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Spionkopite

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About SpionkopiteHide

Formula:
Cu39S28
"Extended" formula is Cu+15Cu2+4.5(S2)2S10 (Goble, 1985).
Colour:
Blue
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named after its discovery locality.
See also the closely related yarrowite.

Compare UM1976-15-S:CuSe.


Classification of SpionkopiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1978
2.CA.05c

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
A : With Cu
2.4.7.7

2 : SULFIDES
4 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
3.1.6

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu

Physical Properties of SpionkopiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Blue
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of SpionkopiteHide

Formula:
Cu39S28

"Extended" formula is Cu+15Cu2+4.5(S2)2S10 (Goble, 1985).
Common Impurities:
Fe,Zn

Crystallography of SpionkopiteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 22.96 Å, c = 41.42 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.804
Unit Cell V:
18,909.69 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Comment:
Possible space group is P-3m1.

Type Occurrence of SpionkopiteHide

Synonyms of SpionkopiteHide

Other Language Names for SpionkopiteHide

German:Spionkopit
Simplified Chinese:斯硫铜矿
高硫铜矿
Spanish:Spionkopita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
7 photos of Spionkopite associated with DjurleiteCu31S16
5 photos of Spionkopite associated with YarrowiteCu9S8
4 photos of Spionkopite associated with QuartzSiO2
2 photos of Spionkopite associated with BorniteCu5FeS4
2 photos of Spionkopite associated with ChalcociteCu2S
1 photo of Spionkopite associated with HematiteFe2O3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.CA.05aCovelliteCuSHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
2.CA.05bKlockmanniteCuSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
2.CA.05dYarrowiteCu9S8Trig.
2.CA.10NukundamiteCu3.33Fe0.66S4Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.CA.15CalvertiteCu5Ge0.5S4Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.4.7.1ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.4.7.2DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
2.4.7.3DigeniteCu9S5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.4.7.4RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
2.4.7.5AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.1.1ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.1.2DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
3.1.3DigeniteCu9S5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.1.4AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.5RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
3.1.7GeeriteCu8S5Trig. 3
3.1.8CovelliteCuSHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.9BerzelianiteCu2SeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.1.10BellidoiteCu2SeTet. 4/m : P42/n
3.1.11UmangiteCu3Se2Tet.
3.1.12YarrowiteCu9S8Trig.
3.1.13AthabascaiteCu5Se4Orth.
3.1.14KlockmanniteCuSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.15Krut'aiteCuSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.16WeissiteCu2-xTeHex.
3.1.17RickarditeCu7Te5Orth.
3.1.18VulcaniteCuTeOrth.
3.1.19BambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2Tet.
3.1.20LautiteCuAsSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.21MgriiteCu3AsSe3
3.1.22CubaniteCuFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.1.23BorniteCu5FeS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
3.1.24FukuchiliteCu3FeS8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.25ChalcopyriteCuFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
3.1.26MooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16Tet.
3.1.27HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
3.1.28IsocubaniteCuFe2S3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.1.29IdaiteCu5FeS6Hex.
3.1.30NukundamiteCu3.33Fe0.66S4Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.1.31PutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2Iso.
3.1.32Orickite2CuFeS2 · H2OHex.
3.1.33EskeborniteCuFeSe2Tet.
3.1.34Chaméanite(Cu,Fe)4As(Se,S)4Iso.
3.1.35TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SpionkopiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Canadian Mineralogist (1980): 18: 511-518.
American Mineralogist (1981): 66: 1279.
Goble, R.J. (1985): The relationship between crystal structure, bonding and cell dimensions in the copper sulfides. Canadian Mineralogist, 23, 61-76.

Internet Links for SpionkopiteHide

Localities for SpionkopiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Córdoba Province
    • Colón Department
      • Dumesnil
Colombo, F., Lira, R., Ripley, E. M., & del Tanago, J. G. (2011). Geology, mineralogy and possible origin of the copper mineralization in marble near Saldan, Cordoba (Argentina). Journal of GEOsciences, 56(3), 299-316.
  • Río Negro Province
    • Valcheta department
      • San Martin pluton
GOZALVEZ, Martín Ricardo. Characterizationof San Martín pluton and associated tungsten deposits, Valcheta Department, Río Negro Province. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 409-425.
Atlantic Ocean
 
