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Switzerite

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About SwitzeriteHide

Formula:
Mn2+3(PO4)2 · 7H2O
Colour:
Pale pink, pinkish brown
Lustre:
Pearly
Hardness:
2
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named by John S. White and Peter B. Leavens in 1967 in honor of George Shirley Switzer (11 June 1915 Petaluma, California, USA - 23 March 2008), Curator of Minerals, US National Museum (Smithsonian Institution), Washington D.C., USA.

In 1986, White, Leavans, and Pier F. Zanazzi redefined switzerite and renamed the original type material as metaswitzerite.

Switzerite rapidly and irreversibly dehydrates in air within minutes to Metaswitzerite which contains only 4 water molecules per formula unit. All "switzerites" in collections should be considered metaswitzerites, unless there is some analytical evidence to the contrary.



Classification of SwitzeriteHide

Approved
First Published:
1986
8.CE.25

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
E : With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O about 1:2.5
40.3.5.4

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
3 : A3(XO4)2·xH2O
19.12.23

19 : Phosphates
12 : Phosphates of Mn

Physical Properties of SwitzeriteHide

Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Pale pink, pinkish brown
Hardness:

Optical Data of SwitzeriteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.560 nβ = 1.574 nγ = 1.580
2V:
Measured: 70° , Calculated: 64°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.020
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r > v moderate

Chemical Properties of SwitzeriteHide

Formula:
Mn2+3(PO4)2 · 7H2O

Crystallography of SwitzeriteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.54 Å, b = 13.16 Å, c = 11.87 Å
β = 110.12°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.649 : 1 : 0.902
Unit Cell V:
1,252.62 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0001047SwitzeriteZanazzi P F, Leavens P B, White J S (1986) Crystal structure of switzerite, Mn3(PO4)2.7H2O and its relationship to metaswitzerite, Mn3(PO4)2.4H2O American Mineralogist 71 1224-122819860293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of SwitzeriteHide

Other Language Names for SwitzeriteHide

German:Switzerit
Simplified Chinese:水磷铁锰石
Spanish:Switzerita
Traditional Chinese:水磷鐵錳石

Relationship of Switzerite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
LudlamiteFe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
MetaswitzeriteMn2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
SterlinghilliteMn2+3(AsO4)2 · 3H2OTric. 1 : P1

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
2 photos of Switzerite associated with ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
1 photo of Switzerite associated with Jahnsite-(CaMnFe){Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
1 photo of Switzerite associated with RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.CE.XBabánekiteCu3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.CE.05Chudobaite(Mg,Zn)5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2OTric.
8.CE.05GeigeriteMn2+5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2OTric.
8.CE.10NewberyiteMg(PO3OH) · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
8.CE.15BrassiteMg(HAsO4) · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
8.CE.20PhosphorrössleriteMg(PO3OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
8.CE.20RößleriteMg(HAsO4) · 7H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.CE.25MetaswitzeriteMn2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
8.CE.30LindackeriteCuCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CE.30OndrušiteCaCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CE.30VeselovskýiteZnCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CE.30PradetiteCoCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CE.30KlajiteMnCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9-10H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CE.35BobierriteMg3(PO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.CE.40AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.CE.40ArupiteNi3(PO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.CE.40Barićite(Mg,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.CE.40ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.CE.40FerrisymplesiteFe3+3(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.CE.40HörnesiteMg3(AsO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.CE.40KöttigiteZn3(AsO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.CE.40ManganohörnesiteMn2+3(AsO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
8.CE.40ParasymplesiteFe2+3(AsO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.CE.40VivianiteFe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.CE.40PakhomovskyiteCo3(PO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.CE.45SymplesiteFe2+3(AsO4)2 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CE.50CattiiteMg3(PO4)2 · 22H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CE.55KoninckiteFe3+PO4 · 3H2OTet.
8.CE.60KaňkiteFeAsO4 · 3.5H2OMon. 2 : P2
8.CE.65SteigeriteAl(VO4) · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
8.CE.70MetaschoderiteAl2(PO4)(VO4) · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
8.CE.70SchoderiteAl2(PO4)(VO4) · 8H2OMon.
8.CE.75MalhmooditeFeZr(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon.
8.CE.75ZigrasiteMgZr(PO4)2 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CE.75Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Zigrasite)CaZr[PO4]2 · 4H2OTric.
8.CE.80SantabarbaraiteFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2OAmor.
8.CE.85Metaköttigite(Zn,Fe,Fe)3(AsO4)2 · 8(H2O,OH)Tric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

