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About StokesiteHide

Sir George Gabriel Stokes
CaSn[Si3O9] · 2H2O
Colourless, white, light blue
Vitreous, Pearly
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named after Sir George Gabriel Stokes (13 August 1819, Skreen, County Sligo, Ireland - 1 February 1903, Cambridge, England), mathematician and physicist, University of Cambridge (England), after whom is named Stokes's law, describing the force acting on a particle moving in a fluid medium.
This page provides mineralogical data about Stokesite.

Classification of StokesiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
M : Inosilicates with 6-periodic single chains

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
5 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=6

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
12 : Silicates of Sn

Physical Properties of StokesiteHide

Vitreous, Pearly
Transparent, Translucent
pearly on {100}
Colourless, white, light blue
Perfect on {101}
imperfect on {100}
3.185 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.211 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of StokesiteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.609 nβ = 1.613 nγ = 1.619
Measured: 69° , Calculated: 66° to 70°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.010
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v moderate

Chemical Properties of StokesiteHide

CaSn[Si3O9] · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
CaSnSi3O9 · 2H2O

Crystallography of StokesiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 14.465 Å, b = 11.625 Å, c = 5.235 Å
a:b:c = 1.244 : 1 : 0.45
Unit Cell V:
880.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Prismatic crystals, spherical and radial fibrous aggregates.

Crystal StructureHide

Unit Cell | Unit Cell Packed
2x2x2 | 3x3x3 | 4x4x4
Big Balls | Small Balls | Just Balls | Spacefill
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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0014440StokesiteVorma A (1963) Crystal structure of stokesite, CaSnSi3O9*2H2O Mineralogical Magazine 33 615-61719630293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of StokesiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Cambridge University, England
Geological Setting of Type Material:
On axinite
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for StokesiteHide

Simplified Chinese:硅钙锡石
Traditional Chinese:硅鈣錫石

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
57 photos of Stokesite associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
44 photos of Stokesite associated with MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
36 photos of Stokesite associated with Smoky QuartzSiO2
33 photos of Stokesite associated with MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
17 photos of Stokesite associated with Stannomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
9 photos of Stokesite associated with Lepidolite
5 photos of Stokesite associated with Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
2 photos of Stokesite associated with CleavelanditeNa(AlSi3O8)
2 photos of Stokesite associated with SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
1 photo of Stokesite associated with QuartzSiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DM.10CalciohilairiteCaZr[SiO3]3 · 3H2OTrig.
9.DM.10HilairiteNa2Zr[SiO3]3 · 3H2OTrig.
9.DM.10KomkoviteBaZr[Si3O9] · 3H2OTrig.
9.DM.10Sazykinaite-(Y)Na5YZr[SiO3]6 · 6H2OTrig. 3 2 : R3 2
9.DM.10Pyatenkoite-(Y)Na5YTi[SiO3]6 · 6H2OTrig. 3 2 : R3 2
9.DM.15GaidonnayiteNa2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
9.DM.15GeorgechaoiteNaKZr[Si3O9] · 2H2OOrth. mm2
9.DM.20ChkaloviteNa2BeSi2O6Orth. mm2 : Fdd2
9.DM.25VlasoviteNa2ZrSi4O11Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DM.30RevditeNa16Si16O27(OH)26 · 28H2OMon. 2 : B2
9.DM.35ScheuchzeriteNa(Mn,Mg,Zn)9[VSi9O28(OH)](OH)3Tric. 1 : P1
9.DM.40TerskiteNa4ZrSi6O16 · 2H2OOrth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.12.1BrannockiteKSn2(Li3Si12)O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for StokesiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hutchinson, A. (1900) On stokesite, a new mineral containing tin, from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 274-281.
Gay, P. and Rickson, K.O. (1960) X-ray data on stokesite. Mineralogical Magazine: 32: 433-435.
Cech (1961) Occurrence of stokesite in Czechoslovakia. Mineralogical Magazine: 32: 673-675.
Vorma, A. (1963) Crystal structure of stokesite, CaSnSi3O9·2H2O. Mineralogical Magazine: 33: 615-617.
Vorma, A. (1963) The crystal structure of stokesite CaSnSi3O9.2H2O. Geologinen Tutkimuslaitos Bulletin de la Commission Géologique de Finlande: 208: 1-48.
Cerny (1966) A new Czechoslovak occurrence of stokesite. Mineralogical Magazine: 35: 835-837.
White (1973) What's new in minerals. Mineralogical Record: 4: 275-276.
Couper and Clark (1977) Mineralogical Record: 8: 294-297.
Couper and Clark (1977) Mineralogical Magazine: 41: 411-414.
Foord, Eugene E. (1977) Mineralogical Record: 8: 472-473.
Nikao et al. (1977) Stokesite in the region of Ena, Gifu prefecture. Chigaku Kenkyu (Geoscience Magazine): 28: 149-152 (in Japanese).
Miyawaki et al. (1987) Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Japan: 18: 17-31 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Voloshin and Pakhymovsky (1988) On the stokesite from granitic pegmatite on Kola Peninsula and in sharn from Karelia (Pitkyaranta). New data on Minerals: 9: 35: 36-39 (in Russian).
Yuan, X., Guowu, L., Guangming, Y. (2017) Mineralogy and crystallography of stokesite from Inner Mongolia, China. The Canadian Mineralogist: 55: 63-74.