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
    • Ashadze hydrothermal area
Firstova, A., Stepanova, T., Cherkashov, G., Goncharov, A., & Babaeva, S. (2016). Composition and formation of gabbro-peridotite hosted seafloor massive sulfide deposits from the Ashadze-1 hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Minerals, 6(1), 19.
Gablina, I.F., Semkova, T.A., Stepanova, T.V., and Gor'kova, N.V. (2006): Lithology and Mineral Resources 41(1), 27-44.
    • Rainbow Massif
New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 99-105
    • Semenov region
Firstova, A., Stepanova, T., Sukhanova, A., Cherkashov, G., & Poroshina, I. (2019). Au and Te Minerals in Seafloor Massive Sulphides from Semyenov-2 Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Minerals, 9(5), 294.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Robinson Co.
      • Cobar
Leverett, P., McKinnon, A. R., & Williams, P. A. (2005). Supergene geochemistry of the Endeavor ore body, Cobar, NSW, and relationships to other deposits in the Cobar basin. Regolith 2005–Ten Years of CRC LEME, 191-194.
  • Queensland
    • Mount Isa City Shire
      • Gunpowder District
        • Mount Gordon
Richardson, S.M. and Day, A.D. (1997) Geology of the Esperanza copper deposit. Proceedings of the 3rd International Mining Geology Conference, Launceston. pg. 51-56
  • South Australia
    • Stuart Shelf
      • Roxby Downs
Ciobanu, C. L., Cook, N. J., Ehrig, K. (2017): Ore minerals down to the nanoscale: Cu-(Fe)-sulphides from the iron oxide copper gold deposit at Olympic Dam, South Australia. Ore Geology Review 81, 1218-1235.
  • Western Australia
    • Wiluna Shire
      • Mount Keith
Grguric, B.A. (2003) Minerals of the MKD5 nickel deposit, Mount Keith, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 9, No.2 pp.55-71.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Deutschlandsberg District
      • Eibiswald
        • Soboth
          • Krumbach
Postl, W., Bernhard, F. & Jakely, D. (2013): Über eine Erz- und Kluftmineralisation in Krumbach bei Soboth, südliche Koralpe, Steiermark. Der Steirische Mineralog, 27, 40-48.
    • Graz
Bojar, H.-P. & Postl, W. (1999)
- Bojar, H.P., Postl, W. (1999): 1192. Ein Silber-Gold-Amalgam, ged.Gold(?), ged.Kupfer, Cuprit, Djurleit, Yarrowit, Spionkopit, Azurit(?) und Quarz aus dem Grazer Schloßberg, Graz, Steiermark. In: Niedermayr et al.(1999): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich XLVIII.- Carinthia II, 189/109, p.230-231.
    • Murtal District
      • Knittelfeld
        • Flatschach
Raith, J. G., Leitner, T., & Paar, W. H. (2015). Orogenic-type copper-gold-arsenic-(bismuth) mineralization at Flatschach (Eastern Alps), Austria. Mineralogy and Petrology, 109(5), 531-553.
    • Voitsberg District
      • Krems
Moser & Postl (1990); Exel (1993)
Belgium
 
  • Wallonia
    • Luxembourg
Hatert, F., Baijot, M., & Dal Bo, F. (2014). Occurrence of tellurides in the Stavelot Massif, Belgium. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 131
Canada (TL)
 
  • Alberta
    • Yarrow Creek-Spionkop Creek deposit
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
  • Nova Scotia
    • Colchester Co.
Sabina, A.P. (2015) Rocks and minerals for the collector: Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; South Shore, Nova Scotia. Geological Survey of Canada, Popular Geoscience 97: 456 pages, doi:10.4095/293933
    • Lunenburg Co.
      • New Ross
Sabina, A.P. (2015) Rocks and minerals for the collector: Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; South Shore, Nova Scotia. Geological Survey of Canada, Popular Geoscience 97: 456 pages, doi:10.4095/293933.
  • Ontario
    • Algoma District
      • Gould Township
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.45
      • Plummer Additional Township
        • Bruce Mines
Sabina, Ann P., GSC Miscellaneous Report 49, page 49, Bruce Mines Copper Mines
    • Rainy River District
      • Little Turtle Lake Area
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.159
China
 
