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About ScheeliteHide

Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Tan, golden-yellow, colourless, white, greenish, dark brown, etc.; colourless in transmitted light
Adamantine, Vitreous
4½ - 5
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named in 1821 by Karl Caesar von Leonhard in honor of Carl Wilhelm Scheele [December 9, 1742, Stralsund, Pomerania, Sweden - May 21, 1786, Köping, Sweden], Swedish experimental chemist and commercial apothecary. His experimental work was monumental for the time period and he discovered chlorine and experimented with oxygen before Joseph Priestley recognized it as an element. He investigated many fundamentally important organic compounds. He proved the existence of tungstic oxide in the mineral now bearing his name in 1781.
Isostructural with:
Powellite-Scheelite Series.

A primary mineral commonly found as a component of contact-metamorphic tactite; in high-temperature hydrothermal veins and greisen; in granitic pegmatites and medium-temperature hydrothermal veins; in alluvial deposits.

Visit for gemological information about Scheelite.

Classification of ScheeliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
G : Molybdates, Wolframates and Niobates
A : Without additional anions or H2O

1 : AXO4

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
4 : Tungstates

Physical Properties of ScheeliteHide

Adamantine, Vitreous
Transparent, Opaque
Tan, golden-yellow, colourless, white, greenish, dark brown, etc.; colourless in transmitted light
May be compositionally colour zoned.
4½ - 5 on Mohs scale
Distinct on {101}, interrupted on {112}, indistinct on {001}.
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
6.1(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    6.09 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ScheeliteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.918 - 1.921 nε = 1.935 - 1.938
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.017
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
May exhibit weak anomalous birefringence.

Chemical Properties of ScheeliteHide

Common Impurities:

Crystallography of ScheeliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.2429(3) Å, c = 11.3737(6) Å
a:c = 1 : 2.169
Unit Cell V:
312.64 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals commonly pseudo-octahedral {011} or {112} predominant, with modifying forms include {001} {013}, {121} and/or several additional; tabular on {001} at times; {001} commonly rough; {112} frequently diagonally striated, usually parallel to [311], the intersection with {121}. Usually granular, massive; also columnar.
On {110} common, penetration and contact twins with a composition plane of (110)or (001).
On synthetic material.

Crystallographic forms of ScheeliteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Scheelite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by

Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Crystal StructureHide

Unit Cell | Unit Cell Packed
2x2x2 | 3x3x3 | 4x4x4
Big Balls | Small Balls | Just Balls | Spacefill
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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0013201ScheeliteHazen R M, Finger L W, Mariathasan J W E (1985) High-pressure crystal chemistry of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 46 253-26319850.0001293
0013202ScheeliteHazen R M, Finger L W, Mariathasan J W E (1985) High-pressure crystal chemistry of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 46 253-26319850.0001293
0013203ScheeliteHazen R M, Finger L W, Mariathasan J W E (1985) High-pressure crystal chemistry of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 46 253-26319851.03293
0013204ScheeliteHazen R M, Finger L W, Mariathasan J W E (1985) High-pressure crystal chemistry of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 46 253-26319852.03293
0013205ScheeliteHazen R M, Finger L W, Mariathasan J W E (1985) High-pressure crystal chemistry of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 46 253-26319853.12293
0013206ScheeliteHazen R M, Finger L W, Mariathasan J W E (1985) High-pressure crystal chemistry of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 46 253-26319854.09293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Epitaxial Relationships of ScheeliteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4to (Mn2+)WO4
Epitaxy Comments:
Scheelite on wolframite, with scheelite {001} [110] parallel to wolframite {010} [001].

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
4.76 Å(55)
3.10 Å(100)
3.072 Å(30)
2.622 Å(25)
2.296 Å(20)
1.928 Å(30)
1.592 Å(30)

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Contact metamorphic tactites, high-temperature hydrothermal veins, greisens, and granitic pegmatites; alluvial deposits.