Internet Links for StokesiteHide

Localities for StokesiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Galiléia
White (1973) What's new in minerals. Mineralogical record: 4: 275-276.; B. E. Prescott and K. Nassau (1978) Black Elbaite from Corrego Do Urucum, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Magazine 42:357-359; Atencio D, Carvalho F M S, Matioli P A (2004) Coutinhoite, a new thorium uranyl silicate hydrate, from Urucum Mine, Galiléia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. American Mineralogist 89, 721-724
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Chifeng City (Ulanhad League; Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Hexigten Banner (Keshiketeng Co.)
Xue, Y., Li, G., Yang, G. (2017): Mineralogy and Crystallography of Stokesite From Inner Mongolia, China. Canadian Mineralogist, 55, 63-74
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Kutná Hora District
      • Zruč nad Sázavou
Novák, M., Gadas, P., Kadlec, T. (2015): Vlastějovice near Zruč nad Sázavou. Anatectic amphibole-bearing pegmatites and tourmaline-bearing granite-pegmatite system (LCT, barren to elbaite-subtype) contaminated from host Fe-skarn. - In: Fieldtrip Guidebook - PEG 2015 - 7th International Symposium of Granitic Pegmatites. 33-40.
          • Moldanubian Zone pegmatites
            • Holý vrch deposit
Novak, M., Kadlec, T., & Gadas, P. (2013). Geological position, mineral assemblages and contamination of granitic pegmatites in the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic; examples from the Vlastejovice region. Journal of Geosciences, 58(1), 21-47.
  • South Moravian Region
Houzar, S., Novák, M., Doležalová, H., Hrazdil, V., Pfeiferová, A.: Přehled mineralogie, petrografie a geologie nedvědických mramorů, svratecké krystalinikum. Acta Musei Moraviae, Sci. geol., 2006, roč. 91, s. 3-77.
    • Znojmo District
Cech (1961) Occurrence of stokesite in Czechoslovakia. Mineralogical Magazine: 32: 673-675.
  • Vysočina Region
    • Třebíč District
      • Třebíč Area
Škoda, R. & Čopjaková, R. (2006) Herzenbergite And Sn-bearing Tinzenite From The NYF Pegmatite In Třebíč Pluton, Moldanubicum, Czech Republic. Acta Miner.-Petrograph.,Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p.107; Škoda, R., & Čopjaková, R. (2016). Neobvyklá Sn-mineralizace z NYF pegmatitu u Klučova; třebíčský masiv, moldanubikum. Geologické výzkumy na Moravě a ve Slezsku, 12.
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
      • Bystřice nad Pernštejnem
Groat, L. A., Evans, R. J., Cempírek, J., McCammon, C., & Houzar, S. (2013). Fe-rich and As-bearing vesuvianite and wiluite from Kozlov, Czech Republic. American Mineralogist, 98(7), 1330-1337.
      • Věžná
Cerny (1966) A new Czechoslovak occurrence of stokesite, Mineralogical Magazine: 35: 835-837; Strübel, Zimmer: "Lexikon der Minerale", 2nd Ed., 1991; Cerny, P., Hawthorne, F. C., Laflamme, J. H. G., & Hinthorne, J. (1979). Stibiobetafite, a new member of the pyrochlore group from Vezna, Czechoslovakia. Canadian Mineralogist, 17, 583-588.
Petr Pauliš (2001): Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Moravy a Slezska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Schwarzenberg
Kern, M., Kästner, J., Möckel, R., & Gutzmer, J. Sn deportment within the diverse lithological units of the Hämmerlein skarn (Erzgebirge, Germany): implications for minerals processing.
