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Smythite

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About SmythiteHide

07757810015108807646200.jpg
Charles H. Smyth, Jr.
Formula:
(Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x=0-0.3)
Colour:
brownish black, bronze-yellow
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
4.32
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named by Richard C. Erd, Howard T. Evans, Jr., and Donald H. Richter in 1957 in honor of Charles Henry Smyth, Jr. (31 March 1866, Oswego, New York, USA - 4 April 1937, Princeton, New Jersey, USA), Professor of Economic Geology, Princeton University, New Jersey, USA.
Pyrrhotite Group.

An iron(-nickel) sulphide visually very similar to pyrrhotite and troilite.


Classification of SmythiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.CC.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
C : With Ni, Fe, Co, PGE, etc.
2.8.10.2

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
3.9.7

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
9 : Sulphides etc. of Fe

Physical Properties of SmythiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
brownish black, bronze-yellow
Comment:
Black with tinge of brown against a white surface; bronze yellow reflections from {0001}
Streak:
dark gray
Hardness:
4½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{0001)
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Comment:
Flexible and elastic in thin lamellae
Density:
4.32 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.32 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Taylor and Williams (1972) in their redefinition of Smythite say both measured and calculated densities are ~4.32, replacing the older value of 4.06

Optical Data of SmythiteHide

Anisotropism:
Strong with yellow and blue-grey interference colors
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
Greyish yellow to reddish brown
Comments:
Tends to be free of inclusions or intergrowths; strongly resembles pyrrhotite

Chemical Properties of SmythiteHide

Formula:
(Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x=0-0.3)
IMA Formula:
(Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x ≈ 0-0.3)

Crystallography of SmythiteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.465 Å, c = 34.34 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 9.911
Unit Cell V:
357.06 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
Thin pseudohexagonal plates [0001] and "a rhombohedron". Crystals are so thin at the type locality than the prism was not observed. Twinning common producing warped hexagonal plates. Impossible to visually distinguish at the type locality, and nearby locations, from pyrrhotite with which it is constantly associated (Erd et al., 1957).
Comment:
Also given as 3.47, 34.50 A. Z=1 (ICDD 25-1182)

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000080SmythiteErd R C, Evans H T, Richter D H (1957) Smythite, a new iron sulfide, and associated pyrrhotite from Indiana American Mineralogist 42 309-33319570293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
11.5 Å(100)
5.75 Å(17)
3.833 Å(7)
2.994 Å(31)
2.961 Å(6)
2.755 Å(5)
2.566 Å(25)
2.266 Å(15)
2.170 Å(17)
1.989 Å(14)
1.906 Å(11)
1.735 Å(17)
1.716 Å(2)
1.682 Å(2)
1.501 Å(2)
1.438 Å(3)
1.355 Å(2)
1.308 Å(2)
1.107 Å(4)
1.044 Å(2)
Comments:
ICDD 25-1182

