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Shattuckite

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About ShattuckiteHide

Formula:
Cu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
Colour:
Light to dark blue.
Lustre:
Silky
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
4.11
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named after its discovery locality, the Shattuck Mine, Bisbee, Arizona, USA.
A rare secondary copper silicate.
May be confused with Plancheite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Shattuckite.


Classification of ShattuckiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.DB.40

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
B : Inosilicates with 2-periodic single chains, Si2O6; Pyroxene-related minerals
65.1.7.1

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
1 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
14.2.2

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
2 : Silicates of Cu

Physical Properties of ShattuckiteHide

Silky
Transparency:
Translucent
Colour:
Light to dark blue.
Hardness:
3½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {010} {100}
Density:
4.11 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.128 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ShattuckiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.753 nβ = 1.782 nγ = 1.815
2V:
Calculated: 88°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.062
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
distinct to strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X= very pale blue
Y= pale blue
Z= deep blue

Chemical Properties of ShattuckiteHide

Formula:
Cu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
IMA Formula:
Cu5(SiO3)4(OH)2
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mn,Mg,Ca,H2O

Crystallography of ShattuckiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.88 Å, b = 19.83 Å, c = 5.38 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.498 : 1 : 0.271
Unit Cell V:
1,054.05 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Elongated prismatic crystals

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.96 Å(90)
4.42 Å(100)
3.50 Å(80)
3.30 Å(80)
2.745 Å(70)
2.400 Å(60)
1.627 Å(70)

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Oxidation zone in copper deposits

Type Occurrence of ShattuckiteHide

Synonyms of ShattuckiteHide

Other Language Names for ShattuckiteHide

German:Shattuckit
Simplified Chinese:斜硅铜矿
Spanish:Shattuckita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
287 photos of Shattuckite associated with MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
255 photos of Shattuckite associated with QuartzSiO2
124 photos of Shattuckite associated with DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
25 photos of Shattuckite associated with ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
17 photos of Shattuckite associated with Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
16 photos of Shattuckite associated with Smoky QuartzSiO2
15 photos of Shattuckite associated with CalciteCaCO3
10 photos of Shattuckite associated with WulfenitePb(MoO4)
8 photos of Shattuckite associated with MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
8 photos of Shattuckite associated with Duhamelite(Pb,Bi,Ca)Cu(VO4)(OH,O)

