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Sapphire

This page kindly sponsored by Mark Dunlop
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About SapphireHide

Formula:
Al2O3
A variety of Corundum

Most commonly refers to a blue gem variety of Corundum, but other coloured varieties of Corundum are also described as Sapphire, except red Corundum, which is better known as Ruby.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Sapphire.


Pronounciation of SapphireHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Chemical Properties of SapphireHide

Formula:
Al2O3

Synonyms of SapphireHide

Other Language Names for SapphireHide

Arabic:Jacut
Basque:Zafiro
Bulgarian:Сапфир
Czech:Safír
Danish:Safir
Dutch:Saffier
Esperanto:Safiro
Estonian:Safiir
Finnish:Safiiri
French:Saphir
Hebrew:ספיר
Indonesian:Safir
Italian:Zaffiro
Latin:Sapphirus
Latvian:Safīrs
Lithuanian:Safyras
Norwegian:Safir
Polish:Szafir
Portuguese:Safira
Romanian:Safir
Russian:Сапфир
Simplified Chinese:蓝宝石
Slovak:Zafír
Slovenian:Safir
Swedish:Safir
Turkish:Safir
Ukrainian:Сапфір
Vietnamese:Xa-phia

Varieties of SapphireHide

"Kashmir" Sapphire"Kashmir" sapphire is a trade term for the sapphire of violetish blue to pure blue hue with strong to vivid saturation and medium-dark tone. The stones have a velvety lustre due to minute inclusions. The colour is also known as "cornflower blue". "Kashmir...
Asteriated SapphireA variety of Sapphire exhibiting the property of asterism.
Cat SapphireOriental sapphires of some value but not of the characteristic colour.
PadparadschaA salmon-pink coloured gem sapphire.
Star SapphireA variety of sapphire that exhibits a star pattern when viewed down the c axis. The chatoyance is due to oriented microscopic inclusions (nanorods) of diaspore (Nadin, 2007).

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
23 photos of Sapphire associated with RubyAl2O3
14 photos of Sapphire associated with CorundumAl2O3
7 photos of Sapphire associated with ZirconZr(SiO4)
5 photos of Sapphire associated with RutileTiO2
4 photos of Sapphire associated with Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
4 photos of Sapphire associated with CalciteCaCO3
3 photos of Sapphire associated with MulliteAl4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
3 photos of Sapphire associated with PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
3 photos of Sapphire associated with MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
2 photos of Sapphire associated with SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SapphireHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Wiederhorn, S.M. (1969) Fracture of sapphire. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 52: 485-491.
Webster, R. & Read, P.G. (1994): Gems: Their Sources, Descriptions and Identification. 5th edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1026 pp.
Hughes, R.W. (1997): Ruby & Sapphire. RWH Publishing, Boulder, CO, USA, 512 pp.
Ward, F. (1998): Rubies and sapphires. Gem Book Publishers, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 64 pp.
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A.E., Garnier, V., France-Lanord, Ch., Ohnenstetter, D., and Schwarz, D. (2005): Oxygen isotope composition as a tracer for the origins of rubies and sapphires. Geology, 33, 249-252.
Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Groat, L., Fagan, A.J. (2014): The geology and genesis of gem corundum deposits. In: Groat, L.A. (ed.) Geology of Gem Deposits. 2nd ed., Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course 44, pp. 29-112.
Hughes, R.W., Manorotkul, W. & Hughes, E.B. (2014): Ruby & Sapphire: A Collector's Guide. GIT, Bangkok, Thailand, 384 pp.

Internet Links for SapphireHide

Localities for SapphireHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Afghanistan
 
  • Badakhshan
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
TVM Specimen - A number of these appeared in 2010
Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336.
    • Shighnan District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
  • Kabul
    • Surobi District (Sorobi District)
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Antarctica
AmMin 36:361-367
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land
      • Lützow-Holm Bay
Kawakami, T., Grew, E. S., Motoyoshi, Y., Shearer, C. K., Ikeda, T., Burger, P. V., & Kusachi, I. (2008). Kornerupine sensu stricto associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Lützow-Holm Complex at Akarui Point, East Antarctica: what is the source of boron?. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 308(1), 351-375.
Argentina
 