Type Occurrence of SmythiteHide

Other Language Names for SmythiteHide

German:Smythit
Russian:Смизит
Simplified Chinese:菱硫铁矿
Spanish:Smythita

Relationship of Smythite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
PyrrhotiteFe1-xSMon.
TroiliteFeSHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
8 photos of Smythite associated with QuartzSiO2
7 photos of Smythite associated with WhewelliteCa(C2O4) · H2O
7 photos of Smythite associated with DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
5 photos of Smythite associated with CalciteCaCO3
4 photos of Smythite associated with BaryteBaSO4
3 photos of Smythite associated with PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
1 photo of Smythite associated with Smoky QuartzSiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.CC.UM2007-26-S:CuFeIrNiPtRh(Ir,Cu,Ni,Pt,Rh,Fe)9S11
2.CC.05AchávaliteFeSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
2.CC.05BreithauptiteNiSbHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
2.CC.05FrebolditeCoSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
2.CC.05KotulskitePd(Te,Bi)2-x (x ≈ 0.4)Hex.
2.CC.05LangisiteCoAsHex. 6 : P63
2.CC.05NickelineNiAsHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
2.CC.05Sederholmitebeta-NiSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
2.CC.05SobolevskitePdBiHex.
2.CC.05StumpflitePtSbHex.
2.CC.05SudburyitePdSbHex.
2.CC.05JaipuriteCoSHex.
2.CC.05ZlatogoriteNiCuSb2Trig.
2.CC.10PyrrhotiteFe1-xSMon.
2.CC.10TroiliteFeSHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
2.CC.15CherepanoviteRhAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.CC.15Modderite(Co,Fe)AsOrth.
2.CC.15Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)AsOrth.
2.CC.15Westerveldite(Fe,Ni,Co)AsOrth.
2.CC.20MilleriteNiSTrig. 3m : R3m
2.CC.20Mäkineniteγ-NiSeTrig.
2.CC.20UM1990-38-S:CuFeIrNiPtRh(Ni,Fe,Rh,Cu,Ir,Pt)S
2.CC.25Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
2.CC.30Hexatestibiopanickelite(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)Hex.
2.CC.30VavříniteNi2SbTe2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
2.CC.35aBraggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)STet.
2.CC.35bCooperitePtSTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mmc
2.CC.35aVysotskite(Pd,Ni)STet.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.8.10.1PyrrhotiteFe1-xSMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.9.1PyrrhotiteFe1-xSMon.
3.9.3PyriteFeS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.9.4MarcasiteFeS2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
3.9.5GreigiteFe2+Fe3+2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.9.6Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.9.8AchávaliteFeSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.9.9FerroseliteFeSe2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
3.9.10FrohbergiteFeTe2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
3.9.11LöllingiteFeAs2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
3.9.12ArsenopyriteFeAsSMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.9.13GudmunditeFeSbSMon. 2/m : P21/b

Fluorescence of SmythiteHide

Not fluorescent.

Other InformationHide

Magnetism:
Ferromagnetic
Thermal Behaviour:
Heating at 400° C changed smythite to pyrrhotite in 18 hours; at lower temperature (290° C) smythite was a mixture of smythite + pyrrhotite in the same time.
Notes:
Strongly ferromagnetic
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Easily rusts/oxidises to goethite when exposed to water or moist air although pyrrhotite tarnished and pitted sooner than smythite; crystals in calcite tend to be unoxidised and stable.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SmythiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Erd, R.C., Evans, H.T. (1956) The compound Fe3S4 (smythite) found in nature. Journal of the American Chemical Society: 78: 2017-2017.
Erd, R.C., Evans, H.T. Jr., Richter, D.H. (1957) Smythite, A New Iron Sulfide, and Associated Pyrrhotite from Indiana. American Mineralogist: 42: 309-333.
Taylor, L.A. (1970) Smythite, Fe3+xS4 and associated minerals from the Silverfields Mine, Cobalt, Ontario. American Mineralogist: 55: 1650-1658.
Nickel. E.H. (1972) Nickeliferous smythite from some Canadian occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist: 11: 514-519.
Taylor, L.A., Williams, K.L. (1972) Smythite Fe9S11 - A Redefinition. American Mineralogist: 57: 7571-1577.
Jambor, J.L., Roberts, A.C. (1995) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 80: 184-188.
Krupp, R.E. (1994) Phase relations and phase transformations between the low-temperature iron sulfides mackinawite, greigite, and smythite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 6: 265-278.
Bon, C.E., Rakovan, J. (2011) The Morphology of Smythite (Fe,Ni)3S4, from Bloomington, Indiana. 38th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium Program and Abstracts, p.10.