40.3.5.1LudlamiteFe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
40.3.5.2MetaswitzeriteMn2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
40.3.5.3SterlinghilliteMn2+3(AsO4)2 · 3H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.12.1MetaswitzeriteMn2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.2BermaniteMn2+Mn3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.3NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.4SidorenkiteNa3Mn2+(CO3)(PO4)Mon.
19.12.5Niahite(NH4)(Mn2+,Mg)(PO4) · H2OOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
19.12.6RobertsiteCa2Mn3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. m : Bb
19.12.7PararobertsiteCa2Mn3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.8SinkankasiteMn2+Al(PO3OH)2(OH) · 6H2OTric.
19.12.9MangangordoniteMn2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OTric.
19.12.10Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.11PurpuriteMn3+(PO4)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.12WolfeiteFe2+2(PO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.13TriploiditeMn2+2(PO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.14LipscombiteFe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2Tet.
19.12.15FrondeliteMn2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5Orth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 21
19.12.16RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
19.12.17Kryzhanovskite(Fe3+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2(OH,H2O)3Orth.
19.12.18LandesiteMn2+3-xFe3+x(PO4)2(OH)x · (3-x)H2OOrth.
19.12.19Phosphoferrite(Fe2+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.20Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.21EarlshannoniteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
19.12.22HureauliteMn2+5(PO3OH)2(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.24LaueiteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.25PseudolaueiteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.26StrunziteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.27StewartiteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.28Alluaudite(Na,Ca)Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(PO4)3Mon.
19.12.29Ferroalluaudite(Na,Ca)Fe2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.30FillowiteNa3CaMn2+11(PO4)9Trig. 3 : R3
19.12.31JohnsomervilleiteNa3CaFe11(PO4)9Trig.
19.12.32WicksiteNaCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)4MgFe3+(PO4)6 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
19.12.33Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)(KNa)(Mn2+◻)Ca(Na2Na)Mn2+13Al(PO4)11(PO4)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.34Sarcopside(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)3(PO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.35LudlamiteFe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.36GraftoniteFe2+Fe2+2(PO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.37WilhelmvierlingiteCaMnFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2OOrth.
19.12.38FairfielditeCa2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.39BeusiteMn2+Mn2+2 (PO4)2Mon.
19.12.40MesseliteCa2Fe2+(PO4)2 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.41Jahnsite-(CaMnFe){Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.42Jahnsite-(CaMnMn){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mn2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.43Jahnsite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{(Mg,Fe2+)2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.44KeckiteCaMn2+(Fe3+Mn2+)Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.45StanfielditeCa4Mg5(PO4)6Mon.
19.12.46Laubmannite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3Fe3+6(PO4)4(OH)12
19.12.47ZodaciteCa4Mn2+Fe3+4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2OMon.
19.12.48HagendorfiteNaCaMn2+Fe2+2(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.49Maghagendorfite(□,Na,)(Na,Ca,Fe2+)Mn(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)3(PO4)3Mon.
19.12.50VaruliteNaCaMn2+Mn2+2(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.51GriphiteNa4Li2Ca6(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)19Al8(PO4)24(F,OH)8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
19.12.52AttakoliteCaMn2+Al4(SiO3OH)(PO4)3(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
19.12.53Arrojadite-(KFe)(KNa)(Fe2+◻)Ca(Na2◻)Fe2+13Al(PO4)11(PO3OH)(OH)2Mon.
19.12.54Lun'okite(Mn,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Al(PO4)2OH · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
19.12.55EosphoriteMn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmca
19.12.56Ernstite(Mn2+,Fe3+)Al(PO4)(OH,O)2 · H2OMon.
19.12.57ChildreniteFe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mm2 : Ccc2
19.12.58BobfergusoniteNa2Mn5FeAl(PO4)6Mon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.59QingheiiteNaMn3+Mg(Al,Fe3+)(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.60Whiteite-(CaFeMg){Ca}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.61Whiteite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
19.12.62Whiteite-(MnFeMg){(Mn2+,Ca)}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.63Rittmannite{(Mn2+,Ca)}{Mn2+}{(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2}{(Al,Fe3+)2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon.
19.12.64ZanazziiteCa2Mg5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.65Samuelsonite(Ca,Ba)Ca8Fe2+2Mn2+2Al2(PO4)10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Dehydrates within minutes to metaswitzerite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SwitzeriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Leavens, P.B., White, J.S. (1967) Switzerite, (Mn, Fe)3(PO4)2·4H2O, a new mineral. American Mineralogist: 52: 1595-1602.
White, J.S., Leavens, P.B., Zanazzi, P.F. (1986) Switzerite redefined as Mn3(PO4)2·7H2O, and metaswitzerite, Mn3(PO4)2·4H2O. American Mineralogist: 71: 1221-1223.
Zanazzi, P.F., Leavens, P.B., White, J.S. (1986) Crystal structure of switzerite, Mn3(PO4)2·7H2O, and its relationship to metaswitzerite, Mn3(PO4)2·4H2O. American Mineralogist: 71: 1224-1228.