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DB.05BalipholiteBaLiMg2Al3(Si2O6)2(OH)4Orth.
9.DB.05CarpholiteMn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4Orth.
9.DB.05Ferrocarpholite(Fe2+,Mg)Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ccca
9.DB.05Magnesiocarpholite(Mg,Fe2+)Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4Orth.
9.DB.05Potassiccarpholite(K,☐)(Li,Mn2+)2Al4(Si2O6)2(OH,F)8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ccca
9.DB.05VanadiocarpholiteMn2+V3+Al(Si2O6)(OH)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ccca
9.DB.10LorenzeniteNa2Ti2(Si2O6)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
9.DB.15LintisiteLiNa3Ti2(Si2O6)2O2 · 2H2OMon.
9.DB.15PunkaruaiviteLiTi2(HSi4O12)(OH)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DB.17EliseeviteLiNa1.5Ti2(H1.5Si4O12)O2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DB.20KukisvumiteNa6ZnTi4(Si8O24)O4 · 4H2OOrth.
9.DB.20ManganokukisvumiteNa6MnTi4(Si8O24)O4 · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pccn
9.DB.25VinogradoviteNa4Ti4(Si2O6)2[(Si,Al)4O10]O4 · (H2O,Na,K)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DB.25ParavinogradoviteNa1-2(Ti,Fe3+)4(Si2O6)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)4 · H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.DB.30NchwaningiteMn2+2(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
9.DB.35PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.DB.40UM2005-31-SiO:CuHCu11(SiO4)(OH)18 · 9H2O ?
9.DB.45Aerinite(Ca5.1Na0.5)(Fe3+,Al,Fe2+,Mg)4(Al,Mg)6[HSi12O36(OH)12][(CO3)1.2(H2O)12]Mon.
9.DB.50CapranicaiteKCaNaAl4B4Si2O18Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.2.1DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2OTrig. 3 : R3
14.2.3PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.2.4GilaliteCu5Si6O17 · 7H2OMon.
14.2.5ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2OOrth.
14.2.6LitidioniteCuNaKSi4O10Tric.
14.2.7ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.2.8CuprorivaiteCaCuSi4O10Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/ncc
14.2.9KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]Mon. 2/m : P21/m
14.2.10StringhamiteCaCu(SiO4) · H2OMon.
14.2.11ApachiteCu9Si10O29 · 11H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ShattuckiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Schaller, W.T. (1915) Four new minerals, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences: 5: 7.
Schaller, W.T. (1919) Plancheite and shattuckite, copper silicates, are not the same mineral. Journal of the Washington Acadamy of Science: 9: 131-134.
Vlisidis, A.C., Schaller, W.T. (1967) The formula of shattuckite. American Mineralogist: 52: 782-786.
Sun, M.S. (1961) Differential analysis of shattuckite. American Mineralogist: 46: 67-77.
Newberg, D.W. (1964) X-ray study of shattuckite. American Mineralogist: 49: 1234-1239.
Mrose, M.E., Vlisidis, A.C. (1966) Proof of the formula of shattuckite, Cu5(SiO3)4(OH)2(abs.). American Mineralogist: 51: 266-267.
Evans, H.T., Jr., Mrose, M. E. (1966) Shattuckite and plancheite: a crystal chemical study. Science: 154: 506-507.
Le Bihan, M.T. (1967) Contribution à l'étude des silicates de cuivre. Différenciation de la shattuckite et de la planchéite. Structure atomique de la shattuckite. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie: 90: 3-7 (in French).
Van Oosterwyck-Gastuche, M.C. (1968) Nomenclature of some Katangan copper silicates. Plancheite-shattuckite-bisbeeite-Katangite minerals. Ann. Soc. Géol. Belg.: 91: 401-422 (in French).
Kawahara, A. (1976) The crystal structure of shattuckite. Mineralogical Journal: 8: 193-199.
Kawamura, K., Kawahara, A., Henmi, K. (1976) Hydrothermal synthesis and x-ray study of copper silicate hydrate minerals. Kobutsugaku Zasshi: 12: 403-414 (in Japanese).
Evans, H.T., Mrose, M.E. (1977) The crystal chemistry of the hydrous copper silicates, shattuckite and planchéite. American Mineralogist: 62: 491-502.

Internet Links for ShattuckiteHide

Localities for ShattuckiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Córdoba Province
    • Colón Department
      • Dumesnil
Juan Carlos Lodovichi specimen
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Spittal an der Drau District
      • Flattach
        • Innerfragant
Pichler, A. (2009) Bergbau in Westkärnten, Eine Bestandsaufnahme der noch sichtbaren Merkmale der historischen Bergbaue in Westkärnten. Verlag des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Kärnten, Klagenfurt, Sonderheft 63, 416 pages [in German].
G. Niedermayr, F. Brandstätter: Carinthia II 188./108.:241 (1998)
Chile
 
  • Atacama
    • Copiapó Province
      • Cachiyuyo de Llampos district
collected and analysed by french mineralogist Remy Phillippe
DR Congo
 
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kambove District
Lapis (1992) 17(3), 13-40.; http://www.champ-hannut.be/fichierpdf/Rev%20SP%202017%20NL.pdf
      • Kamoya
Van King
Van King
Handbook of Mineralogy.; Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).
      • Shinkolobwe
Lapis (1992) 17(3), 13-40.; Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).; http://www.champ-hannut.be/fichierpdf/Rev%20SP%202017%20NL.pdf
  • Lualaba
    • Kambove District
Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).
    • Kolwezi mining district
[MinRec 22:13-20,28]
Germany
 
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Helgoland
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Greece
 
  • Central Greece
    • Euboea
      • Euboea Island
Reinecke, T., Tillmanns, E. & Bernhardt, H.-J. (1991): Abswurmbachite, Cu2+Mn3+[O8/SiO4], a new mineral of the braunite group: natural occurrence, synthesis and crystal structure. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen, 163, 117-143.
  • South Aegean
    • Andros
      • Vasilikon Mt
Reinecke, T., Tillmanns, E. & Bernhardt, H.-J. (1991): Abswurmbachite, Cu2+Mn3+[O8/SiO4], a new mineral of the braunite group: natural occurrence, synthesis and crystal structure. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen, 163, 117-143.
Italy
 