Internet Links for SmythiteHide

Localities for SmythiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land
      • Queen Fabiola Mts (Yamato Mts)
El Gorsey, A., Yabuki, H., Ehlers, K., Woolum, D. & Pernicka, E. (1988). Qingzhen and Yamato-691: A tentative alphabet for the EH chondrites. Proceedings NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 1, 65-101.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Cloncurry Shire
      • Rosebud Station
        • Mary Kathleen district
Riley, J. F. (1980). Ferroan carrollites, cobaltian violarites, and other members of the linnaeite group:(Co, Ni, Fe, Cu) 3S4. Mineralogical Magazine, 43(330), 733-739.
  • Western Australia
    • Coolgardie Shire
      • Spargoville
Marston, R.J. (1984) Nickel Mineralization in Western Australia. Mineral Resources Bulletin 14, Geological Survey of Western Australia, 291p. 
      • Widgiemooltha
Nickel, E.H., Clout, J.F.M. & Gartrell, B.J. (1994): Secondary Nickel Minerals from Widgiemooltha, Western Australia. Mineralogical Record (1994): 25: 283-291 & 302.
    • Kalgoorlie-Boulder Shire
      • Broad Arrow Goldfield
        • Bardoc
Marston, R.J. (1984) Nickel Mineralization in Western Australia. Mineral Resources Bulletin 14, Geological Survey of Western Australia, 291p. 
Botswana
 
  • North-East District
    • Francistown District
      • Selebi-Phikwe belt (Selbi-Pikwe)
Brotherton, R. L. (1979). The geochemistry and mineralogy of gossans overlying nickel-copper sulphide mineralisation. PhD Thesis University of London
Bulgaria
 
  • Haskovo Province
    • Ivaylovgrad Municipality
      • Ivaylovgrad
T. Kerestedjian (1997) Argentonentlandite (Fe, Ni)8+хАg1-xS8 from Kamilski dol – a new mineral species for Bulgaria. Review of the Bulgarian Geological Society 58:15-18
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Flin Flon District
Economic Geology (1996) 91:1394-1413
    • Lac-du-Bonnet area
Canadian Mineralogist , 1973, 12, pp.165-168.; Ritchie, Paul M. H. (1973) A study of the copper-nickel-zinc deposit of Bird River Mines Co. Ltd., Southeastern Manitoba. MS Thesis University of Manitoba.; E. H. Nickel (1972) Nickeliferous smythite from some Canadian occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist 11:514-519
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Kapkichi Lake Area
Can Mineral 1984 22: 13-21
    • Rainy River District
      • Atikokan area
E. H. Nickel (1972) Nickeliferous smythite from some Canadian occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist 11:514-519
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Pays Plat Lake Area
E. H. Nickel (1972) Nickeliferous smythite from some Canadian occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist 11:514-519
    • Timiskaming District
      • Cobalt-Gowganda region
Grice, Joel D. (1989) Cobalt: the Silver City. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 85-91; 159-161.
          • Coleman Township
Dana's New Mineralogy; American Mineralogist (1970), 55:1650-1658; Petruk (1971): The Silver-Arsenide Deposits of the Cobalt-Gowganda Region, Ontario. Can. Mineral. 11, 196-231; Ann P. Sabina (1974) Rocks and Minerals for the Collector: Cobalt-Belleferre-Timmins; Ontario and Quebec. Canadian Geological Survey Paper 73-13
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Témiscamingue RCM
        • Latulipe-et-Gaboury
E. H. Nickel (1972) Nickeliferous smythite from some Canadian occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist 11:514-519
    • Montréal
GRICE, J.D. (1989) A Mineral Locality in Montreal City. In: Famous Mineral Localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 109-114; 176-178.; TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. The Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
China
 
  • Gansu
    • Jinchang
      • Jinchuan District
Shimpei Kano, Kuoxiong Sun, and Tsuyoshi Kitamura (1988): Bulletin of the Research Institute of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy, Tohoku University 44(1), 15-30
  • Guizhou
    • Guiyang
      • Qingzhen County
El Gorsey, A., Yabuki, H., Ehlers, K., Woolum, D. & Pernicka, E. (1988). Qingzhen and Yamato-691: A tentative alphabet for the EH chondrites. Proceedings NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 1, 65-101.
  • Shaanxi
    • Hanzhong
      • Mian County
Xueming Wang, Mengxiong Chen, Mei Li, and Furang Li (2002): Geology and Prospecting 38(6), 34-38
Costa Rica
 
