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About SenaiteHide

Joaquim Cândido da Costa Sena
Black; oil-green to greenish black in transmitted light
6 - 6½
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named by Eugen Hussak and George Thurland Prior in 1898 in honor of Joaquim Candido da Costa Sena [13 August 1852 Conceição do Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil - June 26, 1919 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil], Professor of Mineralogy, at the School of Mines in Ouro Preto, Brazil. Sena was Director of the School of Mines, as well as President of the State of Minas Gerais, but he is most well-known for his prodigious out-put in the geological, mining, and mineralogical literature. He was recognized internationally by significant honors including: Knight of the Order of the Rose, Official of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the Crown of Italy, Official of the French Academy. He belonged to international organizations including: Mineralogical Society of Paris, Mineralogy Imperial Society of St. Petersburg, Geological Society of Paris, Berlin Geological Society, Member of the Latin American Scientific Congress, and Member of the Mining Academy of Letters.
Crichtonite Group.
Forms a series with gramaccioliite-(Y).

Often confused with crichtonite.

Classification of SenaiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
C : With large and medium-sized cations

5 : AB21O38

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
11 : Oxides of Sn and Pb

Physical Properties of SenaiteHide

Black; oil-green to greenish black in transmitted light
6 - 6½ on Mohs scale
5.301 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of SenaiteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nε = 2.500
Low to moderate
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of SenaiteHide


Crystallography of SenaiteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.42 Å, c = 20.86 Å
a:c = 1 : 2.002
Unit Cell V:
1,961.46 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0006379SenaiteArmbruster T, Kunz M (1990) Cation arrangement in a unusual uranium-rich senaite: crystal structure study at 130 K European Journal of Mineralogy 2 163-17019900293
0009559SenaiteGrey I E, Lloyd D J (1976) The crystal structure of senaite Acta Crystallographica B32 1509-15131976Diamantina region, Brazil0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of SenaiteHide

Hussak, E., Prior, G.T. (1898) On senaite, a new mineral belonging to the ilmenite group, from Brazil. Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 30-32.

Other Language Names for SenaiteHide

Simplified Chinese:铅锰钛铁矿
Traditional Chinese:鉛錳鈦鐵礦

Relationship of Senaite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AlmeidaitePbZn2(Mn,Y)(Ti,Fe3+)18O37(OH,O)Trig. 3 : R3
Cleusonite(Pb,Sr)(U4+,U6+)(Fe2+,Zn)2(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
Davidite-(Ce)Ce(Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH,F)38Trig. 3 : R3
Davidite-(Y)(La,Ce,Na,Ca,Pb)(Y,Fe2+,◻)(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb,Zr)18O38 (hypothetical)Trig.
Dessauite-(Y)(Sr,Pb)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe3+)20O38Trig. 3 : R3
Gramaccioliite-(Y)(Pb,Sr)(Y,Mn)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)18O38Trig. 3
LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3
Mapiquiroite(Sr,Pb)(U,Y)Fe2(Ti,Fe3+,Cr3+)18O38Trig. 3 : R3
Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
Mianningite(◻,Pb,Ce,Na)(U4+,Mn,U6+)Fe3+2 (Ti,Fe3+)18O38Trig. 3 : R3
PaseroitePbMn2+(Mn2+,Fe3+)2(V5+,Ti,◻)18O38Trig. 3 : R3
Saranovskite-(Y)SrCaFe2+2(Cr4Ti2)Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3
UM1987-03-O:FePbTiU~(U,Pb)(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn)21O38Trig. 3 : R3
Unnamed (HBU UK-4)NaFe2+Zn2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
4 photos of Senaite associated with Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
2 photos of Senaite associated with CafarsiteCa5.9Mn1.7Fe3Ti3(AsO3)12 · 4-5H2O
2 photos of Senaite associated with Smoky QuartzSiO2
1 photo of Senaite associated with RutileTiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.CC.AllendeiteSc4Zr3O12Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.BitikleiteCa3SbSn(AlO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
4.CC.Anzaite-(Ce)Ce3+ 4Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
4.CC.15GrossiteCaAl4O7Mon. 2/m : B2/b
4.CC.20ChlormayeniteCa12Al14O32[◻4Cl2]Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
4.CC.25YafsoaniteCa3Te6+2(ZnO4)3Iso. m3 (2/m 3)
4.CC.30LatrappiteCa2NbFe3+O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.CC.30LueshiteNaNbO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CC.30PerovskiteCaTiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.CC.30BarioperovskiteBaTiO3Orth. mm2 : Amm2
4.CC.30LakargiiteCa(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.CC.30MegawiteCaSnO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pban
4.CC.35Loparite-(Ce)(Na,REE)Ti2O6Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
4.CC.35MacedonitePbTiO3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
4.CC.35TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
4.CC.35Isolueshite(Na,La)NbO3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
4.CC.40CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Davidite-(Ce)Ce(Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH,F)38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Davidite-(Y)(La,Ce,Na,Ca,Pb)(Y,Fe2+,◻)(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb,Zr)18O38 (hypothetical)Trig.
4.CC.40LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
4.CC.40Dessauite-(Y)(Sr,Pb)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe3+)20O38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Cleusonite(Pb,Sr)(U4+,U6+)(Fe2+,Zn)2(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Gramaccioliite-(Y)(Pb,Sr)(Y,Mn)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)18O38Trig. 3
4.CC.45HawthorneiteBaMgTi3Cr4Fe2+2Fe3+2O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45Magnetoplumbite(Pb,Mn)(Fe,Mn)12O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45PlumboferritePb2(Fe3+,Mn2+,Mg)11O19Trig. 3 2 : P3 1 2
4.CC.45HaggertyiteBaFe2+4Fe3+2Ti5MgO19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45NežilovitePbZn2Mn4+2Fe3+8O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45Hibonite-(Fe)FeAl12O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45BarioferriteBaFe3+12O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.60Mengxianminite (of Huang et al.)(Ca,Na)3(Fe,Mn)2Mg2(Sn,Zn)5Al8O29