Type Occurrence of ScheeliteHide

Synonyms of ScheeliteHide

Other Language Names for ScheeliteHide

Varieties of ScheeliteHide

Copper-bearing ScheeliteA Cu-bearing variety of scheelite (possibly mixture with cuprotungstite).
MolybdoscheeliteA molybdenum-bearing variety of scheelite

Relationship of Scheelite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
PowelliteCa(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
RaspitePb(WO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
StolzitePb(WO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
WulfenitePb(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4to (Mn2+)WO4
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
537 photos of Scheelite associated with QuartzSiO2
384 photos of Scheelite associated with MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
177 photos of Scheelite associated with FluoriteCaF2
152 photos of Scheelite associated with CalciteCaCO3
117 photos of Scheelite associated with DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
59 photos of Scheelite associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
59 photos of Scheelite associated with FerberiteFeWO4
58 photos of Scheelite associated with ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
48 photos of Scheelite associated with CassiteriteSnO2
44 photos of Scheelite associated with ArsenopyriteFeAsS

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Ce)CeNbO4 · 0.3H2O
7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Y)YNbO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.05PowelliteCa(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.05StolzitePb(WO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.05WulfenitePb(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.10Formanite-(Y)YTaO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.10Iwashiroite-(Y)Y(Ta,Nb)O4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
7.GA.15Paraniite-(Y)Ca2Y(AsO4)(WO4)2Tet. 4/m : I41/a

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 4/m : I41/a

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

27.4.1CuprotungstiteCu2(WO4)(OH)2Tet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
27.4.4AnthoiniteAlWO3(OH)3Tric. 1
27.4.5MpororoiteWAlO3(OH)3 · 2(H2O)Tric.
27.4.6Yttrotungstite-(Y)YW2O6(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
27.4.7Yttrotungstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,Y)W2O6(OH)3Mon. 2 : P21
27.4.8StolzitePb(WO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
27.4.9RaspitePb(WO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
27.4.12Uranotungstite(Fe2+,Ba,Pb)(UO2)2(WO4)(OH)4 · 12H2OOrth.
27.4.13HübneriteMnWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
27.4.14FerberiteFeWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
27.4.15Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4to (Mn2+)WO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
27.4.16FerritungstiteIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
27.4.17Phyllotungstite(H2O,M)x(W,Fe)(O,OH)3 · yH2O (M = Ca, Cs, Pb or K)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc

Fluorescence of ScheeliteHide

Inherently brightly fluorescent (SW UV & X-rays). Pure end-member material ubiquitously fluoresces bright blue-white (SW UV), but even a small amount of Mo substituting for W produces a creamy yellow fluorescence (SW UV), becoming more yellow with increasing % of Mo. A moderate Fe content can quench the fluorescence. It usually has no response to LW UV but some specimens will fluoresce pink to this band.

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Decomposed by HCl or HNO3, leaving a yellow powder of hydrous tungstic oxide, which is soluble in ammonia.

Alters to Tungstite, Hydrotungstite, or Cuprotungstite.

Replaced by Wolframite as perfect pseudomorphs. Often replaces Wolframite.
Pseudomorphs of Quartz, Kaolinite, and Bismutite after Scheelite have been noted.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Ore of tungsten