  • Guanacaste Province
Schwarzenbach, E. M., Gazel, E., & Caddick, M. J. (2014). Hydrothermal processes in partially serpentinized peridotites from Costa Rica: evidence from native copper and complex sulfide assemblages. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 168(5), 1-21.; Schwarzenbach, E. M., Gill, B. C., Gazel, E., & Madrigal, P. (2016). Sulfur and carbon geochemistry of the Santa Elena peridotites: Comparing oceanic and continental processes during peridotite alteration. Lithos, 252, 92-108.
Czech Republic
 
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
    • Sokolov District
Beran, P., Rojík, P.: Mineralogie a geologie lomu Lomnice v sokolovské hnědouhelné pánvi. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1997, roč. 4-5, s. 77-83.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • Brioude
        • Saint-Cirgues
P.G. Pélisson : "Etude Minéralogique et Métallogénique du District Filonien Polytype de Paulhaguet (Haute-Loire, Massif Central Français)", Doctorate Thesis, Orléans, France, 1989
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Quimper
        • Edern
Chauris, L. (2014): Minéraux de Bretagne, Les Editions du Piat, 60.
    • Morbihan
      • Lorient
Chauris, L. (2014): Minéraux de Bretagne, Les Editions du Piat, 60.
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Thann-Guebwiller
        • Kruth
U. Kolitsch (1997): Neufunde von Mineralien aus einigen Vorkommen der Vogesen, Frankreich: Giromagny, Auxelles-Haut und Kruth 1. Aufschluss 48 (4), 243-256.
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-Maritimes
      • Saint-Martin-Vésubie
        • Le Boréon
R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J. Féraud, J. Vernet : "Inventaire Minéralogique de la France N° 4 : Alpes-Maritimes", BRGM, 1974
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
        • Steinach
Walenta, K. (1998): Neue Mineralfunde aus dem Schwarzwald (7. Folge, 1.Teil). Lapis, 23 (11), 35-xx
      • Waldshut
        • Dachsberg
          • Urberg
Walenta, K. (1992) Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes und ihre Fundstellan. Christian Weise Verlag, München, 336 pages [in German].
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar District
      • Braunlage
        • St Andreasberg
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Donnersberg District
      • Nordpfälzer Land
        • Obermoschel
Krupp, R.E. (1989) Paragenesis and conditions of formation of the Moschellandsberg mercury deposit, SW Germany. Mineralium Deposita, 24:2, 69-76.
  • Thuringia
    • Ronneburg U deposit
Wolfgang Henckel
Ghana
 
