登录注册
主页关于 MindatMindat手册Mindat的历史版权Who We Are联系我们于 Mindat.org刊登广告
捐赠给 MindatCorporate Sponsorship赞助板页已赞助的板页在 Mindat刊登 广告的广告商于 Mindat.org刊登广告
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe Elements书籍及杂志
搜索矿物的性质搜索矿物的化学Advanced Locality Search随意显示任何一 种矿物Random Locality使用minID搜索邻近产地Search Articles搜索词汇表更多搜索选项
搜索:
矿物名称:
地区产地名称:
关键字:
 
Mindat手册添加新照片Rate Photos产区编辑报告Coordinate Completion Report添加词汇表项目
Mining Companies统计会员列表Mineral Museums矿物展及活动The Mindat目录表设备设置
照片搜索Photo Galleries今天最新的照片昨天最新的照片用户照片相集过去每日精选照片相集Mineral Photography

Ruby

This page kindly sponsored by Hobart M. King
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About RubyHide

Formula:
Al2O3
Colour:
Red
Hardness:
9
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
A variety of Corundum

A red, gem variety of corundum. The red colour is caused by minor amounts of trivalent Cr replacing Al in the crystal structure.

In traditional gemmological terms, ruby has to be blood-red and of clear, facetable quality to justify the name, however in wider usage any corundum with a red or reddish colour has attracted the name 'ruby', and this name is usually applied in this way by mineral collectors.

Pink corundum is usually referred to in gemmological terminology as pink sapphire rather than ruby.

Pure Cr2O3 occurs in nature as the mineral eskolaite which is green.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Ruby.


Pronounciation of RubyHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of RubyHide

Colour:
Red
Hardness:

Chemical Properties of RubyHide

Formula:
Al2O3

Crystallography of RubyHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal

Synonyms of RubyHide

Other Language Names for RubyHide

Arabic:ياقوت
Basque:Errubi
Bulgarian:Рубин
Czech:Rubín
Danish:Rubin
Dutch:Robijn
Esperanto:Rubeno
Estonian:Rubiin
Farsi/Persian:یاقوت
Finnish:Rubiini
French:Rubis
Galician:Rubí
German:Rubin
Indonesian:Rubi
Italian:Rubino
Japanese:ルビー
Korean:루비
Latvian:Rubīns
Lithuanian:Rubinas
Norwegian:Rubin
Polish:Rubin
Portuguese:Rubin
Romanian:Rubin
Russian:Рубин
Serbian:Рубин
Simplified Chinese:红宝石
Slovak:Rubín
Slovenian:Rubin
Spanish:Rubí
Swedish:Rubin
Traditional Chinese:紅寶石
Turkish:Yakut
Ukrainian:Рубін
Vietnamese:Hồng ngọc

Varieties of RubyHide

BarklyiteA magenta-coloured variety of ruby (Corundum).
Originally reported from Victoria, Australia.
Star RubyA variety of ruby exhibiting a star pattern when viewed down the c axis. The chatoyance is due to oriented microscopic inclusions (nanorods) of diaspore (Nadin, 2007).
Trapiche rubyVariety showing six-spoked growth features.
Compare trapiche emerald.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
53 photos of Ruby associated with Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
47 photos of Ruby associated with ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
30 photos of Ruby associated with CalciteCaCO3
27 photos of Ruby associated with PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
23 photos of Ruby associated with SapphireAl2O3
18 photos of Ruby associated with PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
18 photos of Ruby associated with Mavinitenear (Mg,Fe)3(Al,Fe)12Si7O35 · 9H2O
14 photos of Ruby associated with MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
14 photos of Ruby associated with RhodoliteMg3Al2(SiO4)3
11 photos of Ruby associated with FuchsiteK(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RubyHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Edmond Frémy (1891): Synthèse du rubis. Vve. Ch. Dunod, France. [https://archive.org/details/SyntheseDuRubis]
Webster, R. & Read, P.G. (1994): Gems: Their Sources, Descriptions and Identification. 5th edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1026 pp.
Hughes, R.W. (1997): Ruby & Sapphire. RWH Publishing, Boulder, CO, USA, 512 pp.
Ward, F. (1998): Rubies and sapphires. Gem Book Publishers, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 64 pp.
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A.E., Garnier, V., France-Lanord, Ch., Ohnenstetter, D., and Schwarz, D. (2005): Oxygen isotope composition as a tracer for the origins of rubies and sapphires. Geology, 33, 249-252.
Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Groat, L., Fagan, A.J. (2014): The geology and genesis of gem corundum deposits. In: Groat, L.A. (ed.) Geology of Gem Deposits. 2nd ed., Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course 44, pp. 29-112.
Hughes, R.W., Manorotkul, W. & Hughes, E.B. (2014): Ruby & Sapphire: A Collector's Guide. GIT, Bangkok, Thailand, 384 pp.

