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Sturmanite

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About SturmaniteHide

Formula:
Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Colour:
Bright Yellow to amber
Lustre:
Vitreous, Greasy
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
1.847
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named in 1983 by Donald R. Peacor, Pete J. Dunn, and Marjorie Duggan in honor of Bozidar Darko Sturman [b. 1937], Slovenian-Canadian mineralogist and former Associate Curator of Mineralogy, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, for his contributions to systematic mineralogy, in particular his studies of phosphate minerals from the Yukon and his refinement of methods used in optical mineralogy.
Ettringite Group.

A possible Mn4+ analogue is here coded as Unnamed (possible Mn(IV) analogue of sturmanite).


Classification of SturmaniteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1981
7.DG.15

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
G : With large and medium-sized cations; with NO3, CO3, B(OH)4, SiO4 or IO3
32.4.4.2

32 : COMPOUND SULFATES
4 : Hydrated Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
25.11.23

25 : Sulphates
11 : Sulphates of Fe and other metals

Physical Properties of SturmaniteHide

Vitreous, Greasy
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Greasy on fracture surfaces.
Colour:
Bright Yellow to amber
Streak:
Pale yellow, greenish yellow, brownish orange (altered)
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{1010}
Density:
1.847 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.855 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of SturmaniteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nω = 1.499 - 1.500 nε = 1.497 - 1.505
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.002
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
O= pale green
E= pale yellowish green

Chemical Properties of SturmaniteHide

Formula:
Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca6Fe3+2(SO4)2.5[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O

Crystallography of SturmaniteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
P3 1c
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.16(3) Å, c = 21.79(9) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.953
Unit Cell V:
2,350.26 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Dipyramidal tabular to elongated hexagonal crystals
Twinning:
Probably
Comment:
Pushcharovsky et al. (2004) give: a 11.188(9), c 21.91(7) Å, V 2375.1(5) Å3.

Type Occurrence of SturmaniteHide

Synonyms of SturmaniteHide

Other Language Names for SturmaniteHide

Relationship of Sturmanite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
BuryatiteCa3(Si,Fe,Al)(SO4)[B(OH)4]O(OH)5 · 12H2O
CarraraiteCa3(SO4)[Ge(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex.
CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
ChiyokoiteCa3Si(CO3){[B(OH)4]0.5(AsO3)0.5}(OH)6·12H2OHex. 6 : P63
EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
HielscheriteCa3Si(SO4)(SO3)(OH)6 · 11H2OHex. 6 : P63
ImayoshiiteCa3Al(CO3)[B(OH)4](OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
KottenheimiteCa 3Si(SO4)2(OH)6·12H2O Hex. 6/m : P63/m
Micheelsenite(Ca,Y)3Al(HPO4,CO3)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex.
SiwaqaiteCa6Al2(CrO4)3(OH)12·26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
TatarinoviteСа3Al(SO4)[B(OH)4](OH)6·12H2OHex. 6 : P63
ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
32 photos of Sturmanite associated with CalciteCaCO3
23 photos of Sturmanite associated with ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
15 photos of Sturmanite associated with BruciteMg(OH)2
9 photos of Sturmanite associated with AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
8 photos of Sturmanite associated with EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
7 photos of Sturmanite associated with CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
7 photos of Sturmanite associated with HematiteFe2O3
7 photos of Sturmanite associated with QuartzSiO2
5 photos of Sturmanite associated with HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4
3 photos of Sturmanite associated with Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DG.MathesiusiteK5(UO2)4(SO4)4(VO5)·4H2OTet. 4/m : P4/n
7.DG.05DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2OMon. 2/m
7.DG.10Clinoungemachite(Na, K, Fe, SO4)Mon. 2/m
7.DG.10HumberstoniteNa7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.DG.10UngemachiteK3Na8Fe(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.DG.15BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
7.DG.15ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
7.DG.15CarraraiteCa3(SO4)[Ge(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex.
7.DG.15BuryatiteCa3(Si,Fe,Al)(SO4)[B(OH)4]O(OH)5 · 12H2O
7.DG.20RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2OOrth.
7.DG.20KorkinoiteCa4(SO4)2(CO3)2 · 9(H2O)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
7.DG.25TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2OOrth.
7.DG.30NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2OOrth.
7.DG.35Chessexite(Na,K)4Ca2(Mg,Zn)3Al8(SO4)10(SiO4)2 · 40H2OOrth.
7.DG.40CarlosruiziteK6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SeO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
7.DG.40FuenzalidaiteK6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
7.DG.45Chelyabinskite(Ca,Mg)3(SO4,CO3)2[Si(OH)6] · 9H2O (?)Orth.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