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Domusnovas
Moldovan, C., Călugăr, M. I., Onac, B. P., de Waele, J., Naseddu, A., & Fornós, J. J. (2013) A CONTRIBUTION TO THE MINERALOGY OF MONTE GUISI CAVE (SW SARDINIA, ITALY) Cave Mineralogy – poster 2013 ICS Proceedings
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
        • Suvereto
Luigi Chiappino data
Japan
 
  • Shimane Prefecture
    • Ochi District
Watanabe, H., Tazaki, K., Islam, A. B. M., & Khodijah, C. S. (2003). 1-7. Copper biomineralization with banded structure at Dogamaru mine, Shimane Prefecture, Japan.
Mexico
 
  • Sonora
    • Navojoa Municipality
Brent Thorne collection.; Dakota Matrix specimen (Phillips collection)
    • Santa Cruz Municipality
      • Cuitaca
Peter Megaw collection, Marcus Origlieri analysis
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib
      • Spitzkopje Area
        • Klein Spitzkopje granite stock (Kleine Spitzkoppe; Klein Spitzkoppe)
Min Rec 36:4 pp317-335
  • Kunene Region
Niedermayr, G., Schnaitmann, E. A., Brandstätter, F. (2008): Das Dioptas-Shattuckit-Vorkommen Kandesei im Kakokoland [sic]. Mineralien-Welt 19, 76-93 (in German).; Bowell, R J et al (2013) Minerals of the Kaokoveld District, Kunene Region, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 44:485-504
    • Khorixas
      • Mesopotamia copper valley
Niedermayr, G.(2001): Mesopotamia 504 - die Typlokalität des Namibit. In: S. Jahn, O. Medenbach, G. Niedermayr, G. Schneider: Namibia - Zauberwelt edler Steine und Kristalle (1 Edition, in German), 97-99
Schnaitmann, E. A. & Jahn, S. (2010): Mineralien aus Schürfen im Kaokoveld, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 21 (2), 78-90.
Palfi, A. (2005): Spessartin- und Dioptas-Mineralisationen im Kaokoland, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 16 (4), 49-61 (in German). ; Bowell, R J et al (2013) Minerals of the Kaokoveld District, Kunene Region, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 44:485-504
Schnaitmann, E. A. & Jahn, S. (2010): Mineralien aus Schürfen im Kaokoveld, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 21 (2), 78-90.
Schnaitmann, E. A. & Jahn, S. (2010): Mineralien aus Schürfen im Kaokoveld, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 21 (2), 78-90.
- Brandstätter, F.; Niedermayr, G.; Schnaitmann,E. A.; Walter F. (2011): Neue Fundstelle in Namibia: Die Van-der-Plas-Mine im Kaokoland. Mineralien Welt 22 (5), 66-75.; Bowell, R J et al (2013) Minerals of the Kaokoveld District, Kunene Region, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 44:485-504
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
Gebhard, G. (1999): Tsumeb II. A Unique Mineral Locality. GG Publishing, Grossenseifen, Germany
Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
 
