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Talnakhite

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About TalnakhiteHide

Formula:
Cu9(Fe,Ni)8S16
Colour:
Brass-yellow, tarnishes to pink or brown tints, then iridescent
Lustre:
Metallic
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
Named after its discovery locality, the Talnakh Cu-Ni deposits, near Noril'sk, Russia.
This page provides mineralogical data about Talnakhite.


Classification of TalnakhiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1967
2.CB.10b

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
2.9.8.1

2 : SULFIDES
9 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
3.1.35

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu

Physical Properties of TalnakhiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Brass-yellow, tarnishes to pink or brown tints, then iridescent

Chemical Properties of TalnakhiteHide

Formula:
Cu9(Fe,Ni)8S16
IMA Formula:
Cu9Fe8S16

Crystallography of TalnakhiteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
4 3m - Hextetrahedral
Space Group:
I4 3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.593 Å
Unit Cell V:
1,188.66 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of TalnakhiteHide

Synonyms of TalnakhiteHide

Other Language Names for TalnakhiteHide

German:Talnakhit
Simplified Chinese:硫铜铁矿
Spanish:Talnakhita
Traditional Chinese:硫銅鐵礦

Relationship of Talnakhite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
MooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16Tet.
PutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2Iso.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
14 photos of Talnakhite associated with GalenaPbS
8 photos of Talnakhite associated with ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
7 photos of Talnakhite associated with SperrylitePtAs2
6 photos of Talnakhite associated with Shadlunite(Pb,Cd)(Fe,Cu)8S8
5 photos of Talnakhite associated with Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
5 photos of Talnakhite associated with SilverAg
5 photos of Talnakhite associated with MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
5 photos of Talnakhite associated with Taimyrite(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
3 photos of Talnakhite associated with CubaniteCuFe2S3
2 photos of Talnakhite associated with ParkeriteNi3(Bi,Pb)2S2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.CB.AgmantiniteAg2MnSnS4Orth.
2.CB.05aColoradoiteHgTeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
2.CB.05aHawleyiteCdSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05aMetacinnabarHgSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05cPolhemusite(Zn,Hg)STet.
2.CB.05bSakuraiite(Cu,Zn,Fe)3(In,Sn)S4Iso.
2.CB.05aSphaleriteZnSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05aStilleiteZnSe
2.CB.05aTiemanniteHgSeIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05UM1998-15-S:CuFeZnCu2Fe3Zn5S10
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite(Fe,Zn)SIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.10aChalcopyriteCuFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10aEskeborniteCuFeSe2Tet.
2.CB.10aGalliteCuGaS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10bHaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
2.CB.10aLenaiteAgFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10bMooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16Tet.
2.CB.10bPutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2Iso.
2.CB.10aRoquesiteCuInS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10aLaforêtiteAgInS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.15aČernýiteCu2(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15aFerrokësteriteCu2FeSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aHocartiteAg2(Fe2+,Zn)SnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15aIdaiteCu5FeS6Hex.
2.CB.15aKësterite Cu2ZnSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aKuramiteCu3SnS4Tet.
2.CB.15bMohiteCu2SnS3Mon.
2.CB.15aPirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aStanniteCu2FeSnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15cStannoiditeCu+6Cu2+2(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12Orth.
2.CB.15aVelikiteCu2HgSnS4Tet.
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZnCu8(Fe,Zn)3Ge2S12 (?)
2.CB.20ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
2.CB.20MawsoniteCu6Fe2SnS8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
2.CB.30ColusiteCu13VAs3S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
2.CB.30GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
2.CB.30GermanocolusiteCu26V2(Ge,As)6S32Iso.
2.CB.30NekrasoviteCu26V2(Sn,As,Sb)6S32Iso.
2.CB.30StibiocolusiteCu13V(Sb,Sn,As)3S16Iso.
2.CB.30Ovamboite Cu20(Fe,Cu,Zn)6W2Ge6S32Iso.
2.CB.30MaikainiteCu20(Fe,Cu)6Mo2Ge6S32
2.CB.35aHemusiteCu6SnMoS8Iso.
2.CB.35aKiddcreekiteCu6SnWS8Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.35aPolkovicite(Fe,Pb)3(Ge,Fe)1-xS4Iso.