Scheelite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for ScheeliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm: 303 (as Tennspat, Lapides stanniferi spathecei).
Cronstedt, A. F. (1751) Rön och Försök Gjorde med trenne Järnmalms arter. Kongl.Svenska VetenskapsAcademien Handlingar 1751: 226-231.
Cronstedt, A. (1758) Forsök till Mineralogie eller Mineralrikets upställning. 12mo, Stockholm: 183.
Scheele (1781) Ak. Stockholm, Handl. (as Tungsten).
Werner (1789) Bergmaennisches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmännisches Journal): 386 (as Schwerstein).
Karsten, D.L.G. (1791) Tabellarische Übersicht der mineralogisch-einfachen Fossilien. Berlin (as Schwerstein).
Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition: 56 (as Scheelerz).
Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.: 4: 372 (as Scheelin calcaire).
Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. Second edition: 74 (as Scheelerz).
Breithaupt, A. (1820) Kurze Charakteristik des Mineral-System’s. 8vo, Freiberg: 23 (as Scheelspath).
Leonhard, K.C. (1821) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. First edition: 594 (as Scheelit).
Breithaupt (1851) Journal für Chemie und Physik, Nuremberg: 54: 130.
Dauber (1859) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 107: 272.
Bauer (1874) Württemburg. Naturwiss. Jahreshefte: 154.
Carnot (1874) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 79: 637.
Iwase (1877) in Harada (1936) Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University: 3: [4]: 357 (as Trimontite).
Plattner-Richter (1878) Probierkunst m.d. Lothrohr: 185.
Traube (1890) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 7: 232, 238.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 985.
Traube (1895-1896) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 10: 457.
Wada, Tsunashiro (1904) Minerals of Japan. 144 pp., Tokyo: 75-76 (as Trimontite).
Colomba (1906) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Rend.: 15: 281.
Petterd, W.F. (1910) Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. 221pp., Hobart: 200.
Rohden (1914) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 159: 318.
Zambonini (1916) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 162: 835.
Dickinson (1920) Journal of the American Chemical Society: 42: 85.
Russell, A. (1920) On the occurrence of phenacite and scheelite at Wheal Cock, St. Just, Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 19, n° 88, 19-22.
Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 8: 12.
Lindroth and Mauzelius (1922) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 44: 110.
Carobbi (1924) Gazzetta chimica italiana, Rome: 54: 59.
Vegard (1926) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 1: 1151.
Honess, A.P. (1927) The Nature, Origin and Interpretation of the Etch Figures on Crystals. 171pp., New York.
Doelter, C. (1928) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [2]: 814.
Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4067, 4083, 4113.
Aanerud (1931) Norske Videnskaps-Akademi, Oslo, Skrifter, no. 13.
Lacroix (1933) Bull. serv. Geol. Indochine: 20 [Min. Abs. (1935): 6: 21].
Harada (1934) Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokkaido University: 4,[2]: 279.
Kerr (1934) University of Nevada Bulletin 28, no. 2.
Royer (1936) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 202: 1346.
Kerr (1938) Economic Geology: 33: 390.
Lacroix (1940) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 210: 273.
Servigne (1940) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 210: 440.
Wilson (1941) Arizona Bureau of Mines, Geology Series, Bull. 148.
Greenwood (1943) Economic Geology: 28: 56.
Marsh (1943) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 577.
Sillén and Nylander (1943) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 17A, no. 4.
Johnston and Vasconcellos (1945) Economic Geology: 40: 34.
Ramdohr (1949) Heidelberger Beitr. Zur Min.: 1: 105.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1074-1079.
National Bureau of Standards Circular 539 (1956), 6, 23.
Journal of Chemical Physics (1964): 40: 504-506.
Hazen, R.M., L.W. Finger, and J.W.E. Mariathasan (1985) High-pressure crystal chemistry of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates. Journal of Physical Chemistry Solids, 46, 253–263.
Kempe, U. & Wolf, D. (1989): Entmischungen von Seyrigit in Molybdoscheelit. Chemie der Erde 49, 5-6.
A. Senyshyn, M. Hoelzel, T. Hansen, L. Vasylechko, V. Mikhailik, H. Kraus and H. Ehrenberg (2011) Thermal structural properties of calcium tungstate. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 44, 319-326.
Rémy S. Poulin, Andrew M. McDonald, Daniel J. Kontak, and M. Beth McClenaghan (2016) On the Relationship Between Cathodoluminescence and the Chemical Composition of Scheelite From Geologically Diverse Ore-Deposit Environments. Can. Mineral., 54, 1147-1173.

Internet Links for ScheeliteHide

Localities for ScheeliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

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