Internet Links for RubyHide

Localities for RubyHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Afghanistan
Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages. Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).
  • Badakhshan
    • Shighnan District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
  • Kabul
    • Surobi District (Sorobi District)
Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land
      • Lützow-Holm Bay
Kawakami, T., Grew, E. S., Motoyoshi, Y., Shearer, C. K., Ikeda, T., Burger, P. V., & Kusachi, I. (2008). Kornerupine sensu stricto associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Lützow-Holm Complex at Akarui Point, East Antarctica: what is the source of boron?. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 308(1), 351-375.
Asia
 
[MinRec 32:42]
Australia
Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
    • Gloucester Co.
      • Barrington Tops
    • Selwyn Co.
      • Tumbarumba
Wagga Wagga Mine Data Sheets, 1982
    • Wellington Co.
      • Mudgee
[var: Barklyite] Liversidge, A. (1896) On some New South Wales and other minerals. The Chemical News and Journal of Physical Science, Volume 74:113-114 Sept. 4.
  • Northern Territory
    • Central Desert Region
[MinRec 11:271]; Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., ... & Ralison, B. (2007). Oxygen isotope systematics of gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: relevance for their geological origin. Mineralium Deposita, 42(3), 251-270.; Zia U. Bajwah, Huckitta 1:250 000 Mineral deposit data series, Northern Territory Geological Survey, 1994
        • Ambalindum Station
          • Spriggs Creek Bore (Spriggs Bore)
McColl, D.H., Warren, R.G. (1979): The first discovery of ruby in Australia. The Australian Mineralogist, 26, 121-125.
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
    • Central Highlands Region
(1907) Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland XX:p64-78
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Williamstown
Barossa SI5409 6628I Record of mines - Summary Card No:68
  • Victoria
    • Alpine Shire
[var: Barklyite] Liversidge, A. (1896) On some New South Wales and other minerals. The Chemical News and Journal of Physical Science, Volume 74:113-114 Sept. 4.
    • Cardinia Shire
Birch, W. D. and Henry, D. A. (1997): Gem Minerals of Victoria
GHF Ulrich (1870) Contributions to the Mineralogy of Victoria
    • East Gippsland Shire
    • Pyrenees Shire
      • Amphitheatre
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
David Sheumack collection
    • Cue Shire
      • Poona
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
    • Upper Gascoyne Shire
Tom Kapitany collections
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Horn District
      • Drosendorf-Zissersdorf
Harald Schillhammer collection
Brazil
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 124).; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).
Rui Nunes collection
  • Mato Grosso
    • Juína kimberlite field
      • Juína
Watt, G. R., Harris, J. W., Harte, B., & Boyd, S. R. (1994). A high-chromium corundum (ruby) inclusion in diamond from the Sao Luiz alluvial mine, Brazil. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(392), 490-493.
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 124).
Cambodia
Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; United States Geological Survey Minerals yearbook (1994) The mineral industry of Cambodia.; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
    • Samlot field
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
  • Môndól Kiri Province (Mondulkiri Province)
Eldridge M. Moores, Rhodes Whitmore Fairbridge (1997) Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology
  • Pailin Province
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.; Cristofono, Peter, Moores, Eldridge M., and Whitmore Fairbridge, Rhodes (1997) Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology.; Barr, S. M., & James, D. E. (1990). Trace element characteristics of Upper Cenozoic basaltic rocks of Thailand, Kampuchea and Vietnam. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 4(3), 233-242. Barr, S. M., & MacDonald, A. S. (1981). Geochemistry and geochronology of late Cenozoic basalts of Southeast Asia. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 92(8_Part_II), 1069-1142.
Rocks & Min.: 20:467.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
Concise Field Report Volume 1: Pailin, Cambodia (Dec 2008 – Feb 2009) Vincent Pardieu GIA Laboratory, Bangkok
  • Rattanakiri Province
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
China
 
  • Anhui
    • Lu'an
      • Huoshan County
Jiazhen Li (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(2), 33-40
  • Hainan
    • Ding'an Co.
      • Penglai
Wang Furui (1988): Gems & Gemology 24(3), 155-160.
  • Xinjiang
    • Akesu Prefecture (Aksu Prefecture; Aqsu Prefecture)
      • Baicheng Co. (Bay Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    • Kezilesu Autonomous Prefecture (Kizilsu Autonomous Prefecture; Qizilsu Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aketao Co. (Akto Co.; Aqto Co.)
        • Subashi (Subashen)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
  • Yunnan
    • Yuxi
      • Yuanjiang County
Yunkui Qian (2004): Yunnan Geology 23(3), 337-342; Dong Ye and Xueliang Liu (2006): Journal of Gems and Gemmmology 8(3), 21-24.
Colombia
 
  • Cauca Department
    • Mercaderes Municipality
Sutherland, F.L., Duroc-Danner, J.M., and Meffre, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 155-168.
Czech Republic
 