2.CB.35aRenierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16Tet. 4 2m : P4 2c
2.CB.35aVincienniteCu+7Cu2+3Fe2+2Fe3+2Sn(As,Sb)S16Tet.
2.CB.35aMorozeviczite(Pb,Fe)3Ge1-xS4Iso.
2.CB.35bCatamarcaiteCu6GeWS8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.40LautiteCuAsSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.CB.45CadmoseliteCdSeHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45GreenockiteCdSHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)SHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45RambergiteMnSHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45Buseckite(Fe,Zn,Mn)SHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.55aCubaniteCuFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.55bIsocubaniteCuFe2S3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
2.CB.60PicotpauliteTlFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
2.CB.60RaguiniteTlFeS2Orth.
2.CB.65ArgentopyriteAgFe2S3Mon. 2/m
2.CB.65SternbergiteAgFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.70SulvaniteCu3VS4Iso.
2.CB.75VulcaniteCuTeOrth.
2.CB.80EmpressiteAgTeOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.85MuthmanniteAuAgTe2Mon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.9.8.2HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
2.9.8.3MooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16Tet.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.1.1ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.1.2DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
3.1.3DigeniteCu9S5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.1.4AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.5RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
3.1.6SpionkopiteCu39S28Trig.
3.1.7GeeriteCu8S5Trig. 3
3.1.8CovelliteCuSHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.9BerzelianiteCu2SeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.1.10BellidoiteCu2SeTet. 4/m : P42/n
3.1.11UmangiteCu3Se2Tet.
3.1.12YarrowiteCu9S8Trig.
3.1.13AthabascaiteCu5Se4Orth.
3.1.14KlockmanniteCuSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.15Krut'aiteCuSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.16WeissiteCu2-xTeHex.
3.1.17RickarditeCu7Te5Orth.
3.1.18VulcaniteCuTeOrth.
3.1.19BambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2Tet.
3.1.20LautiteCuAsSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.21MgriiteCu3AsSe3
3.1.22CubaniteCuFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.1.23BorniteCu5FeS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
3.1.24FukuchiliteCu3FeS8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.25ChalcopyriteCuFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
3.1.26MooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16Tet.
3.1.27HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
3.1.28IsocubaniteCuFe2S3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.1.29IdaiteCu5FeS6Hex.
3.1.30NukundamiteCu3.33Fe0.66S4Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.1.31PutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2Iso.
3.1.32Orickite2CuFeS2 · H2OHex.
3.1.33EskeborniteCuFeSe2Tet.
3.1.34Chaméanite(Cu,Fe)4As(Se,S)4Iso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for TalnakhiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1968): 97: 63.
American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 2135.
American Mineralogist (1971): 56: 2159.
Hall, S.R. and Gabe, E.J. (1972) The crystal structure of talnakhite, Cu18Fe16S32. American Mineralogist (1972): 57: 368-380.
Canadian Mineralogist (1975): 13: 168-172.
Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1980): 114: 338.
Economic Geology: 66: 673-675.

Internet Links for TalnakhiteHide

Localities for TalnakhiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Northern Territory
    • Katherine
Hein, K. A. A. (1994). The structure and geochemistry of gold mineralisation in the Mt. Todd goldfield, Pine Creek Inlier, Northern Territory (Doctoral dissertation, University of Tasmania).
Hein, K. A. A. (1994). The structure and geochemistry of gold mineralisation in the Mt. Todd goldfield, Pine Creek Inlier, Northern Territory (Doctoral dissertation, University of Tasmania).
Azerbaijan
 
  • Balakan District
    • Belokan-Avar ore district
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Sudbury District
      • Levack Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
China
 
  • Fujian
    • Putian
      • Xianyou Co.
        • Niutoushan
Kefen Yue, Ying He, and Wenfeng Liu (2005): Fujian Province. Chinese Journal of Geology 40(1), 113-119
  • Jilin
    • Baishan
      • Changbai County
Jiuhua Xu, Yuling Mie, Bodnar, R.J., Liquan Wang, and Yan Liu (2001): Journal of University of Science and Technology Beijing 47(5)
  • Zhejiang
    • Lishui
      • Suichang County
        • Suichang gold mine
Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy
Cyprus
 