  • Western Region
    • Ashanti gold belt
      • Konongo
Milési, J. P., Ledru, P., Ankrah, P., Johan, V., Marcoux, E., & Vinchon, C. (1991). The metallogenic relationship between Birimian and Tarkwaian gold deposits in Ghana. Mineralium Deposita, 26(3), 228-238.
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Ne
[MinRec 32:356]
  • Piedmont
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Balangero
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Formazza
Mattioli, V. (1988): Minerali ossolani, 10 anni dopo: errata corrige e novità. II. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 12, 1 (1-1988), 39-44; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Lucca Province
      • Seravezza
Orlandi et al., 1996. Minerals of the Seravezza Marble, Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Record, 27: 47-58. ; Orlandi, P. & Criscuolo, A. (2009). Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Pacini editore, Pisa, 180 pp.
      • Stazzema
        • Ponte Stazzemese
Orlandi P., Dini A., 2004. Die Mineralien der Buca della Vena-Mine, Apuaner Berge, Toskana (Italien). Lapis, 1: 11-24
    • Massa-Carrara Province
Orlandi, P., and Franzini, M. (1994) I minerali del marmo di Carrara. Cassa di Risparmio di Carrara - Amilcare Pizzi Editore S.p.A., Milano, 109 pp.; Orlandi, P., and Criscuolo, A. (2009) Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Parco delle Alpi Apuane - Pacini Editore, Ospedaletto-Pisa, 180 pp.
        • Colonnata quarrying basin
Orlandi, P., and Franzini, M. (1994) I minerali del marmo di Carrara. Cassa di Risparmio di Carrara - Amilcare Pizzi Editore S.p.A., Milano, 109 pp.; Orlandi, P., and Criscuolo, A. (2009) Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Parco delle Alpi Apuane - Pacini Editore, Ospedaletto-Pisa, Pisa, 180 pp.; Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Camarda, S., Chinellato, M., Appiani, R., Del Chiaro, L., and Sanguineti, G. (2019) Minerals from marbles of Carrara and the Apuan Alps. LoGisma editore, Vicchio (Firenze) - Musumeci S.p.A., Quart (Aosta), 144 pp.
Morino, A., and Passarino, G. (2016) Minerali nel marmo di Carrara: solfuri e solfosali. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 40, 1 (1-2016), 22-33.
          • Colonnata
Orlandi, P., and Criscuolo, A. (2009) Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Parco delle Alpi Apuane - Pacini Editore, Ospedaletto-Pisa, Pisa, 180 pp.
        • Miseglia quarrying basin (Miseglia-Fantiscritti quarrying basin; Fantiscritti quarrying basin)
Morino, A., and Passarino, G. (2016) Minerali nel marmo di Carrara: solfuri e solfosali. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 40, 1 (1-2016), 22-33.
Orlandi, P., and Del Chiaro, L. (1989) Nuovi dati sui minerali delle geodi del marmo di Carrara. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 96, 313-325; Orlandi, P., and Franzini, M. (1994) I minerali del marmo di Carrara. Cassa di Risparmio di Carrara - Amilcare Pizzi Editore S.p.A., Milano, 109 pp.
        • Torano quarrying basin
Morino, A., and Passarino G. (2016) Minerali nel marmo di Carrara: solfuri e solfosali. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 40, 1 (1-2016), 22-33.
Orlandi, P., and Criscuolo, A. (2009) Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Parco delle Alpi Apuane - Pacini Editore, Ospedaletto-Pisa, Pisa, 180 pp.
        • Casette
Orlandi, P., and Bellè, E. (2002) I minerali del marmo del bacino del Frigido, Massa. Comune della Città di Massa - Tipografia Ceccotti, Massa, 144 pp.
Orlandi, P., and Bellè, E. (2002) I minerali del marmo del bacino del Frigido, Massa. Comune della Città di Massa - Tipografia Ceccotti, Massa, 144 pp.
Japan
 
  • Gifu Prefecture
    • Hida City
specimen seen at Kyoto show, 2010
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Iwate Prefecture
    • Kamaishi City
Imai et al (1976) Ganseki-Koubutsu-Koshogaku Zasshi, 71, 255-263.
Mongolia
 
  • Töv Province
Peretyazhko, I. S., Savina, E. A., Khrоmova, E. A., & Mills, S. (2017) Minerals of the rhönite-kuratite series in paralavas from a new combustion metamorphic complex in the Choir–Nyalga basin (Central Mongolia): composition, mineral assemblages and formation conditions. Mineralogical Magazine, 81(4), 949-974.
Norway
 
  • Nordland
    • Narvik
      • Ballangen
        • Håfjellet
Foslie, S. (1950): Supergene marcasite, replacing pyrrhotite. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 28, 144-150; Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Jelenia Góra County
      • Gmina Stara Kamienica
Mochnacka, K., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Mayer, W., & Pieczka, A. (2015). Ore mineralization related to geological evolution of the Karkonosze–Izera Massif (the Sudetes, Poland)—Towards a model. Ore Geology Reviews, 64, 215-238.
Russia
 
World of Stones v.9
    • Kerch Peninsula
      • Kerchenskyi (Fe)-ore basin
        • Kerchenskoe deposit
Arbuzov V.A. et al. (1967) Kerch Iron-Ore Basin (Kerchenskii Zhelezorydny Bassein)/ - Moscow:Nedra. - 576 h/ (Rus.)
    • Sudak area
Alexander I. Tischenko (1996. Minerals of the Crimea - World of stones, 1996, #9, p. 9-18
Senegal
 
  • Tambacounda Region
    • Falémé River basin
Schwartz, M. O., & Melcher, F. (2004). The Falémé Iron District, Senegal. Economic Geology, 99(5), 917-939.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Poltár District
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
Switzerland
 
