The Canadian Mineralogist: 36: 905-912.
Harlov, D.E., Andrut, M., Pötter, B. (2001) Characterisation of tobelite (NH4)Al2[AlSi3O10](OH)2 and ND4-tobelite (ND4)Al2[AlSi3O10](OD)2 using IR spectroscopy and Rietveld refinement of XRD spectra. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 28: 268-276.
Mookherjee, M., Redfern, S.A.T., Zhang, M., Harlov, D.E. (2002) Orientational order-disorder of N(D,H)4+ in tobelite. American Mineralogist: 87(11-12): 1686–1691.
Mesto, E., Scordari, F., Lacalamita, M., Schingaro, E. (2012) Tobelite and NH4+ -rich muscovite single crystals from Ordovician Armorican sandstones (Brittany, France): Structure and crystal chemistry. American Mineralogist: 97(8-9): 1460-1468.
Ishida, K., Hawthorne, F.C. (2013) Far-infrared spectra of synthetic dioctahedral muscovite and muscovite-tobelite series micas: Characterization and assignment of the interlayer I-Oinner and I-Oouter stretching bands. American Mineralogist: 98: 1848-1859.
Capitani, G.C., Schingaro, E., Lacalamita, M., Mesto, E., Scordari, F. (2016) Structural anomalies in tobelite-2M2 explained by high resolution and analytical electron microscopy. Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 143-156.
Bentabol, M., Cruz, M.D.R. (2016) Characterization of tobelite formed from kaolinite under hydrothermal conditions (200 °C). Applied Clay Science: 126: 160-172.

Internet Links for TobeliteHide

Localities for TobeliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
China
 
  • Chongqing
Dai, S., Xie, P., Jia, S., Ward, C. R., Hower, J. C., Yan, X., & French, D. (2017). Enrichment of U-Re-V-Cr-Se and rare earth elements in the Late Permian coals of the Moxinpo Coalfield, Chongqing, China: Genetic implications from geochemical and mineralogical data. Ore Geology Reviews, 80, 1-17.
  • Guizhou
    • Zunyi
Li, B.; Zhuang, X.; Querol, X.; Moreno, N.; Yang, L.; Shangguan, Y.; Li, J. (2020) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Late Permian Coals within the Tongzi Coalfield in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. Minerals 10, 44.
France
 
  • Pays de la Loire
    • Loire-Atlantique
      • Saint-Aubin-des-Châteaux
Moëlo, Y., Gloaguen, E., Lulzac, Y. (2006): III. Les minéraux de Saint-Aubin. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 1/2006, 13-25; American Mineralogist, Volume 97, 1460–1468, 2012, Tobelite and NH4+-rich muscovite single crystals from Ordovician Armorican sandstones (Brittany, France): Structure and crystal chemistry, Ernesto Mesto, Fernando Scordari,* Maria Lacalamita, and Emanuela Schingaro; Capitani, G. C.; Schingaro, E.; Lacalamita, M.; Mesto, E.; Scordari, F. (2016): Structural anomalies in tobelite-2M2 explained by high resolution and analytical electron microscopy. Mineralogical Magazine 80, 143-156.
Japan (TL)
 
  • Ehime Prefecture
    • Iyo district
      • Tobe-cho
Higashi, S. (1982). Tobelite, a new ammonium dioctahedral mica. Mineralogical Journal, 11(3), 138-146.
  • Hiroshima Prefecture
    • Kamo District
Min.Journ.Japan (1982) 11, 138-146; Higashi, S. (1982). Tobelite, a new ammonium dioctahedral mica. Mineralogical Journal, 11(3), 138-146.
Poland
 
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Rybnik Co.
      • Gmina Czerwionka-Leszczyny
Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
    • Wodzisław Co.
      • Radlin
Łukasz Kruszewski (2012) Unique chloride assemblage of exhalative origin from burning coal-mining dump in Radlin (Rybnik Coal Area, S Poland). Mineralogical Society of Poland Special Papers 40
      • Rydułtowy
        • ROW Ruch Rydułtowy Mine
Kruszewski, Ł., Fabiańska, M.J., Segit, T., Kusy, D., Motyliński, R., Ciesielczuk, J., Deput, E., (2019): Carbon-nitrogen compounds, alcohols, mercaptans, monoterpenes, acetates, aldehydes, ketones, SF6, PH3, and other fire gases in coal-mining waste heaps of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) – a re-investigation by means of in situ FTIR external database approach. Science of The Total Environment (in press)
USA
 
  • Utah
    • Tooele Co.
Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 40, No. 4, 405--420, 1992.
 
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