  • Jujuy Province
    • Rinconada Department
Zappettini, E. O. (1999). Zafiros aluvionales de la Puna, Jujuy. Recursos minerales de la República Argentina. Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. SEGEMAR, Anales 35: 1847-1849, Buenos Airs, Argentina.
Ian Graham, Stephen Harris, Laure Martin, Angela Lay, William Powell, Elena Belousova, Eduardo Zappettini (2018) Unusual alluvial sapphires from Orosmayo, Argentina: a multi-analytical approach to decipher their
Australia
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
  • New South Wales
    • Arrawatta Co.
      • Frazers Creek
Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W. and Stroud W.J. (1997) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Inverell Metallogenic Map (SH/56-5). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Nullamanna
R.E Brown and W.J Stroud, Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, 1997.
      • Sapphire
R.E Brown and W.J Stroud, Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, 1997.
    • Buller Co.
      • Wilsons Downfall
Warwick – Tweed Heads Exploration Data Package Vol. 2, Mineral occurrence data sheets, occurrence lists and mineral occurrence maps: R.E. Brown, H.F. Henley and W.J. Stroud, December, 2001. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Warwick–Tweed Heads Exploration Data Package Vol. 2, Mineral occurrence data sheets, occurrence lists and mineral occurrence maps: R.E. Brown, H.F. Henley and W.J. Stroud, December, 2001. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Warwick–Tweed Heads Exploration Data Package Vol. 2, Mineral occurrence data sheets, occurrence lists and mineral occurrence maps: R.E. Brown, H.F. Henley and W.J. Stroud, December, 2001. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Warwick–Tweed Heads Exploration Data Package Vol. 2, Mineral occurrence data sheets, occurrence lists and mineral occurrence maps: R.E. Brown, H.F. Henley and W.J. Stroud, December, 2001. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
R.E. Brown, H.F. Henley and W.J. Stroud: Warwick–Tweed Heads Exploration Data Package Vol. 2, Mineral occurrence data sheets, occurrence lists and mineral occurrence maps, December, 2001. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales (GS2001/087).
    • Clarke Co.
Gilligan L.B., Brownlow J.W., Cameron R.G. and Henley H.F.: Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour Metallogenic Map (SH/56-10, SH/56-11), Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales 1992 (GS 1992/393).
      • Kookabookra district
Gilligan, L.B., Brownlow, J.W., Cameron, R.G., Henley, H.F. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-10, SH/56-11. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 509 pages.
      • Oban
Gilligan, L.B., Brownlow, J.W., Cameron, R.G., Henley, H.F. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-10, SH/56-11. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 509 pages.
      • Round Mountain
Gilligan, L.B., Brownlow, J.W., Cameron, R.G., Henley, H.F. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-10, SH/56-11. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 509 pages.
      • Yooroonah
Gilligan, L.B., Brownlow, J.W., Cameron, R.G., Henley, H.F. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-10, SH/56-11. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 509 pages.
    • Clive Co.
      • Binghi
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Henley, H.F., Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Barnes, R.G., Stroud, W.J. (2001) Grafton-Maclean 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-6 and SH/56-7: Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney 292 pages.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Gibraltar Range National Park
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Glen Elgin
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Silent Grove
Henley, H.F., Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Barnes, R.G., Stroud, W.J. (2001) Grafton-Maclean 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-6 and SH/56-7: Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney 292 pages.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
    • Fitzroy Co.
Gilligan, L.B., Brownlow, J.W., Cameron, R.G., Henley, H.F. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-10, SH/56-11. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 509 pages.
    • Gloucester Co.
      • Barrington Tops
    • Gough Co.
      • Apple Tree Gully
Brown, R.E., Stroud, W.J. (1997) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Inverell 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-5. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 576 pages.
      • Bald Nob
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Dundee
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Elsmore
Brown, R.E., and Stroud, W.J. (1997) Inverell 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-5: Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 576pp.
      • Emmaville
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Department of Mineral Resources, Sydney, 1995: Sapphires in New South Wales (booklet).; Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Glencoe
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Webb, G.B., Sutherland, F.L. (1998) Gemstones of New England. Australian Journal of Mineralogy (4) 115-122.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Paradise Creek
R.E Brown and W.J Stroud, Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, 1997.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Stannifer
R.E Brown and W.J Stroud, Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, 1997.
      • Swan Brook
R.E Brown and W.J Stroud, Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, 1997.
      • Wellingrove
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
    • Hardinge Co.
Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Krynen, J.P. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Manilla-Narrabri 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-9, SH/55-12. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 319 pages.
Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Krynen, J.P. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Manilla-Narrabri 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-9, SH/55-12. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 319 pages.
Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Krynen, J.P. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Manilla-Narrabri 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-9, SH/55-12. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 319 pages.
Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Krynen, J.P. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Manilla-Narrabri 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-9, SH/55-12. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 319 pages.
Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Krynen, J.P. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Manilla-Narrabri 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-9, SH/55-12. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 319 pages.
      • Tingha
Brown, R.E., Stroud, W.J. (1997) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Inverell 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-5. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 576 pages.
Brown, R.E., Stroud, W.J. (1997) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Inverell 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-5. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 576 pages.
      • Wandsworth
Gilligan L.B., Brownlow J.W., Cameron R.G., Henley H.F. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-10, SH/56-11. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 509 pages. (GS 1992/393).
Gilligan L.B., Brownlow J.W., Cameron R.G., Henley H.F. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-10, SH/56-11. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 509 pages. (GS 1992/393).
      • Yarrowyck
Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Krynen, J.P. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Manilla-Narrabri 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-9, SH/55-12. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 319 pages.
    • Hume Co.
      • Corowa
Wagga Wagga Mine Data Sheets, 1982
    • Inglis Co.
      • Watsons Creek
Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Krynen, J.P. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Manilla-Narrabri 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-9, SH/55-12. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 319 pages.
    • King Co.
      • Crookwell
Felton E. Anne (1975) Mine Data Sheets to accompany Metallogenic Map, Goulburn 1:250000 Sheet. Published by the Department of Mines Geological Survey of New South Wales
    • Murchison Co.
      • Bingara
Buchester K.J. (1972) A Treasury of Australian Gemstones: An Introduction to Gemhunting and Cutting. Ure Smith, Australia, 192p.
    • Nandewar Co.
      • Narrabri
Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Krynen, J.P. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Manilla-Narrabri 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-9, SH/55-12. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 319 pages.
    • Roxburgh Co.
      • Capertee
Sydney 1:500
    • Sandon Co.
      • Armidale Gully
Gilligan, L.B., Brownlow, J.W., Cameron, R.G., Henley, H.F. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-10, SH/56-11. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 509 pages.
      • Gara Dam
Gilligan, L.B., Brownlow, J.W., Cameron, R.G., Henley, H.F. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-10, SH/56-11. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 509 pages.
    • Selwyn Co.
      • Tumbarumba
Wagga Wagga Mine Data Sheets, 1982
Wagga Wagga Mine Data Sheets, 1982
    • Wellington Co.
      • Mudgee
Sutherland, F.L., Coenraads, R.R., Schwarz, D., Raynor, L.R., Barron, B.J., Webb, G.B. (2003) Al-rich diopside in alluvial ruby and corundum-bearing xenoliths, Australian and SE Asian basalt fields. Mineralogical Magazine, 67(4), 717-732.
    • Westmoreland Co.
      • Oberon
Jerry, pers comm
  • Northern Territory
    • Central Desert Region
[MinRec 11:271]
        • Ambalindum Station
          • Spriggs Creek Bore (Spriggs Bore)
R Bottrill, Patrick Gundersen
http://gemexplorer.org/archives/queensland-sapphire
    • Central Highlands Region
Sankey, Major J.R. (1907) Queensland Gems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, Volume XX, 61-82.; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, 176 pages.
Natural History Museum Vienna collection
www.nrm.qld.gov.au/mines/fossicking/sapphire.html
http://www.dme.qld.gov.au/zone_files/fossicking_pdf/sapphire_dfl_2007.pdf
Raffan, N. (2018) Tomahawk Creek – Central Queensland. Source Of Sapphires: Nearby Tertiary Volcanic Plugs And/OrUpper Devonian To Lower Carboniferous Conglomerates? in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 328
    • Etheridge Shire
http://www.corunduminium.com/australia.html
    • Tablelands Region
      • Kinrara National Park
Sutherland,FL, Coenraads, R, Abduriyim, A and Meffre, S., 2013. Lava Plains, NE Queensland, gem mineral suite. Abstracts, 36th Annual Seminar, Mineralogical Societies of Australasia. Sydney. p. 21-23.
On the topaz trail. P. O’Brien, Australian Gold Gem & Treasure, Vol. 12, No. 4, April 1997, pp. 26 –30.
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Arkaroola Region (Arkaroola Wilderness Sanctuary; Arkaroola Station)
          • Mt Painter area
Coats R.P.et al.1971, Regional and Economic Geology of the Mt Painter province, Bull 43, Dep Mines South Aust. p387-388
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Williamstown
Barossa SI5409 6628I Record of mines - Summary Card No:68
  • Tasmania
    • Break O'Day municipality
Bottrill, R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Bull. 73. Minerals Resources Tasmania
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Minerals of Tasmania
    • Derwent Valley municipality
Bottrill & Baker in prep; Bottrill, R. S. (1996). Corundum and sapphire in Tasmania. Tasmanian Geological Survey, Record, 5.
    • Dorset municipality
      • Blue Tier district
        • Moorina
Bottrill, R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Bull. 73. Minerals Resources Tasmania
Bottrill & Baker (2008) Catalogue of Mineral of Tasmania
Bottrill, R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Bull. 73. Tasmanian Geological Survey
    • Glamorgan Spring Bay municipality
Bottrill, R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Bull. 73. Tasmanian Geological Survey
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
Anderson, C. (1905) Mineralogical Notes 2. Records of the Australian Museum pp83-97
Sutherland, F.L., D.F. Hendry, B.J. Barron, W.L. Matthews and J.D. Hollis, 1996. An unusual Cenozoic Tasmanian basalt sequence near Boat Harbour, northwest Tasmania. Records of the Australian Museum, 48, 131-161.; Bottrill, R.S., Mathews, W.L., 2006. Occurrences of gemstone minerals in Tasmania. Mineral Resources Tasmania
  • Victoria
    • Cardinia Shire
Birch, W. D. and Henry, D. A. (1997): Gem Minerals of Victoria
Toby Billing, personally collected specimens.
GHF Ulrich (1870) Contributions to the Mineralogy of Victoria
    • City of Greater Geelong
      • Anakie
Judy Rowe Collection
    • East Gippsland Shire
    • Mornington Peninsula Shire
W D Birch and D A Henry, Gemstones in Victoria, 2013. ISBN 9781921833069
    • Northern Grampians Shire
      • Carapooee
W.D.Birch in Australian Journal of Earth Sciences (2007) 54 (609-628); Birch, W. D. (2008): Gem corundum from the St Arnaud district, Western Victoria, Australia. Australian J. of Mineralogy 14, 73-78.
    • Pyrenees Shire
      • Amphitheatre
    • Rural City of Wangaratta
      • Eldorado
Dunn, E.J.,(1913). Bulletins of the Geological Survey of Victoria No. 25. The Woolshed Valley, Beechworth. Department of Mines.
  • Western Australia
    • Carnarvon Shire
      • Williambury Station
Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
    • Cue Shire
      • Poona
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Krems-Land District
      • Gföhl
        • Felling
Harald Schillhammer collection
  • Upper Austria
    • Urfahr-Umgebung District
      • Ottensheim
- Gerhard Brandstetter, in: 2. Dürnbergtunnel bei Ottensheim. Mineralogische und paläontologische Notizen aus Oberösterreich. OÖ Geonachrichten, MFOÖ Mineralien - und Fossiliensammler Oberösterreichs mit ARGE Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie im Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseum, 15. Jahrgang, Linz 2000, Seite 16 – 22.
Brazil
 