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38Trig.,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH,F)38Trig.,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH,F)38Trig. 3 : R3, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.11.2CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.11.4SchoenfliesiteMg[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pn3
7.11.7WickmaniteMn2+[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pn3
7.11.8TetrawickmaniteMn2+[Sn4+(OH)6]Tet. 4/m : P42/n
7.11.9JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 >= x > 0.5)Tet. 4/m : P42/n
7.11.10NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pn3m
7.11.11Mushistonite(Cu,Zn,Fe2+)[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pn3m
7.11.12Ferronigerite-2N1S(Al,Fe,Zn)2(Al,Sn)6O11(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.11.14ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.11.15BrunogeieriteGe4+Fe2+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.11.19BartelkeitePb(Fe2+Ge)[Ge2O7](OH)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.11.20MassicotPbOOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
7.11.21LithargePbOTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
7.11.22MiniumPb3O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mbc
7.11.23PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.11.25MurdochitePbCu6O8-x(Cl,Br)2x where xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.11.26MacedonitePbTiO3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
7.11.28CoronaditePb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16Mon. 2/m
7.11.29QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
7.11.30PlumboferritePb2(Fe3+,Mn2+,Mg)11O19Trig. 3 2 : P3 1 2
7.11.31Magnetoplumbite(Pb,Mn)(Fe,Mn)12O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SenaiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hussak, E., Prior, G.T. (1898) On senaite, a new mineral belonging to the ilmenite group, from Brazil. Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 30-32.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 540-541.
Rouse, R.C. and Peacor, D.R. (1968) Relation between senaite, magnetoplumbite, and davidite. American Mineralogist: 53: 869-879.
Grey I E, Lloyd D J (1976) Crystal structure of senaite. Acta Crystallographica: B32: 1509-1513.
Grey, Ian E.; Lloyd, Douglas J.; White, John S., Jr. (1976) The structure of crichtonite and its relation to senaite. American Mineralogist: 61: 1203-1212.
Foord, E.E., Sharp, W.N., Adams, J.W. (1984) Zinc- and Y-Group-Bearing Senaite from St Peters Dome, and New Data on Senaite from Dattas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Magazine: 48: 97-106.
Cassedanne, J.P. (1986) Senaite from the Fazenda Guariba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Mineralogical Record: 17: 191-195. [this "senaite" was later found to be Pb-bearing crichtonite (Foord et al., 1994)]