  • Nicosia District
    • Apliki
Antivachis, D.N. (2015) The geology of the northern part of the apliki Cyprus-type ore deposit. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, vol. XLIX, 4 - 28.
East Timor
 
  • Manatuto District
Angela Lay, Ian Graham, David Cohen, Karen Privat, José González-Jiménez, Sadia Mehdi & Sarah-Jane Barnes (2014) Tectonic Significance of Podiform Chromitites Within the Manatuto District, Timor Leste. in Geological Society of Australia, 2014 Australian Earth Sciences Convention (AESC), Sustainable Australia. Abstract No 110 of the 22nd Australian Geological Convention
Finland
 
  • Kainuu
    • Suomussalmi
Geological Survey of Finland (2017) Mineral deposit Report 10/20/2017
  • Lapland
    • Kittilä
33 IGC excursion No 15, August 15th – 21st 2008
    • Sodankylä
Geological Survey of Finland 2008. Keivitsa - NICKEL Database; Törmänen, T. and Iljina, M., 2008. The Kevitsa intrusion and associated Ni-Cu-PGE deposit. in Ojala, J. and Iljina, M., (eds.). Metallogeny and tectonic evolution of the Northern Fennoscandian Shield : field trip guidebook. 33 IGC excursion No 15, August 15th – 21st 2008., pp 58-66.; Ojala V.J., Weihed P. Eilu P. and Iljina, M. (Eds) 2007. Metallogeny and tectonic evolution of the Northern Fennoscandian Shield: Field trip guidebook. Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 54, 98 pages, 52 figures and 7 tables.
      • Kevitsansarvi (Keivitsansarvi)
33 IGC excursion No 15, August 15th – 21st 2008
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
Möckel, S. (2001): Wallkilldellit und weitere acht Neubestimmungen aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Lapis 26 (11), 43.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaidō Prefecture
    • Hidaka Subprefecture
      • Samani-gun
        • Samani-cho
Weiss, S. (2012) Neue Mineralien. Lapis, 37, #5, 9ff
Kitakaze, A. (1998) Sulfide minerals from the Horoman peridotite, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology, 93, 369-379.; Kitakaze A (2008) Sugakiite, Cu(Fe,Ni)8S8, a new mineral from Hokkaido, Japan. The Canadian Mineralogist 46, 263-267
    • Hiyama Subprefecture
      • Kaminokuni
Ishiyama, D. et al (1982) Journal of the Mining College, Akita University, Ser. A, Mining Geology, 6, #2, 149-171.
  • Okayama
    • Takahashi City
      • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
        • Fuka
Y. Takechi, I. Kusachi, Y. Nakamuta and K. Kase (2003) Talnakhite associated with andradite skarn at Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Resource Geol., 53, 227-232.
Romania
 