  • Bahia
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 124).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 124).
  • Ceará
Rafael Hernandes Corrêa-Silva.
Martins da Pedra collection
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 124).
  • Minas Gerais
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 124).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 124).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 124).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 124).
Cambodia
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
  • Bătdâmbâng Province (Khet Batdambang Province; Battambang Province)
    • Samlot field
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
  • Koh Kong Province
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
  • Môndól Kiri Province (Mondulkiri Province)
Eldridge M. Moores, Rhodes Whitmore Fairbridge (1997) Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology
  • Pailin Province
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.; Cristofono, Peter, Moores, Eldridge M., and Whitmore Fairbridge, Rhodes (1997) Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology.; Barr, S. M., & James, D. E. (1990). Trace element characteristics of Upper Cenozoic basaltic rocks of Thailand, Kampuchea and Vietnam. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 4(3), 233-242. Barr, S. M., & MacDonald, A. S. (1981). Geochemistry and geochronology of late Cenozoic basalts of Southeast Asia. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 92(8_Part_II), 1069-1142.
Rocks & Min.: 20:467.
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 46
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 46
Concise Field Report Volume 1: Pailin, Cambodia (Dec 2008 – Feb 2009) Vincent Pardieu GIA Laboratory, Bangkok
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
  • Rattanakiri Province
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
Cameroon
 
  • South-West Region
Kanouo, N. S., Yongue, R. F., Chen, S., Njonfang, E., Ma, C., Ghogomu, T. R., ... & Sababa, E. (2012). Greyish-Black Rutile Megaclasts from the Nsanaragati Gem Placer, SW Cameroon: Geochemical Features and Genesis. Journal of Geography and Geology, 4(2), p134.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Slocan Mining Division
Minfile 082FNW259
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
www.alpinegems.net
www.alpinegems.net
    • Great Slave Lake
      • Outpost Island
Ann P Sabina (1964) Rock and mineral collecting in Canada. Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report - Issue 8, Volume 1 - Page 36
  • Nunavut
    • Qikiqtaaluk Region
      • Baffin Island
        • Kimmirut (Lake Harbour)
http://www.gia.edu/gemsandgemology/18578/22211/2278/back_issue_article_detail.cfm; Lee Groat, Philippe Belley, Donald Lake, David Turner, Andrew Fagan (2018) Adding logic to luck: Recent advances in coloured gem exploration in Canada. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 322
  • Ontario
Grice, Joel D. (1989) Bancroft: the Mineral Capital of Canada. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages, 92-99; 162-165.; Kievlenko, E.Ya. (2003) Geology of gems, 49.
    • Hastings County
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 49
        • York River area
Geology Ontario MNDMF MDI File MDI31F04SE00083
    • Peterborough County
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 49
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
Olivier Langelier Collection
China
 
  • Fujian
    • Sanming
      • Mingxi County
        • Gaiyang
Qiu Zhili, Wu Fuyuan, Yu Qingyuan, Xie Liewen, and Yang Shufeng (2005): Chinese Science Bulletin 50(22), 2602-2611.
  • Hainan
    • Ding'an Co.
      • Penglai
Wang Denghong, Chen Yuchuan, Xu Jue, Yang Jianmin, Xue Chunji, and Yan Shenghao (2000): Acta Geologica Sinica 74(3), 478-484.
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., ... & Ralison, B. (2007). Oxygen isotope systematics of gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: relevance for their geological origin. Mineralium Deposita, 42(3), 251-270.
  • Jiangsu
    • Nanjing
      • Luhe District
Kamitani, M., Okumura, K., Teraoka, Y., Miyano, S., and Watanabe, Y. (2007): Mineral Resources Map of East Asia. Geological Survey of Japan.
  • Shandong
    • Weifang
      • Changle County
        • Wutu
Qiu Zhili, Wu Fuyuan, Yu Qingyuan, Xie Liewen, and Yang Shufeng (2005): Chinese Science Bulletin 50(22), 2602-2611; Natural History Museum Vienna collection.
  • Tibet
    • Lhasa
      • Qüxü Co. (Qushui Co.)
Changbi Li (1991): Tibet Geology 2(1), 75-85
  • Xinjiang
    • Kezilesu Autonomous Prefecture (Kizilsu Autonomous Prefecture; Qizilsu Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aketao Co. (Akto Co.; Aqto Co.)
        • Subashi (Subashen)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
  • Zhejiang
    • Lishui
      • Qingtian County
        • Haikou
Xuanmin Zhu, Lijian Qi, Hongqi Jiang, and Qunyong Li (2001): Journal of Gems & Gemmology 3(4), 15-20
Colombia
 
  • Cauca Department
    • Mercaderes Municipality
Sutherland, F.L., Duroc-Danner, J.M., and Meffre, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 155-168.
Czech Republic
 
  • Hradec Králové Region
    • Trutnov District
Pasava, J., Malec, J., Griffin, W. L., & González Jiménez, J. M. (2015). Re–Os isotopic constraints on the source of platinum-group minerals (PGMs) from the Vestřev pyrope-rich garnet placer deposit, Bohemian Massif.
  • Liberec Region
    • Jizerské Mtn (Iser Mtn)
Kotrlý, M., Malíková, P., Holub F. X.: Malá Jizerská louka, klasické naleziště drahokamové asociace. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1997, roč. 4-5, s. 25-40. and Kotrlý, M., Malíková, P.: Klasická lokalita Malá Jizerská louka. Minerál, 2002, roč. 10, č. 4, s. 251 - 262.
DR Congo
 
