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Stibnite

This page kindly sponsored by Ruggy Holloway
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About StibniteHide

Formula:
Sb2S3
Colour:
Lead-gray with pale blue tint
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
4.63
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Member of:
Name:
Renamed in 1832 by François Sulpice Beudant. According to Dioscorides, the original Greek names for the mineral were Στιβι "stibi", Στιμμι "stimmi", and Πλατνόπθαλμου. The former name became the Latin "stibium" and the old name for the element antimony (Sb). Named spiessglas in 1430 by Basil Valentine who showed the mineral contained sulphur. Also known as antimony glance, antimonite, and stibine.
Dimorph of:
Bismuthinite-Stibnite Series. Possibly also polymorphous with UM1996-35-S:Sb.

The most common antimony sulphide. An important Sb ore mineral.


Classification of StibniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.DB.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
D : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 3 :4 and 2:3
B : M:S = 2:3
2.11.2.1

2 : SULFIDES
11 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
3.7.14

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi

Physical Properties of StibniteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Lead-gray with pale blue tint
Streak:
Lead grey
Hardness:
Hardness:
VHN100=71 - 86 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Comment:
VHN on (010) section
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}, imperfect on {100}{110}
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.63 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.625 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of StibniteHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=31.1%R2= 53.3%
420nmR1=30.8%R2= 53.2%
440nmR1=30.6%R2= 53.0%
460nmR1=30.7%R2= 52.8%
480nmR1=31.0%R2= 52.2%
500nmR1=31.2%R2= 51.1%
520nmR1=31.4%R2= 49.7%
540nmR1=31.2%R2= 48.5%
560nmR1=30.8%R2= 47.2%
580nmR1=30.3%R2= 45.8%
600nmR1=29.7%R2= 44.5%
620nmR1=29.3%R2= 43.5%
640nmR1=29.2%R2= 42.6%
660nmR1=29.4%R2= 41.8%
680nmR1=29.6%R2= 41.1%
700nmR1=29.4%R2= 40.3%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 53.3%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
white

Chemical Properties of StibniteHide

Formula:
Sb2S3

Crystallography of StibniteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.229 Å, b = 11.31 Å, c = 3.8389 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.993 : 1 : 0.339
Unit Cell V:
487.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Slender to stout crystals
Twinning:
Rare {130}{120}{310}

Crystallographic forms of StibniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Stibnite no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.31 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.55 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.110 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.115 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.052 Å(55)
3.573 Å(65)
3.556 Å(70)
3.053 Å(95)
2.764 Å(100)
2.680 Å(50)
2.525 Å(45)

Synonyms of StibniteHide

Other Language Names for StibniteHide

Varieties of StibniteHide

Relationship of Stibnite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AntimonseliteSb2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
BismuthiniteBi2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
GuanajuatiteBi2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
746 photos of Stibnite associated with CalciteCaCO3
666 photos of Stibnite associated with QuartzSiO2
447 photos of Stibnite associated with BaryteBaSO4
177 photos of Stibnite associated with SideriteFeCO3
128 photos of Stibnite associated with StibiconiteSb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
120 photos of Stibnite associated with Plumosite
103 photos of Stibnite associated with MarcasiteFeS2
101 photos of Stibnite associated with PyriteFeS2
100 photos of Stibnite associated with FluoriteCaF2
95 photos of Stibnite associated with DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.DB.05AntimonseliteSb2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.DB.05BismuthiniteBi2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.DB.05GuanajuatiteBi2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.DB.05MetastibniteSb2S3Amor.
2.DB.05PääkköneniteSb2AsS2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.DB.10OttemanniteSn2S3
2.DB.10SuredaitePbSnS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.DB.15Bowieite(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.DB.15Kashinite(Ir,Rh)2S3Orth.
2.DB.20Montbrayite(Au,Ag,Sb,Bi,Pb)23(Te,Sb,Bi,Pb)38Tric.
2.DB.25EdgariteFeNb3S6Hex. 6 : P63
2.DB.30Tarkianite(Cu,Fe)(Re,Mo)4S8Iso. 4 3m
2.DB.35CameroniteCu5-x(Cu,Ag)3+xTe10 (x = 0.43)Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.11.2.2AntimonseliteSb2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.11.2.3BismuthiniteBi2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.11.2.4GuanajuatiteBi2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.7.1PatróniteVS4Mon.
3.7.2DuranusiteAs4SOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
3.7.3DimorphiteAs4S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.4RealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m
3.7.5PararealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.6AlacrániteAs8S9Mon. 2/m : P2/b
3.7.7UzoniteAs4S5Mon.
3.7.8OrpimentAs2S3Mon. 2/m
3.7.9JeromiteAmor.
3.7.10LaphamiteAs2Se3Mon. 2/m
3.7.11GetchelliteAsSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.12Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]Orth. mm2 : Pna21
3.7.13PääkköneniteSb2AsS2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.7.15MetastibniteSb2S3Amor.
3.7.16TellurantimonySb2Te3Trig.
3.7.17BismuthiniteBi2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.18NevskiteBi(Se,S)Trig.
3.7.19GuanajuatiteBi2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.21IkunoliteBi4(S,Se)3Trig.
3.7.22LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
3.7.23PoubaitePbBi2(Se,Te,S)4Trig.
3.7.24TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3Trig.
3.7.25SoučekitePbCuBi(S,Se)3Orth.
3.7.26TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
3.7.27PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.28HedleyiteBi7Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.29TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.30JoséiteBi4TeS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.31Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.32IngoditeBi2TeSTrig.
3.7.33SulphotsumoiteBi3Te2STrig.
3.7.34KawazuliteBi2Te2SeTrig.
3.7.36SkippeniteBi2TeSe2Trig.
3.7.37KochkaritePbBi4Te7Trig.
3.7.38RucklidgeitePbBi2Te4Trig.
3.7.39AleksitePbBi2Te2S2Trig.
3.7.40JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Melts at 546°C
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Stibnite is a very soft delicate mineral and should be kept in a container with a very soft cushion like cotton and not allowed to rub up against the sides of the box. Stibnite is a bit like graphite in that it will leave a streak when rubbed against paper. Over a period of many years, brilliant surfaces of freshly mined stibnite will become less shiny.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for StibniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Dana (1883) American Journal of Science: 26: 214.
Tokody (1937-38) Ann. Mus. Hungarici, Pars. Min.: 31: 165.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 270-275.
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1972) 135: 308-315.
McKee D.D., McMullen J.T. (1976) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 142: 447.
Kyono, A., Kimata, M., Matsuhisa, M., Miyashita, Y. and Okamoto, K. (2002) Low-temperature crystal structures of stibnite implying orbital overlap of Sb 5s2 inert pair electrons. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 29, 254–260.
Kyono, A., Kimata, M. (2004) Structural variations induced by difference of the inert pair effect in the stibnite-bismuthinite solid solution series (Sb,Bi)2S3. American Mineralogist 89, 932-940.
Kuze, S., Du Boulay, D., Ishizawa, N., Saiki, A. and Pring, A. (2004) X-ray diffraction evidence for a monoclinic form of stibnite, Sb2S3, below 290 K. American Mineralogist, 89, 1022–1025.

Internet Links for StibniteHide

Localities for StibniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

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