  • Suceava
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Vishnevye Mountains
Murzin, V.; Chudnenko, K.; Palyanova, G.; Varlamov, D. (2019) Formation of Au-Bearing Antigorite Serpentinites and Magnetite Ores at the Massif of Ophiolite Ultramafic Rocks: Thermodynamic Modeling. Minerals 9, 758.
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
Alexander V. Dedeev et al (2002) The PGE-Bearing Sulphide Ores of the Kingash Mafic-Ultramafic Differentiated Intrusion and Ore Processing Characteristics, East Sajan, Russia. 9th annual platinum symposium
    • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
      • Kureika river
        • Dzheltul'skii massif (Dzhaltul)
Shvedov, G. I., & Barkov, A. Y. (2015). Oulankaite, a Pd-rich stannosulphotelluride, and associated platinum-group minerals from the Dzhaltul microgabbroic intrusion, Krasnoyarskiy kray, Russia. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 192(3), 229-237.
      • Taimyr Peninsula
        • Putoran Plateau
Spiridonov, E. M., E. A. Kulagov, A. A. Serova, I. M. Kulikova, N. N. Korotaeva, E. V. Sereda, I. N. Tushentsova, S. N. Belyakov, and N. N. Zhukov. "Genetic Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, and Rh mineralogy in Noril’sk sulfide ores." Geology of Ore Deposits 57, no. 5 (2015): 402-432.
Amer.Mineral.(1970) 55, 2135
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Gorbachev, N.S. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(6), 473-488.; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Czamanske. et al (1992). A Proton Microprobe Study of Magmatic Sulfide Ores from the Norilsk-Talnakh District, Siberia (Vol 30, Pg 249, 1992). Canadian Mineralogist, 30, 1189-1189.
2014 Ultramafic-mafic intrusions, volcanic rocks and PGE-Cu-Ni sulfide deposits of the Noril’sk Province, Polar Siberia . 12th International Platinum Symposium
Czamanske. et al (1992). A Proton Microprobe Study of Magmatic Sulfide Ores from the Norilsk-Talnakh District, Siberia (Vol 30, Pg 249, 1992). Canadian Mineralogist, 30, 1189-1189.
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Murmansk Oblast
Orsoev, D.A. [Орсоев, Д.А.] (1985): Mineralogy of copper-nickel ores of the Lovnoozero deposit (Kola peninsula) [Минералогия сульфидных медно-никелевых руд Ловноозерского местророждения (Кольский полуостров)]. Candidate's degree thesis, USSR Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 253 pp. (in Russian).
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Lake Onega
Grokhovskaya, T. L., Lapina, M. I., Ganin, V. A., & Grinevich, N. G. (2005). PGE mineralization in the Burakovsk Layered Complex, Southern Karelia, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits C/C of Geologiia Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 47(4), 283.
Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
      • Dovyren Highlands
Konnikov, E.G., Meurer, W.P., Neruchev, S.S., Prasolov, E.M., Kislov, E.V., and Orsoev, D.A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 526-532.
South Africa
 
  • Eastern Cape
    • Chris Hani District
      • Cradock
Henning, A., van der Westhuizen, W.A., de Bruiyn, H., and Beukes, G.J. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 410-418.
  • Limpopo
    • Phalaborwa
      • Loolekop
Minerals of South Africa
  • North West
    • Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District
      • Vryburg
Andreoli, M. A., Maier, W. D., McDonald, I., Barnes, S. J., Roelofse, F., Cloete, M. C., ... & Hart, R. J. (2008). Siderophile minerals in the melt Sheet of the Morokweng impact crater, South Africa: similarities and differences with the Sudbury deposits. In Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution IV (Vol. 1423).
Spain
 
  • Asturias
    • Cabrales
      • Prado
        • Ortiguero
          • Hoyos de Alda
Gutiérrez, M. and Luque, C. (2000): La minería en los Picos de Europa.
  • Castile and Leon
    • León
      • Cármenes (Villamanín)
        • Villanueva de Pontedo
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
USA
 
  • Minnesota
    • Lake Co.
      • Ely-Hoyt Lakes Area
Moreton, C., & Routledge, R. E. (2009). Technical Report on the Mineral Resource Estimate for the Nokomis Deposit on the Nokomis Property, Minnesota, USA. NI 43-101 Report
55TH INSTITUTE ON LAKE SUPERIOR GEOLOGY (2009) PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 55 p. 25-26
    • St. Louis Co.
      • Ely-Hoyt Lakes Area
Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
Desautels, P., Patelke, R., Maunula, T., & Belluz, N. (2007). Technical Report on the Northmet Deposit, Minnesota, USA.
Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium; McSwiggen, P. L. (1999) Platinum-palladium group minerals, gold, silver, and cobalt in the Minnamax copper-nickel sulfide deposit, Duluth Complex, northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Geological Survey Report of Investigations 54
  • Montana
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
  • Utah
    • Salt Lake Co.
      • Oquirrh Mts
        • Bingham Mining District (West Mountain Mining District)
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.; Borrok, D., Kesler, S. E., & Vogel, T. A. (1999). Sulfide mineral in intrusive and volcanic rocks of the Bingham-Park City Belt, Utah. Economic Geology, 94(8), 1213-1230.
Borrok, D., Kesler, S. E., & Vogel, T. A. (1999). Sulfide mineral in intrusive and volcanic rocks of the Bingham-Park City Belt, Utah. Economic Geology, 94(8), 1213-1230.
The Moon
Frondel, J.W. (2009) Lunar Mineralogy, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 332 pages.
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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