  • Kasaï
Edwards, M.G. (1917) The American Mineralogist, 2, #7, 88-89.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Allier
      • Moulins
        • Neuvy
collected by François Périnet
      • Vichy
        • St-Didier-la-Forêt
          • Andelot River watershed
François Périnet
        • Varennes-sur-Allier
François Périnet collection
    • Cantal
      • Allanche
        • Ségur-les-Villas
Collected by François Périnet
      • Aurillac
        • Lascelle
collected by François Périnet
      • Beaulieu
Collected by François Périnet
        • Journiac
Collected by François Périnet
Collected by François Périnet
      • Menet
Robin Fialip photo & specimen
Collected by François Périnet
      • Saint-Flour
        • Roffiac
collected by François Périnet
      • Salers
        • Anglards-de-Salers
collected by François Périnet
      • Vic-sur-Cère
        • Thiézac
collected by François Périnet
    • Haute-Loire
      • Brioude
        • Siaugues-Ste-Marie
Collected by François Périnet
        • Vieille-Brioude
          • Champlong
Collected by François Périnet
      • Craponne-sur-Arzon
        • Chomélix
SIMONET C. (2000) - Géologie des gisements de saphir et de rubis – L’exemple de la John Saul Ruby Mine, Mangare, Kenya. Thèse de doctorat Université de Nantes. Première partie pp. 143-151.
      • Cussac-sur-Loire
        • St-Jean-Lachalm
François Périnet collection
      • Langeac
        • Mazeyrat-d'Allier
          • Saint-Eble
collected by François Périnet
PEGERE G. (1994) - Le Mont-Coupet dans le volcanisme de Saint-Georges-d’Aurac, Haute-Loire, sa magmatologie, sa faune fossile, ses pierres gemmes, Almanach de Brioude, Haute-Loire, pp. 193–211.
        • Saint-Bérain
          • Chardassac
Collected by François Périnet
        • Saint-Julien-des-Chazes
collected by François Périnet; Collected by François Périnet
collected by François Périnet
        • Siaugues-Sainte-Marie
          • Plancheresse
Collected by François PERINET
          • Vergonzac
Jean Brun collection
      • Lavoûte-Chilhac
        • Cerzat
          • le Chambon
Collected by François Périnet
        • Saint-Ilpize
Collected by François Périnet
          • Ribeyre
Collected by François Périnet
        • Saint-Privat-du-Dragon
          • Feneyrolles
Collected by François Périnet
      • Le Brignon
PÉRICHAUD J.-J. (1986) - Où trouver les minéraux d’Auvergne, II Cantal – Haute-Loire, Edit. L’Instant Durable.
      • Le Puy-en-Velay
        • Blavozy
GONNARD, F. (1910) - Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, v. 33, p. 152-161.
        • Ceyssac
GIROD, M., BOUILLER, R., Notice de la carte géologique du Puy-en-Velay
GONNARD, F. (1910) - Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, v. 33, p. 152-161.
GONNARD, F. (1910) - Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, v. 33, p. 152-161.
Collected by François Périnet
        • Espaly-Saint-Marcel
GONNARD, F. (1910) - Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, v. 33, p. 152-161.
Gonnard F (1910) Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie 33: 152-161.
Heavy sands collected by Charles Nicolas
Belot, Victor R. (1978) Guide des minéraux, coquillages et fossiles: où les trouver en France, comment les reconnaître et les collectionner (Guides Horay). Pierre Horay (Ed.), 224 pp.; Perinet, F. (1995) Les microcristaux du Riou Pezzouliou (Hte Loire). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 95(1), 7-21.
GONNARD, F. (1910) - Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, v. 33, p. 152-161.
GONNARD, F. (1910) - Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, v. 33, p. 152-161.
        • Le Riou
collected by François Périnet
        • Ours
collected by François Périnet
        • Polignac
          • Aiguilhe
GONNARD, F. (1910) - Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, v. 33, p. 152-161.
GONNARD, F. (1910) - Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, v. 33, p. 152-161.
          • Chanceaux
Collected by François Périnet
GONNARD, F. (1910) - Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, v. 33, p. 152-161.
          • Rochelimagne
collected by François Périnet
Jean Brun collection
GONNARD, F. (1910) - Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, v. 33, p. 152-161.
Jean Brun collection
        • Vals-près-le-Puy
collected by François Périnet
      • Loudes
        • Saint-Jean-de-Nay
Collected by François Périnet
          • Cereix
Collected by François Périnet
      • Paulhaguet
        • Frugières-le-Pin
SERVANT L. (2010) – Des saphirs dans le bassin de Paulhaguet, entre Allier et Sénouire, Haute-Loire. Le Règne Minéral n°93, pp 42-47.
      • Saint-Jean-Lachalm
        • Séjallières
collection François Périnet
      • Saint-Paulien
        • Blanzac
          • Azanières
collected by François Périnet
          • Le Moulin de Blanzac
François Périnet collection
GONNARD, F. (1910) - Sur les gisements gemmifères du Velay et de la Basse Auvergne, leur distribution géographique dans ces deux régions et leurs rapports du point de vue des associations minérales qu'ils renferment: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, v. 33, p. 152-161.
          • Cougeac
François Périnet collection
      • Saugues
        • Saint-Christophe-d’Allier
SIMONET C. (2000) - Géologie des gisements de saphir et de rubis – L’exemple de la John Saul Ruby Mine, Mangare, Kenya. Thèse de doctorat Université de Nantes. Première partie pp. 143-151.
    • Loire
      • Montbrison
Personnaly collected by Matthias Diot
      • Saint-Just-Saint-Rambert
Personnaly collected by Matthias Diot
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Aurières
collected by François Périnet
      • Avèze
collected by François Périnet
      • Aydat
collected by François Périnet
      • Billom
Collected by François Périnet
      • Chambon-sur-Lac
        • Voissière
Collected by François Périnet
      • Dorat
Collected by François Périnet
      • Gelles
        • La Miouze
collected by François Périnet
      • La Tour d'Auvergne
collected by François Périnet
      • Labessette
        • La Vialolle
Collected by François Périnet
      • Laqueuille
Collected by François Périnet
      • Larodde
collected by François Périnet
      • Murol
        • Boissières
collected by François périnet
      • Nébouzat
Collected by François Périnet
      • Olby
        • Le Glavin
collected by François Périnet
F Périnet collection
      • Olloix
Gaétan Bouclet collecton
      • Perpezat
collected by François Périnet
        • Jollère
collected by François Périnet
collected by François Périnet
      • Picherande
        • Chareire
collected by François Périnet
      • Saint-Sandoux
LACROIX A., (1894) – XXIV - Roches à néphélines – Zéolites et corindon du puy de Saint-Sandoux (Puy-de-Dôme)
      • Saulzet-le-Froid
collected by François Périnet
      • Singles
        • La Guinguette
collected by François Périnet
      • Vernines
        • Ribeyre
Collected by François Périnet
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Nièvre
      • Decize
        • Avril-sur-Loire
          • La Prole
collected by Gaétan Bouclet and François Périnet
      • Fourchambault
        • Marzy
Gaëtan Bouclet collection
    • Saône-et-Loire
      • Gilly-sur-Loire
François PERINET Collection
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Concarneau
collected by François Périnet
      • Morlaix
Heavy sands collected by Marc Bassoulet - Photo and collection François Périnet.
      • Névez
collected by François Périnet
      • Plouarzel
        • Ruscumunoc
collected by François Périnet
    • Morbihan
      • Guidel
        • Guidel-Plages
Collected by François Périnet
      • Lorient
        • Port-Louis
collected by François Périnet
      • Penestin
collected by François Périnet
      • Ploemeur
collected by François Périnet
      • Questembert
        • Caden
collected by François Périnet
        • Sulniac
collected by François Périnet
  • Centre-Val de Loire
    • Cher
      • Cours-les-Barres
François Périnet collection
      • Cuffy
        • Le Guétin
François Périnet Collection
    • Eure-et-Loir
      • Voves
        • Prasville
Gaétan Bouclet collection
    • Indre-et-Loire
      • Ballan-Miré
        • Berthenay
Collected by François Périnet.
    • Loir-et-Cher
      • Herbault
        • Chouzy-sur-Cisse
Collected by François Périnet.
    • Loiret
      • Gien
collected by Francois Perinet
      • Ouzouer-sur-Loire
        • Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire
Collected by François Périnet
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Mulhouse
        • Sierentz
          • Kembs
Collected by François Périnet
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Charente-Maritime
      • Saint-Pierre-d'Oléron
        • Saint-Georges-d'Oléron
Collected by François Périnet
    • Pyrénées-Atlantiques
      • Aramits
Jean-Eric Rose collection
  • Occitanie
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
      • Saint-Pé-de-Bigorre
collected by François Périnet
    • Lozère
      • Grandrieu
SIMONET C. (2000) - Géologie des gisements de saphir et de rubis – L’exemple de la John Saul Ruby Mine, Mangare, Kenya. Thèse de doctorat Université de Nantes. Première partie pp. 143-151.
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Le Barcarès
        • Port-Barcarès
Heavy sands collected by Christian Moreno - Collection François Périnet.
Heavy sands collected by Christian Moreno - Collection François Périnet.
  • Pays de la Loire
    • Loire-Atlantique
      • Le Pallet
BAMBIER A., FLAGEOLLET J.-C., FORESTIER F.-H., VIAUD J.-M. (1983) - Notice explicative de le carte géologique de Clisson au 1/50 000 pp.12-13. (http://infoterre.brgm.fr/).; Baret, Ch. (1905): Catalogue de la Collection de Minéralogie de la Loire-Inférieure, Muséum de Nantes, 90.
      • Saint-Michel-Chef-Chef
Collected by François Périnet
    • Vendée
      • Brétignolles-sur-Mer
Jean-Marc Johannet collection
Collected by françois Périnet
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Bouches-du-Rhône
      • Aix-en-Provence
        • Peyrolles-en-Provence
Périnet F. (2018) La Durance, Minéraux du Groupe du Platine, autres minéraux et composants lourds des alluvions. AFM - Le Cahier des Micromonteurs n°140 2-2018
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Cham
        • Waldmünchen
          • Herzogau
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Neunkirchen
          • Hohenseelbachskopf
Haege, T. (1887): Die Mineralien des Siegerlandes und der angrenzenden Gebiete. 50 pp.
    • Cologne
      • Rhein-Sieg-Kreis
        • Königswinter
Dechen, H. von (1852): Geognostische Beschreibung des Siebengebirges am Rhein, Cohen Bonn
Dechen, H. von (1852): Geognostische Beschreibung des Siebengebirges am Rhein, Cohen Bonn
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Ahrweiler
      • Brohltal
        • Glees
Brauns, R., Die Mineralien der Niederrheinischen Vulkangebiete, Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, 1922
      • Remagen
        • Unkelbach
Dechen, H. von (1852): Geognostische Beschreibung des Siebengebirges am Rhein, Cohen Bonn
    • Mayen-Koblenz
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
      • Mendig
Collection of Bernd Ternes
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Schleswig-Flensburg
      • Schleswig
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
Greece
 
  • South Aegean
    • Naxos
Markl, G. & Scharlau, A. (2008): Große Saphire, Margarit und Tremolit aus den Smirgelgruben auf Naxos, Griechenland. Lapis 33 (12), 26-28; 33-35; 58 (in German).
Voudouris, P., Mavrogonatos, C., Graham, I., Giuliani, G., Tarantola, A., Melfos, V., ... & Magganas, A. (2019) Gemstones of Greece: Geology and Crystallizing Environments. Minerals, 9(8), 461.
Voudouris, P., Mavrogonatos, C., Graham, I., Giuliani, G., Tarantola, A., Melfos, V., ... & Magganas, A. (2019) Gemstones of Greece: Geology and Crystallizing Environments. Minerals, 9(8), 461.
Hungary
 