  • Fujian
    • Longyan
      • Shanghang Co.
        • Zijinshan ore field
Huang, H., Wang, S., & Chi, C. (2014). Identification of the complete Cu–S series minerals from the Zijinshan Cu–Au deposit, Fujian Province. Geol. J. China Univ., 20, 50-57.
  • Tibet
    • Ngari
      • Gêrzê Co. (Gaize Co.)
        • Duolong ore field
YANG, C., TANG, J., WANG, Y., YANG, H., WANG, Q., DING, S. and FANG, X. (2014), Minerals, Alteration and Fluid Basic Researchonthe First High Sulfidation Epithermal-Porphyry Cu (Au) Deposit (Southern Tiegelong Deposit) in Tibet, China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 817–819.
DR Congo
 
  • Lualaba
    • Kolwezi mining district
      • Kolwezi
Canadian Mineralogist 46,19-31(2008); Wilson, W. E. (2018) The Musonoi mine, Kolwezi District, Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mineralogical Record 49:236-304
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
      • Rottweil
        • Schenkenzell
          • Wittichen
            • Böckelsbach valley
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
            • Burgfelsen
No reference listed
            • Gallenbach valley
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
            • Heubach Valley
No reference listed
      • Waldshut
        • St Blasien
          • Menzenschwand
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
          • Urberg
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
    • Karlsruhe
      • Calw
        • Calw
Walenta, K. (1992): "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich).
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Pforzheim
        • Würm
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Franconia
      • Aschaffenburg
        • Schöllkrippen
          • Großkahl
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
        • Westerngrund
          • Huckelheim
Schmitt, R. T. (1993): "Sulfide und Arsenide aus den Gruben Segen Gottes bei Huckelheim und Hilfe Gottes bei Großkahl im Spessart", Der Aufschluss 44, 111-122. (in German)
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Oberschulenberg
Lapis, 11 (1), 9-18+42
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Birkenfeld
      • Fischbach
Scheiderhöhn & Kautzsch 1936, research R. Lang, 1994-1998
      • Sonnenberg-Winnenberg
Roger Lang analyses/research 1994-1998
  • Saxony-Anhalt
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Helgoland
Markus Gerstmann - Collection
Greece
 
  • Central Greece
    • Euboea
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
India
 
  • Madhya Pradesh
    • Jabalpur division
      • Balaghat District
        • Baihar Tehsil
          • Padritola
Sikka, D. B., Petruk, W., Nehru, C. E., & Zhang, Z. (1991). Geochemistry of secondary copper minerals from Proterozoic porphyry copper deposit, Malanjkhand, India. Ore Geology Reviews, 6(2-3), 257-290.
Indonesia
 
  • West Java Province
    • Bogor Regency
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 41, pp. 185-200 (2003)
Iran
 
  • Yazd Province
    • Ardakan County
      • Ardakan (Ardekan)
http://www.fos.ut.ac.ir/~journal/G.80.1E_2.htm; Shekarifard, A., Rahimpour, B. H., & Rouh, S. J. (2004) Alteration of sulfide minerals in the Ardakan barite-chalcopyrite ore deposits. Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy. Vol. 12, No. 2, 1383/2004 Fall & Winter
Ireland
 
  • Munster
    • Co. Kerry
      • Killarney
        • Lough Leane
Ixer, R.A. 2004. Catalogue of Petrographic Descriptions for Rock and Ore Samples, Ross Island Mine. In: O'Brien, W. ed. Ross Island - Mining, Metal and Society in Early Ireland. Bronze Age Studies 6, Department of Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway, 768pp.
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Masino Valley
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • South Tirol
      • San Giacomo (Sankt Jakob)
        • Vizze Pass (Pfitsch Pass; Pfitscher Joch)
Folie, K., Gentile, P., Hanke, M., Rocchetti, I. (2010): Mineralien aus der Umgebung des Pfitscher Jochs in Südtirol (II). Mineralien-Welt, 21, 4, 42-67.
Papua New Guinea
 
  • Central Province
    • Astrolabe mineral field
Noku, S.K., Espi, J.O., Matsueda, H. (2012) Magmatic contributions to the mineralization of the Laloki and Federal Flag strata-bound massive sulfide deposits, Papua New Guinea: Sulfur isotope evidence. Paper presented at PNG Research, Science and Technology Conference, Pacific Adventist University, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Głogów Co.
Jadwiga PIECZONKA, Adam PIESTRZYŃSKI, Jacek MUCHA, Adam GŁUSZEK, Maciej KOTARBA, Dariusz WIĘCŁAW (2008): The red-bed-type precious metal deposit in the Sieroszowice-Polkowice copper mining district, SW Poland. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 78, 151-280.
Oszczepalski, S., & Chmielewski, A. (2017). Mineralizacja kruszcowa w odkrywczym otworze Sieroszowice S-1 w œwietle nowych badań. Przegląd Geologiczny, 65(5).
Piestrzyński, A., & Pieczonka, J. (2012). Low temperature ore minerals associations in the Kupferschiefer type deposit, Lubin–Sieroszowice mining district, SW Poland. Мінералогічний збірник, (2), 59-66.
    • Lubin Co.
Kucha H. 2007: Mineralogia kruszcowa i geochemia ciała rudnego złoża Lubin-Sieroszowice. Biuletyn PIG, vol. 423, pp. 77-94
Russia
 