Internet Links for SenaiteHide

Localities for SenaiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Salzburg
    • Tamsweg District
      • Murwinkel
        • Schellgaden
          • Gold mines
Niedermayr, G. et al. (2007): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LVI. Carinthia II, 197/117, 149-190.
      • Taurach valley
Kolitsch, U., Schachinger, T. and Bernhard, F. (2015): Ardennite-(As), ardennite-(V), gasparite-(Ce) and chernovite-(Y): first results of a mineralogical study of the metaradiolarite-hosted manganese ore mineralisations in the Fuchssee area, Radstadt Tauern, Salzburg, Austria. MinPet 2015, Leoben, Austria, September 10-13; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 161, 67.
Brazil (TL)
  • Minas Gerais
Rouse, R.C. and Peacor, D.R. (1968) Relation between senaite, magnetoplumbite, and davidite. American Mineralogist: 53: 869-879.; Rocks&Min.(Jan.2000).
    • Diamantina
Diamond News, Part 1, Vol.5, No.17,2004,pp40-44; Diamond News, Part 2, Vol.5, No.18,2004,pp 13-19 [In Portuguese]
    • Presidente Kubitschek
Cassedanne, J.P. (1986): Senaite from the Fazenda Guariba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record 17, 191-195.; Hochleitner, R. (1987): Senait-Kristalle aus Brasilien. Lapis 12 (2), 18-19 (in German); Foord, Eugene E.; Chaves, Mario Luiz da Sa C.; Lichte, Frederick E. (1994): Plumboan crichtonite from the Fazenda Guariba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record 25, 133-135.
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
GRICE, J.D. (1989) Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec: Canada's Most Diverse Mineral Locality. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 100-108; 166-175.; HORVÁTH, L., GAULT, R.A. (1990) The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire. Mineralogical Record, 21, 281-359.
Dianxin Shao and Nicheng Shi (1987): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 7(2), 159-162
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Savoie
      • Albertville
        • La Léchère (Notre Dame de Briançon)
De Ascencao Guedes R., Meisser N. (2002), Les fentes à cristaux de Pierre Château, La Léchère, Tarentaise (Savoie), Le Règne Minéral, n°44, pp: 35-45
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion mining district
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
Rieck, B. & Rieck, P. (1999): Silber, Arsen und Antimon: Vererzungen im Revier Plaka (Teil 2). Lapis, 24 (7-8), 59-60.
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Ne
Balestra, C., Ciriotti, M.E., Bracco, R. (2011): Su alcune novità mineralogiche liguri caratterizzate dal SIUK dell'AMI. Micro, 2/2011, 46-53
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Sambuco
P. Orlandi, G.C. Piccoli: Riv. Mineral. Ital. 28(1):16-18 (2004)
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Cesana Torinese
Brizio, P., Ambrino, P., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010). L'affioramento a Mn, SiO, Fe, S di Roccia Rossa, Cesana, Torino. Micro (località) 1/2010, 313-328
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Baceno
        • Devero Alp Cervandone article& personal collection
      • Formazza
Piccoli G.C., Maletto G., Bosio P., Lombardo B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.; Vanini F., Kartashov P.M., Ciriotti M.E., Bonacina E. (2008): I minerali della Cima della Freghera (Formazza, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Micro (località), 2/2008, 251-260.
  • Khovd Province
    • Myangad District
P.M. Kartashov data
Kempe, U., Möckel, R., Graupner, T., Kynicky, J., & Dombon, E. (2015). The genesis of Zr–Nb–REE mineralisation at Khalzan Buregte (Western Mongolia) reconsidered. Ore Geology Reviews, 64, 602-625.
North Macedonia
  • Prilep Municipality
Bermanec, V., Tibljas, D., Kniewald, G. (1992): Uranium-rich metamict senaite from Alinci, Yugoslavia. European Journal of Mineralogy 4, 331-335.
  • Veles Municipality
Ilijevski, Kole (2012) Minerogenetic Features of the White Marble Deposit “Sivec”. Masters thesis, University Goce Delcev Shtip.
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Tvedalen
Larsen, A.O. (1989): Senaite from syenite pegmatite at Tvedalen in the southern part of the Oslo Region, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 69, 235-238
  • Caraş-Severin
Hirtopanu, P. (2006). One hundred minerals for one hundred years (dedicated to the Centennial of the Geological Institute of Romania). In 3rd Conference on Mineral Sciences in the Carpathians, Miskolc Hungary. Acta Mineralogica–Petrographica, Abstract series (Vol. 5, p. 86).
  • Buryatia
    • Mama River Basin
      • Maigunda River
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2013)
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Pechengsky District
      • Pechenga Ni-Cu ore field
Компанченко А.А., Волошин А.В., Базай А.В. Ванадиевая минерализация в колчеданных проявлениях - новый тип для Южно-Печенгской структурной зоны, Кольский регион, - Месторождения стратегических металлов: закономерности размещения, источники вещества, условия и механизмы образования. Всероссийская конференция, посвящённая 85-летию ИГЕМ РАН.Москва, 25-27 ноября 2015 г. Материалы докладов. М.: ИГЕМ РАН, 2015. 336 с.
Saudi Arabia
  • Tabuk Region
    • Midyan
Staatz H.M. and Brownfield I.K. 1986, Tarce- and minor-element mineralogy of the microgranite at ghurayyah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. US-Geological Survey Open-File report 86.105
  • Örebro County
    • Lindesberg
Holtstam, D. (1994): Senaite from Mangruvan, Örebro, Sweden. GFF. 116, 17–21
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Långban Ore District
Kjell Gatedal
  • Bern
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 125.
  • Ticino
    • Leventina
      • Airolo
        • Fontana
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data 2019, Roberto Bracco material
  • Valais
    • Goms
      • Binn
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 125.
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin mining district
    • Östlich Raron
      • Grengiols
        • Chummibort
See references at locality description - cuchet et al. 2014, Schweizer Strahler. I am co-author - M. Crumbach
    • Sierre
      • Anniviers
        • Saint-Luc
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
  • Colorado
    • El Paso Co.
      • Cheyenne Mining District (St. Peters Dome Mining District)
        • St Peters Dome
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
矿物 and/or 产地  
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