  • Pest County
    • Szob District
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral species of Hungary 2005
India
Seidler, Ned (1964) Gems and jewelry. The Odyssey Press, New York, 44 pages.
  • Jammu and Kashmir
    • Kishtwar district
      • Pádar
http://gemexplorer.org/archives/kashmir-sapphire
  • Odisha
Natural History Museum Vienna collection
  • Tamil Nadu
Martins da Pedra collection
    • Tiruppur District
http://www.d4uweb.com/magazine/bk_gems/issue0906.html
Indonesia
 
  • South Kalimantan Province
    • Banjar Regency
    • Riam Kanan
Monument, A. T., & Province, A. GEOHERITAGE OF SUMATERA. Front cover photograph:-Granite at Low’s Peak, Kinabalu Mountain, Malaysia. Back cover photographs:-(anti-clockwise from top left) 1. Peak clusters at Yuntaishan Geopark, China. 2. Merapi Volcano, Indonesia. 3. Columnar basalts at San-in Coast, Japan., 61.
Ireland
 
  • Leinster
    • Co. Wicklow
      • Croghan Kinshela Mountain
Henwood, W.J. (1871): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 627-634
Israel
 
  • Haifa District
Howard Coopersmith, Vered Toledo, John Ward, Michiel De Wit, R Spaggiari, Emmanuel Fritsch: "Geology and Exploration of Gem Deposits at Mt. Carmel, Northern Israel: Natural Moissanite, Sapphire, Ruby & Diamond."
    • Mount Carmel
Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Italy
 
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Lugo di Vicenza
Panebianco R. (1886-87): Berillo e altre gemme di Lonedo. Atti R. Ist. Ven. Sci. Lett. Arti, ser. 6, 5, 387-396; Boscardin M., Girardi A., Violati Tescari O. (1975): Minerali nel Vicentino. Club Alpino Italiano, Sezione di Vicenza, 144 pp.; Boscardin M., Violati Tescari O. (1996): Gemme del Vicentino. Comune di Montecchio Maggiore, Museo Civico "G. Zannato", Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 114 pp.; Zordan A. (2014): Provincia di Vicenza. In: Zorzi F., Boscardin M. (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, 173-246.
      • Valdagno
        • Novale
          • Contrada Rossati di Sotto
Boscardin M., Girardi A., Violati Tescari O. (1975): Minerali nel Vicentino. Club Alpino Italiano, Sezione di Vicenza, 144 pp.; Zordan A. (2014): Provincia di Vicenza. In: Zorzi F., Boscardin M. (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, 173-246.
Japan
 
  • Fukushima Prefecture
Introduction to Japanese Minerals (Geological Survey of Japan, 1970)
  • Gifu Prefecture
    • Nakatsugawa City
Geological Survey of Japan (1960)
Chishitsu Chousajo (1902)
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Iwate Prefecture
    • Higashiiwai District
      • Daitoh
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Nagano Prefecture
    • Kiso district
      • Nagiso
Chishitsu Chousajo (1902)
  • Nara Prefecture
    • Kashiba City
Masutomi Museum specimen (Kyoto)
Kenya
 
  • Taita-Taveta County
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Naryn Region
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 63
Laos
 
  • Bokeo Province
    • Huay Xai
Sutherland, F.L., Bosshart, G., Fanning, C.M., Hoskind, P.W.O., and Coenraads, R.R. (2002): Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 20(7), 841-849.; http://gemexplorer.org/archives/sapphire-laos; Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., ... & Ralison, B. (2007). Oxygen isotope systematics of gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: relevance for their geological origin. Mineralium Deposita, 42(3), 251-270.
Madagascar
 
  • Alaotra-Mangoro
    • Ambatondrazaka
      • Ambatondrazaka II
; Basel, Switzerland: March 29, 2017 Kashmir-like' sapphires from Madagascar entering the gem trade in large sizes and quantities By Dr. Michael S. Krzemnicki, SSEF , Swiss Gemmological Institute Trade Alert. ; Pardieu, V., Vertriest, W., Weeramonkhonlert, V., Raynaud, V., Atikarnsakul, U., & Perkins, R. (2017). Sapphires from the gem rush Bemainty area, Ambatondrazaka (Madagascar). Gemological Institute of America, 26 February, 45 pp.
      • Didy
Peretti, A., FGG, F., & Hahn, L. (2012). Record-breaking discovery of ruby and sapphire at the Didy mine in Madagascar: Investigating the source. InColor Fall/Winter, 22-35.
Pardieu, V., Vertriest, W., Weeramonkhonlert, V., Raynaud, V., Atikarnsakul, U., & Perkins, R. (2017). Sapphires from the gem rush Bemainty area, Ambatondrazaka (Madagascar). Gemological Institute of America, 26 February, 45 pp.
Pardieu, V., Vertriest, W., Weeramonkhonlert, V., Raynaud, V., Atikarnsakul, U., & Perkins, R. (2017). Sapphires from the gem rush Bemainty area, Ambatondrazaka (Madagascar). Gemological Institute of America, 26 February, 45 pp.
Pardieu, V., Vertriest, W., Weeramonkhonlert, V., Raynaud, V., Atikarnsakul, U., & Perkins, R. (2017). Sapphires from the gem rush Bemainty area, Ambatondrazaka (Madagascar). Gemological Institute of America, 26 February, 45 pp.
Pardieu, V., Vertriest, W., Weeramonkhonlert, V., Raynaud, V., Atikarnsakul, U., & Perkins, R. (2017). Sapphires from the gem rush Bemainty area, Ambatondrazaka (Madagascar). Gemological Institute of America, 26 February, 45 pp.
    • Moramanga
      • Beforona
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
  • Anosy
    • Amboasary Sud
      • Maromby
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Schwartz, D. And Petsch, E. (1996): Sapphires from the Andranomdambo region, Madagascar. Gems and Gemology 32 (2): 80-99; Giuliani,G. et al (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
Wolfgang Hampel, site visit 13 August 2005
      • Tranomaro
Vik Vanrusselt photo & collection
    • Betroka
      • Ianabinda
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
  • Atsimo-Andrefana
    • Betioky
      • Bezaha
Rakotondrazafy, A.F.M., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Rakotosamizanany, S., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Maluski, H., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., and Ratrimo, V. (2008): Gem corundum deposits of Madagascar: A review. Ore Geology Reviews 34, 134-154
  • Atsimo-Atsinanana
    • Midongy Atsimo
Pezzotta, F. (2006): New Gem localities in Madagascar. 2006 Gemmological Research Conference. Gem & Gemology, Fall 2006, p.116
  • Diana
    • Ambanja
      • Antsirabe
        • Antsahalapata Valley
Wolfgang Hampel (site visit 4 September 2011)
      • Djangoa Commune
        • Andamby
Wolfgang Hampel (site visit 28 August 2011)
    • Antsiranana II District
Schwarz, D., Kanis, J. and Schmetzer, K. (2000): Sapphires from Antsiranana Province, Northern Madagascar. Gems & Gemology 36 (3): 216-233
  • Ihorombe
    • Ihosy
      • Ilakaka
Schmetzer, K.(1999): Rubine und verschiedenfarbige Saphire aus Ilakaka, Madagaskar. Lapis 24(6), 46-47
Pardieu, G. (2013) Update on Sapphire Mining in Ilakaka-Sakaraha, Madagascar. GIA, June 6, 2013.
Pardieu, G. (2013) Update on Sapphire Mining in Ilakaka-Sakaraha, Madagascar. GIA, June 6, 2013.
http://www.gggems.com/special_ilakaka.htm
      • Mahasoa
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
      • Ranohira
Gem News.Gems & Gemmology 39 (3): 222-249
      • Sahambano
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
      • Zazafotsy
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
  • Vakinankaratra
    • Antsirabe II
Rakotondrazafy, A.F.M., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Rakotosamizanany, S., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Maluski, H., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., and Ratrimo, V. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 134-154.
      • Soanindrariny
Ungemach, M.H. (1916) Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société française de minéralogie. 39: 5-38
Knut Edvard Larsen collection (Micro # 950)
    • Faratsiho
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Malawi
 