  • Bouenza Department
    • M'fouati District
      • M'Fouati
Redpath Museum collection, McGill University, Montreal
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica District
      • Ľubietová
Pauliš,P.,Ďuďa,R.,2002: Nejzajímavejší mineralogická naletište Slovenska. Kuttna,K.Hora, 136p
  • Košice Region
    • Košice
      • Košice (Kaschau)
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo
    • Vhembe District
Cairncross, B. (1991) The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199; Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden 2014, RSA
Cairncross, B. (1991) The Messina Mining District, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 22(3) 187-199; Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden 2014, RSA
    • Waterberg District
      • Bela-Bela (Warmbaths; Warmbad)
Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 146 pg
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Gwennap
        • St Day
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
[MinRec 24:421]
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 369; Schaller, W.T. (1915), Four new minerals, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci.: 5: 7; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 111.
      • Juniper Flats
Robert Bowell and Rolf Luetcke
      • Little Dragoon Mountains
        • Cochise Mining District
Rolf Luetcke
      • Turquoise Mining District (Courtland-Gleeson Mining District)
Rolf Luetcke
    • Greenlee Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 369.
    • La Paz Co.
      • New Water Mountains
Hunt, W. (1983) Calciovolborthite from the New Water Mountains Yuma County, Arizona. Mineralogical Record 14:119
          • Moore Mine group
The Mineralogical Record - Volume 11 - Page 263
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Osborn Mining District
        • Hummingbird Spring
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 369; Williams, S.A. (1968), Wickenburgite, a new mineral from Arizona, Am.Min.: 53: 1433-1438.
        • Tonopah
          • Belmont Mountain
MRDS file #10027548.
            • Tiger Wash
In the collection of Brent Thorne. Collected by Dick Thomssen.
Ron Layton
      • Vulture Mining District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 369; Williams, S.A. (1968), Wickenburgite, a new mineral from AZ, Am.Min.: 53: 1433-1438.
    • Mohave County
      • Artillery Mountains
        • Artillery Peak
S. A. Williams (1982) Luddenite, a New Copper-Lead Silicate from Arizona Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 363-364
        • Rawhide Wash
MRDS file #10037093.
          • Rawhide Mine area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 369.
    • Pima Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 193; Sun, M.S. (1961), Differential thermal analysis of shattuckite, Am.Min.: 46: 67-77.
        • Little Ajo Mountains
          • Ajo
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 319-320, 369; Vlisidis, A.C. & W.T. Schaller (1967), The formula of shattuckite, Am.Min.: 52: 782-786; Mrose, M.E. & A.C. Vlisidis (1966), Proof of the formula of shattuckite, Cu5(SiO3)4(OH)2 (abs.), Am.Min.: 51: 266-267; DeKalb (1918); Evans, H.T. & M.E. Mrose (1977), The crystal chemistry of the hydrous copper silicates, shattuckite and plancheite, Am.Min.: 62: 491-502; Schaller, W.T. & A.C. Vlisidis (1958), Ajoite, a new hydrous aluminum copper silicate, Am.Min.: 43: 1107-1111; Hutton, C.O. & A.C. Vlisidis (1960), Papagoite, a new copper-bearing mineral from Ajo, AZ, Am.Min.: 45: 599-611; Sun, M.S. (1961), Differential analysis of shattuckite, Am.Min.: 46: 67-77; Newberg, D.W. (1964), X-ray study of shattuckite, Am.Min.: 49: 1234-1239; Thomas, W.J. & R.B. Gibbs (1983), Famous mineral localities: The New Cornelia mine, Ajo, AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 283-298; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 111.
      • Gunsight Mining District (Meyer Mining District)
Rolf Luetcke
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 235, 369.
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 111.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mountains
        • Mineral Creek Mining District (Ray Mining District)
          • Scott Mountain
Art Telles, Mining Engineer, Ray Mine
      • Florence Mining District (Blackwater Mining District; Black Rock Mining District)
        • Florence
MRDS database Dep. ID #10096172, MRDS ID #W002694.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 370.
      • Mammoth Mining District
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
Anthony, John W., et. al. "Handbook of Mineralogy." Volume II, Part 2, page 726. Tucson: Mineral Data Publishing. 1995.
      • Mineral Mountain Mining District
        • Superior area
          • Reymert Canyon
M. Ascher Collection
      • San Manuel Mining District
        • San Manuel
          • San Manuel Mine (Apex Lead & Vanadium Mining Corp Mine; Quarelli group)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 370.
      • Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation
        • Silver Reef Mining District
          • Tat Momoli Mountains
            • Silver Reef Mountains
              • Chuichu area
Mindat photo 101657
Dan Weinrich
        • Slate Mountains
          • Casa Grande Mining District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 225, 370.
      • Tortolita Mountains
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 137, 183, 330; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of AZ, AZ Geol.Soc.Digest: 3: 53-56.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 369.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Argus Mts (Argus Range)
        • Lookout Mining District (Modoc Mining District)
          • Lookout City
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 194, 515.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 266, 290, 336.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Cady Mountains
        • Broadwell Lake
Robert E.Walstrom Collection
  • Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
      • Nevada Mining District
Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Hidalgo Co.
DeMark, R.S. (2004): News from the Apache mine, New Mexico. Mineral News, 20, 8.
Min News 20:10 p 8
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Red Cloud District
        • Gallinas Mountains
R&M 71:1 p66-68; NMBMGMR Open-file Report - 532
    • Luna County
      • Cookes Peak Mining District
        • Old Hadley Mining District
Walstrom 2006 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
    • Socorro Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
 
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