  • Solothurn
    • Gösgen
      • Trimbach
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 379.
    • Lebern
      • Lommiswil
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 379.
  • Ticino
    • Blenio
      • Blenio Valley
        • Camadra Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 379.
    • Leventina
      • Faido
        • Monte Piottino
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 379.
  • Valais
    • Brig
      • Termen
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 379.
    • Goms
      • Binn
        • Fäld
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 379.
    • Leuk
      • Gampel-Bratsch
Rüegg, H.-R., and Klemm, L. (2002) Silbererze aus dem Bergwerk Goppenstein, Wallis (Schweiz). Lapis, 27, 3, 25-34; Rüegg, H.-R. (2005) Bleibergwerk am Rotenberg bei Goppenstein. Bergknappe, 29, 2/2005, 2-19.
    • Sierre
      • Anniviers
        • Ayer
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
    • Westlich Raron
Rüegg, H.-R., and Klemm, L. (2002) Silbererze aus dem Bergwerk Goppenstein, Wallis (Schweiz). Lapis, 27, 3, 25-34; Rüegg, H.-R. (2005) Bleibergwerk am Rotenberg bei Goppenstein. Bergknappe, 29, 2/2005, 2-19.
Ukraine
 
  • Odessa Oblast
    • Dnister-Bug domain
      • Savran-Sinistovska ore zone
Bobrov, O. B., Merkushin, I. E., Sergienko, V. M., Pogukaj, V. I., Mudrovska, I. V., Voloshyn, O. A., ... & Sivoronov, A. O. (2006, August). Object B2. Mayske gold deposit. In International Field Workshop. IAGOD; Bobrov A.B. (2014) Mayske gold deposit. OBJECT G8. IAGOD Field trip.
USA
 
  • California
    • Kern Co.
      • Boron
Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 168; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 66; Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service: 22(10) (Oct 1969).
Represented in many Southern California micromount collections.
  • Colorado
    • Fremont Co.
      • Iron Mountain complex
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Indiana
    • Jackson Co.
      • Medora
Rocks & Min.: 61: 145.
    • Monroe Co.
      • Bloomington
J.Chem.Soc.,London(1956) 78, p. 2017; Mineral Reference Manual (Nickel and Nichols 1991); American Mineralogist (1957): 42: 309-333.
Erd, R. C. and S.S. Greenburg (1960) Minerals of Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 18 73pp
Erd, R. C. and S.S. Greenburg (1960) Minerals of Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 18 73pp
Erd, R. C. and S.S. Greenburg (1960) Minerals of Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 18 73pp; American Mineralogist (1957): 42: 309-333.
Erd, R. C. and S.S. Greenburg (1960) Minerals of Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 18 73pp
C. Boutry
      • Harrodsburg
Erd, R. C. and S.S. Greenburg (1960) Minerals of Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 18 73pp
Dr. John Rakovan specimens.
  • Kentucky
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Halls Gap
Mineralogical Record, v. 28, n. 6, 1997 ; Rocks & Minerals 81:420-440
    • Nelson Co.
      • Frederickstown
Alan Goldstein (2006) Kentucky Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals 81:420-440
    • Washington Co.
      • Springfield
Alan Goldstein (2006) Kentucky Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals 81:420-440
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
http://www.njminerals.org/FO199804.HTM
  • New York
    • Oneida Co.
      • Lairdsville
Erd, Richard C., Evans, Howard T. Jr., and Richter, Donald H., 1957, Smythite, A New Iron Sulfide, and Associated Pyrrhotite from Indiana, American Mineralogist, 42: 309-333.
Zambia
 
  • Southern Province
    • Mazabuka District
      • Munali Intrusive Complex
Brotherton, R. L. (1979). The geochemistry and mineralogy of gossans overlying nickel-copper sulphide mineralisation. PhD Thesis University of London
Zimbabwe
 
  • Mashonaland West
    • Kadoma District
Brotherton, R. L. (1979). The geochemistry and mineralogy of gossans overlying nickel-copper sulphide mineralisation. PhD Thesis University of London
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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