  • Central Region
    • Ntcheu
Journal of Gemmology 2002, Volume 28 No. 2, 65-75; H.G. Dill, A review of mineral resources in Malawi: With special reference to aluminium variation in mineral deposits, Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 47, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 153-173, ISSN 1464-343X, 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2006.12.006.; Dill, H. G., & Ludwig, R. R. (2008). Geomorphological-sedimentological studies of landform types and modern placer deposits in the savanna (Southern Malawi). Ore Geology Reviews, 33(3), 411-434.; Henn, U., Bank, H., & Bank, F. H. (1990). Red and orange corundum (ruby and padparadscha) from Malawi. Journal of Gemmology, 22(2), 83-89.
  • Southern Region
    • Mwanza
Mongolia
 
  • Arkhangai Province
    • Hangai highland
      • Tariat
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Myanmar
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 21).;
  • Kachin State
    • Mohnyin District
      • Hpakant Township (Hpakan; Phakant; Phakan)
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.; Aung, H. L., & Zin, T. T. (2017, November). Exploring Gemstones in Northern Part of Myanmar. In International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing (pp. 182-188). Springer, Singapore.
    • Myitkyina District
Re-entry of old Mindat data
  • Mandalay Region
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma4.htm
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; Giuliani, G., Fallick, A.E., Garnier, V., France-Lanord, Ch., Ohnenstetter, D., Schwarz, D. (2005) Oxygen isotope composition as a tracer for the origins of rubies and sapphires. Geology, 33, 249-252.; Malsy, A., Klemm, L. (2010) Distinction of gem spinels from the Himalayan mountain belt. CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry, 64(10), 741-746.; Khin Zaw, Lin Sutherland, Tzen-Fu Yui, Sebastien Meffre, Kyaw Thu (2015) Vanadium-rich ruby and sapphire within Mogok Gemfield, Myanmar: implications for gem color and genesis. Mineralium Deposita, 50, 25-39.
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Lay-tha Taung
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Harald Schillhammer collection
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kathé (Kathe)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Halford-Watkins, J.F. (1935b) Burma sapphires – locations and characteristics. The Gemmologist, Vol. 5, No. 52, November, pp. 89–98
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kin (Guard Post)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyatpyin Central
          • Baw-lon-gyi (Big Ball)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyatpyin North
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok; Kan-Nyunt, H.-P., Karampelas, S., Link, K., Thu, K., Kiefert, L. and Hardy, P. (2013): Blue sapphires from the Baw Mar mine in Mogok. Gems & Gemology 49, 223-232; Soonthorntantikul, W., Vertriest, W., Raynaud-Flattot, V.L., Sangsawong, S., Atikarnsakul, U., Khowpong, Ch., Weeramonkhonlert, V. and Pardieu, V. (2017) An in-depth gemological study of blue sapphires from the Baw Mar mine (Mogok, Myanmar). Gemmological Institute of America Report, 87 pp. [https://www.gia.edu/doc/Gemological-Study-Blue-Sapphires-Baw-Mar-Mine-Mogok-Myanmar-GIA.pdf]
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Harlow, G.E. & Hawthorne, F.C. (2008): Herderite from Mogok, Myanmar, and comparison with hydroxyl-herderite from Ehrenfriedersdorf, Germany. American Mineralogist, 93, 1545-1549.; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Yadanar-kaday-kadar
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Marble Ark
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Kyauk-poke (Rotten Stone)
[var: Star Sapphire] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel [in Dutch].
          • Dattaw-taung (Dattaw hill)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • On-dan
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Gaw-Ra-Khar village
Mine owner, personal communication
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Mine owner, personal communication
      • Thabeikkyin Township (Tha Pate Kyin Township)
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
  • Shan State
    • Kengtung District
The 1995 ICA World Gemstone Mining Report/Part 1 ICA Gazette
    • Kyaukme District
      • Momeik Township
        • Lelgyi
Dr. Kyaw Khaing Win, personal communication
Win, T.T., Davies, R.M., Griffin, W.L., Wathanakul, P. & French, D.H. (2001). Distribution and characteristics of diamonds from Myanmar. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 19, 563-577.
    • Loilen District
Garnier, V., Ohnenstetter, D., Giuliani, G., Blanc, P., & Schwarz, D. (2002). Trace-element contents and cathodoluminescence of “trapiche” rubies from Mong Hsu, Myanmar (Burma): geological significance. Mineralogy and petrology, 76(3-4), 179-193; Giuliani, G., Fallick, A.E., Garnier, V., France-Lanord, Ch., Ohnenstetter, D., and Schwarz, D. (2005): Oxygen isotope composition as a tracer for the origins of rubies and sapphires. Geology, 33, 249-252.
    • Tachileik District
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Nepal
Austral. Gemmol. 1987. V. 16. N 6. P. 225-229
  • Province No. 3
    • Dhading District
      • Ganesh Himal Massif
None
Rob Lavinsky specimen
New Zealand
 
  • Otago Region
    • Clutha District
      • Milton
Sutherland, F.L., Meffre, S. (2009) Zircon megacrysts ages and chemistry from a placer Dunedin volcanic area eastern Otago, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 52:3, 185-194.
    • Waitaki District
      • Kakanui
http://crownminerals.med.govt.nz/minerals/docs/comreports/report01_aluminium.pdf
  • Southland Region
    • Southland District
      • Orepuki
Local council Site Signage, pers. visit Kim Macdonald. Several photos under Orepuki Mindat heading of specimens from the beach. Several photographs of the sign appear on Google under images for 'gemstone beach'.
  • West Coast Region
    • Grey District
Christie, T., Brathwaite, B., & Thompson, B. (1993). Mineral commodity report 1-aluminium. New Zealand mining, 12, 20-23.
Nigeria
 
  • Kaduna
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 68
North Macedonia
 
  • Prilep Municipality
    • Prisad
      • Sivec Mountain
Dan Weinrich
Pakistan
 
  • Azad Jammu and Kashmir
    • Muzaffarabad district
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
      • Neelum Valley
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
  • Gilgit-Baltistan
    • Astore District
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
    • Gilgit District
      • Hunza Valley
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 55
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 55
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
    • Mansehra District
      • Kaghan valley
Aymeric Longi bought material from this locality + article in The Quaterly Journal of GIA (Winter 2004, Volume 40, Issue 4)
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Jelenia Góra County
      • Karpacz
        • Wilcza Poręba
Szełęg, E., Galuskina, I., Prusik, K. 2010: A Sc-Nb oxide from corundum pegmatites of the Krucze Skały in Karpacz (Karkonosze massif, Lower Silesia, Poland) – a potentially new mineral of the ScNbO4 – FeWO4 series. 20th General Meeting of the IMA (IMA2010), Budapest, Hungary, August 21-27, CD of Abstracts, p. 501
Portugal
 
  • Viana do Castelo
    • Ponte de Lima
Pedro Alves collection
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Sorokina, E. S., Koivula, J. I., Muyal, J., Karampelas, S., Nishanbaev, T. P., & Nikandrov, S. N. (2016). Multiphase fluid inclusions in blue sapphires from the Ilmen Mountains, southern Urals. Gems & Gemology, 52(2), 209-211.
    • Kaslinsky District
Filina, M.I., Sorokina, E.S., Botcharnikov, R., Karampelas, S., Rassomakhin, M.A., Kononkova, N.N., Nikolaev, A.G., Berndt, J., Hofmeister, W. (2019) Corundum Anorthosites-Kyshtymites from the South Urals, Russia: A Combined Mineralogical, Geochemical, and U-Pb Zircon Geochronological Study. Minerals, 9(4), 234.
Filina, M.I., Sorokina, E.S., Botcharnikov, R., Karampelas, S., Rassomakhin, M.A., Kononkova, N.N., Nikolaev, A.G., Berndt, J., Hofmeister, W. (2019) Corundum Anorthosites-Kyshtymites from the South Urals, Russia: A Combined Mineralogical, Geochemical, and U-Pb Zircon Geochronological Study. Minerals, 9(4), 234.
    • Miass
Sorokina, E. S., Rassomakhin, M. A., Nikandrov, S. N., Karampelas, S., Kononkova, N. N., Nikolaev, A. G., ... & Kotlyarov, V. A. (2019). Origin of Blue Sapphire in Newly Discovered Spinel–Chlorite–Muscovite Rocks within Meta-Ultramafites of Ilmen Mountains, South Urals of Russia: Evidence from Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Data. Minerals, 9(1), 36.
Boris Z. Kantor collection
  • Leningrad Oblast
[MinRec 32:42]
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Khibiny Massif
      • Kukisvumchorr Mt
Shlyukova Z.V. (1986) Mineralogy of contact formations of Khibina massif, - Moscow, Nauka, p. 96 (in Rus.)
  • Primorsky Krai
    • Krasnoarmeysky District
      • Roshchino
        • Kedrovaya river
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Rezhevsky District
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 62
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 62
    • Shilovka River
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 62
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Rimavská Sobota District
Ozdín, D. (2017) Mineralogické zaujímavosti Slovenska. Korund var. zafír z Hajnáčky. Montanrevue: 10(3): 24. (in Slovak).
Uher P., Giuliani G., Szakáll S., Fallick A., Strunga V., Vaculovič T., Ozdín D., Gregáňová M. (2012): Sapphires related to alkali basalts from the Cerová Highlands, Western Carpathians (southern Slovakia): composition and origin. Geol. Carpath., 63, 1, 71-82.
Uher P., Giuliani G., Szakáll S., Fallick A., Strunga V., Vaculovič T., Ozdín D., Gregáňová M. (2012): Sapphires related to alkali basalts from the Cerová Highlands, Western Carpathians (southern Slovakia): composition and origin. Geol. Carpath., 63, 1, 71-82.; Filina, M.I., Sorokina, E.S., Botcharnikov, R., Karampelas, S., Rassomakhin, M.A., Kononkova, N.N., Nikolaev, A.G., Berndt, J., Hofmeister, W. (2019) Corundum Anorthosites-Kyshtymites from the South Urals, Russia: A Combined Mineralogical, Geochemical, and U-Pb Zircon Geochronological Study. Minerals, 9(4), 234.
    • Žiar nad Hronom District
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    • Zvolen District
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
  • Prešov Region
    • Vranov nad Topľou District
Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
Somaliland
 