  • Tuva
Palyanova, G. A., Murzin, V. V., Zhuravkova, T. V., & Varlamov, D. A. (2018). Au-Cu-Ag mineralization in rodingites and nephritoids of the Agardag ultramafic massif (southern Tuva, Russia). Russian Geology and Geophysics, 59(3), 238-256.
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Lleida (Lérida)
      • El Pallars Jussà
        • La Vall Fosca
          • La Torre de Cabdella (La Torre de Capdella)
            • Castell-estaó
- Castillo,M.,Torró,L.,Campeny,M.,Villanova,C.,Tauler,E.,Melgarejo,J.C.(2009) "Mineralogía del Depósito de Uranio Eureka (Castell-estaó, Pirineo, Cataluña) " Soc. Esp. de Mineralogía, Revista Macla nº 11 pp. 53-54. Madrid.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Melgarejo, J.C.; Torró, L.; Villanova-de-Benavent, C.; Campeny, M.; Díaz-Acha, Y.; Amores-Casals, S.; Xu, J.; Proenza, J.; Tauler, E. Sandstone-Hosted Uranium Deposits as a Possible Source for Critical Elements: The Eureka Mine Case, Castell-Estaó, Catalonia. Minerals 2020, 10, 34.
Sweden
 
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
Switzerland
 
  • Grisons
    • Vorderrhein Valley
      • Tujetsch (Tavetsch)
        • Curnera Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 109.
  • Valais
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Chandolin
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
      • Saint-Luc
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 109.; Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
UK
 
  • England
    • Leicestershire
      • Hinckley and Bosworth
        • Stanton under Bardon
          • Cliffe Hill Quarry
UKJMM 26:43-51
    • North Somerset
      • Clevedon
Ixer, R. A., Pattrick, R. A., & Starkey, R. E. (1993) Lead-Zinc-Copper-Arsenic-Baryte Mineralization from Clevedon, near Bristol, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 5(1), 23-30.
    • North Yorkshire
      • Craven
        • Settle - Malham Area
[J.Russell Soc. 1998:41]
    • Warwickshire
      • Nuneaton and Bedworth
UKJMM 26:43-51
  • Scotland
    • Highland
      • Loch Kishorn
Faithfull, J., Young, B., Starkey, R.E. (2012) Copper mineralisation at Rassal, Kishorn, Highland Region. Journal of the Russell Society, Vol. 15, pg. 49-58.
  • Wales
    • Conwy
      • Llandudno
        • Great Orme
BMS Database; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 978-982.
    • Isle of Anglesey
      • Amlwch
No reference listed
    • Powys
      • Old Radnor
        • Wethel
Cotterell TF et al (2011) The mineralogy of Dolyhir quarry, Old Radnor. Powys, Wales. UKJMM 32:5-61
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
[MinRec 24:421]
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 379; Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
Rob Bowell, lab tested
Robert Bowell and Rolf Luetcke
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Ivanpah Mining District
        • Ivanpah Mts
          • Kessler Peak
Ronald Wynn Sheets, James R. Craig, Robert J. Bodnar (1995) Composition And Occurrence Of Electrum At The Morning Star Deposit, San Bernardino County, California: Evidence For Remobilization Of Gold And Silver. Canadian Mineralogist 33:137-151
  • Colorado
    • Park Co.
      • Alma Mining District
        • Mount Bross
Min News 20:9 pp1,3,10,11
  • Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Buffalo Mountain Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Lander Co.
      • Battle Mountain Mining District
Moore-Roth, M. N. (2012). Supergene enrichment profile at copper basin Battle Mountain, Nevada (Doctoral dissertation, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology).
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • De Kalb Township
Dana's New Mineralogy
Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 18, pp. 519-523 (1980)
  • Virginia
    • Charlotte Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Halifax Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
 
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