  • Gifu Prefecture
    • Nakatsugawa City
Miyawaki et al (1987) Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Japan: 18: 17-31 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Nikao et al (1977) Stokesite in the region of Ena, Gifu prefecture. Chigaku Kenkyu (Geoscience Magazine): 28: 149-152 (in Japanese).
Ritsuro Miyawaki et al (2004) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou’en-Youshi, 130; Ritsuro Miyawaki, Satoshi Matsubara, Kazumi Yokoama, Akiyoshi Okamoto (2007) Hingganite-(Ce) and hingganite-(Y) from Tahara, Hirukawa-mura, Gifu Prefecture, Japan: The description on a new mineral species of the Ce-analogue of hingganite-(Y) with a refinement of the crystal structure of hingganite-(Y). Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 102, No. 1 February, 1-7.
  • Fès-Meknès Region
    • Meknès Prefecture
      • Meknès
        • El Hammam (El Hamman)
Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
Ph. M. Sonnet : "Burtite, Calcium Hexahydrostannate, a New Mineral from El Hamman, Central Morocco", Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 19, 1981, pp. 397-401.
  • Murmansk Oblast
Voloshin and Pakhymovsky (1988) On the stokesite from granitic pegmatite on Kola Peninsula and in sharn from Karelia (Piotkyaranta). New data on Minerals: 9: 35: 36-39 (in Russian).
  • Republic of Karelia
Voloshin and Pakhymovsky (1988) On the stokesite from granitic pegmatite on Kola Peninsula and in sharn from Karelia (Piotkyaranta). New data on Minerals: 9: 35: 36-39 (in Russian).; Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, pp. 1307-1311). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica; Ivashchenko, V. I., & Lavrov, О. В. (2006) Ore Deposits and Occurrences in the North Ladoga Region, Southwest Karelia. in Ore Deposits And Occurrences In The North Ladoga Region, Southwest Karelia Field Trip Guidebook. Understanding the genesis of ore deposits to meet the demands of the 21st century 12th Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium 2006. Moscow. P.41-64.
  • Community of Madrid
    • Valdemanco
Tanago, J. G., Lozano, P. L., Larios, A. , La Iglesia, A. (2012) Stokesite crystals from La Cabrera, Madrid, Spain. Mineralogical Record 43:499-508
  • Stockholm County
    • Haninge
      • Utö
Langhof, J., Jonson, E, Gustafsson, L. & Otter, B. (1998): Utö- en klassisk svensk mineralfyndort. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 14, 29-31
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Mabe
Couper, A.G., and Clark, A.M. (1977): Mineralogical Magazine 41, 411-414; Economic Geology (1980) 75, 752-759; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • St Just
        • Botallack
          • Cliff outcrops
Hutchinson, M.A. (1900): Mineralogical Magazine 12, 274-281
Couper, A.G., and Clark, A.M. (1977): Mineralogical Magazine 41, 411-414
  • California
    • San Diego County
      • Mesa Grande Mining District
        • Gem Hill
Foord, Eugene E. (1977) Mineralogical Record: 8: 472-473;
  • Yên Bái Province
    • Lục Yên District
Kubernátová, M. and Cempírek, J. (2019): Crystal chemistry of Pb-rich tourmaline from pegmatite in Minh Tien, Vietnam. 9th European Conference on Mineralogy and Spectroscopy, ECMS2019, Prague, Czech Republic, September 11-13, Book of Abstracts,
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