Thomas R. Yager (2002) The Mineral Industries Of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, And Somalia — 2002. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook
Sri Lanka
Seidler, Ned (1964) Gems and jewelry. The Odyssey Press, New York, 44 pages.; Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 21).
  • Central Province
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
  • North Central Province
    • Polonnaruwa District
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.; LANKA, G. (1984). State Gem Corporation, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka. Non-Metallic Mineral Ores, 15, 343.
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
Gübelin, E. , Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Warin, R. (2019) Minéraux et formes cristallines, notre monde... A.G.A.B. Minibul November 2019, 15-21 (in French).
Shigley, J. E., Laurs, B. M., Janse, A. J. A., Elen, S., & Dirlam, D. M. (2010). Gem Localities of the 2000s. Gems & Gemology, 46(3).
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
; Rob Lavinsky; Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
Joseph A. Freilich.; Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
  • Uva Province
    • Badulla District
      • Badulla
Rob Lavinsky; Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
    • Moneragala District
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.; Pardieu, V., & Dubinsky, E. V. SAPPHIRE RUSH NEAR KATARAGAMA, SRI LANKA (FEBRUARY–MARCH 2012). GIA
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.; Mathavan, V., Kalubandara, S. T., & Fernando, G. W. A. R. (2000). Occurrences of two new types of gem deposits in Okkampitiya gem field in Sri Lanka.
G.R.Dharmaratne et al, (2012) Sapphires from Thammannawa, Kataragama Area, Sri Lanka, Gems & Gemology Summer 2012: 98
      • Wellawaya
Rob Lavinsky
  • Western Province
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
Switzerland
 
  • Ticino
    • Leventina
      • Piumogna Valley
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
Tajikistan
 
  • Gorno-Badakhshan
    • Murghob
      • Rangkul
Elena S. Sorokina, Andrey K. Litvinenko, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Tobias Häger, Dorrit E. Jacob, and Zamoniddin Z. Nasriddinov (2015): Rubies and sapphires from Snezhnoe, Tajikistan. Gems & Gemology 51, 160-175.
Tanzania
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
  • Arusha Region
    • Karatu District
http://www.ganoksin.com/borisat/nenam/tanzania-mines.htm
  • Dodoma Region
    • Mpwapwa District (Mpwampwa)
      • Mpapwa
Schmetzer, K., Radl, W. & Schwarz, D. (2009): Winza ein neues Rubinvorkommen in Tansania. Lapis 34 (5), 41-46.
  • Morogoro Region
    • Mahenge
Hintze, J. (2011): Afrikanisches Tagebuch (III): Die Spinelle von Mahenge, Tansania. Lapis 36 (7-8), 26-30.
  • Rukwa Region
    • Sumbawanga District
USGS (2003) Minerals Yearbook - Tanzania.
USGS (2003) Minerals Yearbook - Tanzania.
  • Ruvuma Region
    • Mbinga District
The 1995 ICA World Gemstone Mining Report/Part 1 ICA Gazette
    • Songea Urban District
USGS (2003) Minerals Yearbook - Tanzania.; Lomthong, P. (2004) Characteristics of some Corundum from Songea Deposit, Tanzania.
    • Tunduru District
USGS (2003) Minerals Yearbook - Tanzania.; Macfarlane, M., Tallontire, A., & Martin, A. (2003). Towards an Ethical Jewellery Business. Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, London.
  • Tanga Region
Zwaan, P.C. (1974) Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Scripta Geol., 20, 1-41.; Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umba_sapphire
Thailand
Seidler, Ned (1964) Gems and jewelry. The Odyssey Press, New York, 44 pages.; Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Keller, P.C. (1990) Gemstones Formed Directly from Molten Rock: The Ruby Deposits of Chanthaburi-Trat, Thailand. In Gemstones and Their Origins (pp. 71-81). Springer US.
  • Kanchanaburi Province
    • Bo Phloi District
      • Bo Phloi
Choowong, M. (2002). Quaternary geology and sapphire deposits from the BO PHLOI gem field, Kanchanaburi Province, Western Thailand. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 20(2), 119-125.; Srithai, B., & Rankin, A. (2006). Geochemistry and genetic significance of melt inclusions in corundum from the Bo Ploi sapphire deposits, Thailand. In Ni Pei and Li Zhaolin. Nanjing: First Meeting Asia Current Research on Fluid Inclusion.; Limsuwan, R. “Bore-Pile Drilling” a New Choice for Deep Sampling for Placer Deposits of Gemstone.; Khamloet, P., Pisutha-Arnond, V., Sutthirat, S. (2014): Mineral inclusions in sapphire from the basalt-related deposit in Bo Phloi, (Kanchanaburi, western Thailand): indication of their genesis. Geologiya i Geofizika 55, 1374-1391 (in Russian).
  • Phrae Province
Limtrakun, P., Zaw, K., Ryan, C. G., & Mernagh, T. P. (2001). Formation of the Denchai gem sapphires, northern Thailand: evidence from mineral chemistry and fluid/melt inclusion characteristics. Mineralogical Magazine, 65(6), 725-735.
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 44
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Ludgvan
        • Trencrom
Wilson, A. C. (1975). An Occurrence of Sapphire in the Land's End Granite, Cornwall. HM Stationery Office.
      • St Ives
        • Carbis Bay
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
  • Scotland
    • Aberdeenshire
      • Rhynie
        • Lumsden
          • Clova
Wilson, A. C. (1975). An Occurrence of Sapphire in the Land's End Granite, Cornwall. HM Stationery Office.
    • Argyll and Bute
      • Isle of Mull
        • Bunessan
BMS Database
No reference listed
No reference listed
N L. Bowen, J W. Greig and E G. Zies. Mullite, a silicate of alumina. Jour
No reference listed
Smith, D.G.W. (1965) The chemistry and mineralogy of some emery-like rocks from Sithean Sluaigh, Strachur, Argyllshire. American Mineralogist 50: 1982-2022.
    • Highland
      • Ardnamurchan
        • Kilchoan
No reference listed
    • Outer Hebrides
      • Isle of Lewis and Harris
        • Lewis
Jackson, B. 1984. Sapphire from Loch Roag, Isle of Lewis, Scotland. J.Gemmol. 19,336-42
USA
 