Internet Links for SwitzeriteHide

Localities for SwitzeriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Francis, G. A. (2010): Minerals of Iron Monarch. OneSteel, Whyalla, Australia, 165 pp; Pring A, Birch W D (1993) Gatehouseite, a new manganese hydroxy phosphate from Iron Monarch, South Australia. Mineralogical Magazine 57, 309-313
    • Flinders Ranges
      • South Flinders Ranges
        • Martins Well
Johnston, C.W . & Hill, R.J. (1978): Zinc phosphates at Reaphook Hill South Australia. Mineralogical Record 9,(1), 20-24
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Pena
Tony Nickischer
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Lac-du-Bonnet area
      • Bernic Lake
Grice, Joel D. (1989) Bernic Lake, Manitoba: Mining for Space-age Elements. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 64-67; 153-155.
  • Yukon
    • Dawson mining district
[Mineralogical Record Vol 23 No.4 p36]
Robinson, G.W., Van Velthuizen, J., Ansell, H.G. & Sturman, B.D. (1992): Mineralogy of the Rapid Creek and Big Fish River area, Yukon Territory. Mineralogical Record 23, 1-47.
Finland
 
  • Pirkanmaa
    • Orivesi
      • Eräjärvi area
Lahti, S.I. (1981) On the granitic pegmatites of the Eräjärvi area in Orivesi, southern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin, 314, 51-56.
Lahti Seppo I., 1981. On the granitic pegmatites of the Eräjärvi area in Orivesi, Southern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 314, 82 s.
Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 314
  • South Ostrobothnia
    • Kuortane
Lahti, Seppo I., unpublished, verbal communication 1999, in Hytönen, Kai 1999. Suomen Mineraalit. Geologian tutkimuskeskus. Erillisjulkaisu.
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Neustadt an der Waldnaab District
        • Waidhaus
          • Hagendorf
http://www.berthold-weber.de/h_miner.htm
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Märkischer Kreis
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
Blaß, G. & Graf, H.W. (1994) Neue Funde. Mineralien-Welt, 2/94, 46-47.; Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.; Blaß, G. & Graf, H.W. (1994) Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (9). Mineralien-Welt, 5 (1), 18-21.
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Lecco Province
      • Colico
VIGNOLA, P., & DIELLA, V. (2007). Phosphates from Piona granitic pegmatites (Central Southern Alps, Italy). Granitic Pegmatites: the State of the Art. Book of Abstr.(T. Martins & R. Vieira, eds.). Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Geologia, Memórias, 8, 102-103.
Vignola P., Fransolet A.-M., Guastoni A., Appiani R. (2011): Le pegmatiti di Piona. Recenti studi sui filoni Malpensata, Luna e Sommafiume. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 35, 1, 30-38.
Japan
 
  • Saitama Prefecture
    • Chichibu City
      • Urayama
K. Nishikubo, T. Yamada, A. Harada, M. Takizawa, K. Tange, Y. Kosuge, R. Miyawaki, and S. Matsubara (2005) "Rambergite from the Hirogawara mine, Urayama, Chichibu City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan"
Portugal
 
  • Viseu
    • Mangualde
Rewitzer, C. and Röschl, N. (1984) Portugal. Lapis, 9(12).; van den Berg, W. (1992) Enkele vermaarde mineralenvindplaatsen in Midden-Portugal. Gea, 1992(1), 38-39 (in Dutch).
UK
 
  • England
    • Cumbria
      • Allerdale
        • Caldbeck
          • Coombe Height
Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 8, 2003
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Eureka Mining District
        • Hillside
          • Bagdad Mine area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 387; Peacor, D., et al (1984, Paulkerrite, a new titanium phosphate from AZ, Min.Rec.: 15: 303-307.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield County
      • Redding (Reading)
        • Branchville
Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State, p.235.
  • Maine
    • Cumberland Co.
      • Baldwin
        • West Baldwin
Gene Bearss, "What's New at the Estes Quarry" Micromounters of New England 2010 Symposium presentation
    • Oxford County
      • Greenwood
        • Uncle Tom Mountain
Ray Sprague; Falster, A. U., Simmons, W. B., Webber, K. L., Dallaire, D. A., Nizamoff, J. W., & Sprague, R. A. (2019). The Emmons Pegmatite, Greenwood, Oxford County, Maine. Rocks & Minerals, 94(6), 498-519.
      • Newry
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1; King, V. (ed.), 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 2.
King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
      • Norway
Neil Wintringham
      • Paris
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain Mining District
[Nickel & Nichols, 1991 - "Mineral Reference Manual", p204]; Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer Mining District
        • Fourmile
Rocks & Minerals: 60: 117.
 
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