32.4.4.1CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
32.4.4.3JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
32.4.4.4ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
32.4.4.6CarraraiteCa3(SO4)[Ge(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.11.1NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
25.11.2SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.11.3MetasideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.11.4FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
25.11.5AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.11.6YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
25.11.7KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.11.8GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.11.9JarositeKFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.11.10VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
25.11.11UngemachiteK3Na8Fe(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.11.12MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2OTrig.
25.11.13Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
25.11.14Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
25.11.15Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2OTric.
25.11.16Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.11.17Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso.
25.11.18Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
25.11.19BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
25.11.21Slavíkite(H3O+)3Mg6Fe15(SO4)21(OH)18 · 98H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.11.24Millosevichite(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3Trig. 3 : R3
25.11.25AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.11.26HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
25.11.27Idrizite(Mg,Fe)(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3(OH)2 · 15H2O or near
25.11.28LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.11.29ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SturmaniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Peacor, D.R., Dunn, P.J., Duggan, M. (1983) Sturmanite, a ferric iron, boron analogue of ettringite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 21: 705-709.
Pushcharovsky, D.Yu., Lebedeva, Yu,S., Zubkova, N.V., Pasero, M., Bellezza, M., Merlino, S., Chukanov, N.V. (2004) The crystal structure of sturmanite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 42: 723-729.
Hochleitner, R. (1986) Sturmanit und Ettringit aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern. Lapis: 10(10): 19-24.
Von Benzig, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An update. Mineralogical Record: 22: 292-293.
Weiner, K.L., Hochleitner, R. (1994) Sturmanit - Steckbrief. Lapis: 19(2): 9-11.
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Published by The Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, 60-66 and 244-245.
Grew, E.S., Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Internet Links for SturmaniteHide

Localities for SturmaniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Russia
 
  • Kabardino-Balkaria
    • Baksan Valley
      • Upper Chegem volcanic caldera (Verkhnechegemskaya caldera)
A. E. Zadov data
South Africa (TL)
 
  • Northern Cape
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Black Rock
PEACOR, D.R., DUNN, P.J. & DUGGAN, M. (1983): Sturmanite, a ferric iron, boron analogue of ettringite. Canadian Mineralogist 21, 705-709. HOCHLEITNER, R. (1986): Sturmanit und Ettringit aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern. Lapis, Jg. 10, Nr. 10, 19-24. VON BENZIG, K.L., DIXON, R.D., POHL, D. & CAVALLO, G. (1991): The Kalahari manganese field: An update. Mineralogical Record 22, 292-293. CAIRNCROSS, B. & DIXON, R. (1995): Minerals of South Africa. Published by The Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, 60-66 and 244-245.
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
No reference listed
Minerals of South Africa + Hochleitner, R. (1986). Sturmanit und Ettringit aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern; Lapis: 11(10): 19-24; Bonazzi, P., Bindi, L., Medenbach, O., Pagano, R., Lampronti, Menchetti, S. (2007): Olmiite, CaMn[SiO3(OH)](OH), the Mn-dominant analogue of poldervaartite, a new mineral species from Kalahari manganese fields (Republic of South Africa), Mineralogical Magazine, 71, 193-291.
Van King
 
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