  • Alabama
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
  • California
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 160.
    • Los Angeles Co.
Blake, Wm. P. (1866), Annotated catalogue of the principal mineral species hitherto recognized n California and the adjoining states and territories; being a report of the California State Board of Agriculture. 31 pp., Sacramento: 10; Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp.: 157; Kunz, George Frederick (1905a), Gems, jewelers’ materials, and ornamental stones of California: California Division Mines Bulletin 37, 171 pp.: 45.
      • San Gabriel Mountains
Eaton, A. L. 1946. Pomona club collects at mineralized Cascade Canyon. The Desert Magazine, Volume 9 Number 10, August. Desert Press, Inc. El Centro, California, p. 31, 40pp.
    • Riverside Co.
      • Cahuilla Mining District
        • Little Cahuilla Mountain
Webb, R. W. 1942. Two Andalusite Pegmatites from Riverside County, California. The American Mineralogist. 28(11-12):581-593.
      • San Jacinto Mountains
        • Soboba Hot Springs (Ritchey Hot Springs; White Sulphur Spring)
Murdoch, J., and Webb, R. W. 1942. Notes of Some Minerals from Southern California, III: Corundum and Associated Minerals near Banning, San Jacinto Mountains, California. The American Mineralogist. 27(4):328-329.
Murdoch, J., and Webb, R. W. 1942. Notes of Some Minerals from Southern California, III: Corundum and Associated Minerals near Banning, San Jacinto Mountains, California. The American Mineralogist. 27(4):328-329.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • San Gabriel Mountains
Eaton, A. L. 1946. Pomona club collects at mineralized Cascade Canyon. The Desert Magazine, Volume 9 Number 10, August. Desert Press, Inc. El Centro, California, p. 31, 40pp.
  • Colorado
    • Chaffee Co.
      • Turret Mining District
Collectively: Behre, et al (1936); Dana 6:1089; Rocks & Min.:58:153-155.
    • Moffat Co.
      • Great Divide Area
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
      • Timberlake
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield County
      • Newtown
Former Ronald Januzzi collection; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
    • Litchfield Co.
      • Litchfield
Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
      • Roxbury
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Conn.
  • Idaho
    • Clearwater Co.
      • Pierce City Mining District (Placer Mining District)
        • Pierce City
Dake, 1956. NW Gem Trails, 2nd ed.
Dake, 1956. NW Gem Trails, 2nd ed.
    • Valley Co.
      • Marble Creek Mining District
        • Idaho Primitive Area
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Indiana
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
  • Massachusetts
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Pelham
Emerson, B. K. (1895): A Mineralogical Lexicon of Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden Counties, Massachusetts (USGS Bulletin 126).
Evans, I.O. (1973) Rocks, Minerals & Gemstones. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 128 pages (page 112).; Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
    • Beaverhead Co.
Tony Nickischer
Jay Ellis Ransom,1974, Gems and Minerals of America
      • Butte Mining District (Summit Valley Mining District)
Berg, R.B. 2007 "Sapphires in the Butte-Deer Lodge Area, Montana" Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Bull. 134
Jay Ellis Ransom,1974, Gems and Minerals of America
      • Orofino Mining District
        • Dry Cottonwood Creek
Mining Journal, London, Vol. 329, No. 8437, July 11, 1997, p. 27.
    • Granite Co.
      • Rock Creek Mining District
Rolf Luetcke
USGS Bull 269
    • Judith Basin Co.
      • Little Belt Mountains
        • Yogo District
Pratt, Joseph Hyde (1906) Corundum and its occurrence and distribution in the United States (a revised and enlarged edition of Bulletin 180). United States Geological Survey Bulletin 269.; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
U.S. BUR. MINES IC 7602, 1951, P. 43-44.
MONTANA BUREAU OF MINES & GEOLOGY MEMOIR 31, 1949, P. 47.
    • Lewis and Clark Co.
      • East Helena
        • Eldorado Bar
Natural History Museum Vienna collection; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Helena Mining District (Spring Hill Mining District)
        • Helena area
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240; Chris Tucker and John Betts specimens.
Mike Royal specimen
    • Madison Co.
USGS Bull 269
    • Powell Co.
USGS Bull 269
  • New Mexico
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd rev. ed., 1996
  • New York
    • Otsego Co.
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
  • North Carolina
www.Mcrocks.com
    • Buncombe Co.
Magma Field Trip Reports
    • Clay Co.
Michael Streeter,2003, A Rockhounding Guide to North Carolinas Blue Ridge Mountains; GEORGIA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Volume 56 1998 Number 1
      • Elf School area
Michael Streeter,2003, A Rockhounding Guide to North Carolinas Blue Ridge Mountains
    • Cleveland Co.
Agortino,John P.D and Whitlow,Jesse W.(1985) Cassiterite Occurrences in the Shelby Area North and South Carolina: U.S Geological Survey Bulletin 1569
U.S Bureau of Mines,Spatial Data Extacted from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System(MAS/MILS)CD-Rom,Sep,1995.
Genth,F.A.,1891,The Minerals Of North Carolina;USGS Bulletion No.74
      • Canton
Michael Streeter , 2003, A Rockhounding Guide to North Carolinas Blue Ridge Mountains
Richard James Jacquot,Jr,2003, Rock,Gem,and Mineral Collecting Sites In Western North Carolina, pg # 71; Streeter,Michael (2003) A Rockhounding Guide to North Carolinas Blue Ridge Mountains:pp.50-51
U.S. Geological Survey,2005,Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey,Reston,Virginia
Ransom,Jay Ellis.,(1974) Gems and Minerals of America
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,(1978)Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina:NCGS Information Circular 24
    • Lincoln Co.
    • Macon Co.
      • Alarka
U.S Bureau of Mines,Spatial Data Extacted from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System(MAS/MILS)CD-Rom,Sep,1995.
U.S Bureau of Mines , Sep, 1995
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
      • Cowee Valley
        • Ellijay Mining District
          • Franklin
USGS Bull 269
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
http://www.rosecreekmine.com/
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep, 1995
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep,1995
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep,1995
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J,1978,Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina,Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J(1978)Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina;NCGS Information Circular 24
Richard James Jacquot,Jr.2003,Rock,Gem,and Mineral Collecting Sites In Western North Carolina, pg # 144
  • South Carolina
Ransom, Jay Ellis.,(1974) Gems and Minerals of America
  • Utah
    • Sevier Co.
      • Koosharem
        • Pine Canyon
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Washington
    • Okanogan Co.
      • Riverside
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon 1975
  • Wyoming
    • Albany Co.
Rocks & Minerals 77:5 pp334-339
    • Fremont Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:387
Vietnam
Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel [in Dutch].
  • Bac Kan Province
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Gems & Gemology (1995) 31 (3), 168-186
"Mario Lazzerini Denchi" Collection
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
  • Đắk Nông Province
Izokh, A.E.; Smirnov, S.Z.; Egorova, V.V.; Anh, T.T.; Kovyazin, S.V.; Phuong, N.T.; Kalinina, V.V. (2010): The condition of formation of sapphire and zircon in the areas of alkali-basaltoid volcanism in Central Vietnam. Russ. Geol. Geophys. 51, 719-733.
  • Đồng Nai Province
P.I. Fedorov and A.V. Koloskov (2005) Cenozoic Volcanism of Southeast asia in Petrology Vol.13 N.4 pgg 389-420
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Gems & Gemology (1995) 31 (3), 168-186
  • Nghệ An Province
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Shigley, J. E., Laurs, B. M., Janse, A. J. A., Elen, S., & Dirlam, D. M. (2010). Gem Localities of the 2000s. Gems & Gemology, 46(3).
Van King
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 66; Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Le Thi-Thu Huong, Laura M. Otter, Tobias Häger, Tim Ullmann, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Ulrike Weis, and Klaus Peter Jochum (2016): A New Find of Danburite in the Luc Yen Mining Area, Vietnam. Gems & Gemology, 52 (4), 393-401.
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
http://gemexplorer.org/archives/luc-yen-vietnam; Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004; Khoi, N.N., Sutthirat, C., Tuan, D. A., Nam, N.V., Thuyet, N.T.M. and Nhung N.T. (2011) Ruby and sapphire from the Tan Huong-Truc Lau area, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. Gems & Gemol., 47 (3), 182–195.
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004; Khoi, N.N., Sutthirat, C., Tuan, D. A., Nam, N.V., Thuyet, N.T.M. and Nhung N.T. (2011) Ruby and sapphire from the Tan Huong-Truc Lau area, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. Gems & Gemol., 47 (3), 182–195.
Zimbabwe
 
  • Manicaland
    • Buhera District
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 82.
  • Mashonaland East
    • Mudzi District
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 82.
  • Matabeleland South
    • Beitbridge District
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 82.
  • Midlands
    • Gweru District (Gwelo District)
Rocks & Minerals (1955) 30:464-471; Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 82.
Extra Lapis English 14:58-59
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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