  • Liberec Region
    • Jizerské Mtn (Iser Mtn)
Kotrlý, M., Malíková, P., Holub F. X. (1997) Malá Jizerská louka, klasické naleziště drahokamové asociace. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1997, roč. 4-5, s. 25-40. Kotrlý, M., Malíková, P. (2002) Klasická lokalita Malá Jizerská louka. Minerál, 2002, roč. 10, č. 4, s. 251 - 262.
Denmark
 
  • Greenland
    • Sermersooq
      • Nuuk (Godthåb)
Petersen, O. V. & Secher, K. (1993): The Minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24 (2): 1-67
https://gem-a.com/news-publications/media-centre/news-blogs/gems-from-gem-a/gem/greenland-ruby-the-mighty-aappaluttoq-arises
          • Bjørnesund
Petersen, O.V & Johnsen, O. (1980): Giant crystals of Kornerupine. Mineralogical Record 11,93-96
Friend, C.R.L. (1982): A1-Cr substitution in peraluminous sapphirines from the Bjoernesund area, Fiskenaesset region, southern West Greenland. Mineralogical Magazine. 46, 323-328
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • Craponne-sur-Arzon
        • Chomélix
Jean Brun collection
      • Lavoûte-Chilhac
        • Saint-Ilpize
FORESTIER F. H., LASNIER B. (1969) – Découverte de niveaux d’amphibolites à pargasite, anorthite, corindon et saphirine dans les schistes cristallins de la vallée du Haut-Allier – Existence du faciès granulite dans la massif Central Français, Contr. Mineral. And Petrol. 23, pp. 194-235.
          • la Redonde
collected by Guy Pégère and François Périnet.
        • Saint-Privat-du-Dragon
          • Feneyrolles
Collected by Guy Pégère
PERINET F., PEGERE G. (2009) – Les sables éluvionnaires à rubis et sapphirine du secteur de Peygerolles, St-Privat-du-Dragon, Haute-Loire – Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n° 104, pp. 35-41.
  • Centre-Val de Loire
    • Loiret
      • Gien
collected by François Périnet
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Mulhouse
        • Sierentz
          • Kembs
Collected by François Périnet
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Viala-du-Tarn
BAISSIERES D. (2010) – Ma vallée des rubis… Viala-du-Tarn, Aveyron. Le Règne Minéral n°93, pp 67-69.
    • Lozère
      • Marvejols
BAISSIERES D. (2010) – Ma vallée des rubis… Viala-du-Tarn, Aveyron. Le Règne Minéral n°93, pp 67-69.
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Mittelsachsen
      • Waldheim
H. Vollstädt, R. Baumgärtel: "Einheimische Edelsteine", 2nd. ed., Steinkopff (Dresden), 1977
Greece
 
  • East Macedonia and Thrace
    • Drama
Christos Spiromitros collected specimens.
Wang et al. (2017), The Origin of a new Pargasite-Schist Hosted Ruby Deposit from Paranesti, Northern Greece. The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 55, pp. 535-560.; Voudouris, P., Mavrogonatos, C., Graham, I., Giuliani, G., Tarantola, A., Melfos, V., ... & Magganas, A. (2019) Gemstones of Greece: Geology and Crystallizing Environments. Minerals, 9(8), 461.
India
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Anantapur District
specimen in the collection of Rock Currier
  • Karnataka
    • Dakshina Kannada District
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
    • Kodagu District
http://www.conventus.de/fileadmin/media/2012/mm7/Poster/PS1-P04_R.Schumacher.pdf
Smeeth, W.F. and Sampat Iyengar, P. (1916) Mineral Resources of Mysore. Mysore (India: State). Dept. of Mines and Geology Bulletin 7.; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).; Rob Lavinsky
  • Tamil Nadu
Martins da Pedra collection
    • Tiruppur District
https://www.knowyourcrystals.com/stones-found-in-india/ https://www.gia.edu/gems-gemology/spring-2014-gemnews-indian-ruby-mining http://www.d4uweb.com/magazine/bk_gems/issue0906.html
Israel
 
  • Haifa District
Howard Coopersmith, Vered Toledo, John Ward, Michiel De Wit, R Spaggiari, Emmanuel Fritsch: "Geology and Exploration of Gem Deposits at Mt. Carmel, Northern Israel: Natural Moissanite, Sapphire, Ruby & Diamond."
    • Mount Carmel
Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Italy
 
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Lugo di Vicenza
Panebianco R. (1886-87): Berillo e altre gemme di Lonedo. Atti R. Ist. Ven. Sci. Lett. Arti, ser. 6, 5, 387-396; Boscardin M., Girardi A., Violati Tescari O. (1975): Minerali nel Vicentino. Club Alpino Italiano, Sezione di Vicenza, 144 pp.; Boscardin M., Violati Tescari O. (1996): Gemme del Vicentino. Comune di Montecchio Maggiore, Museo Civico "G. Zannato", Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 114 pp.; Zordan A. (2014): Provincia di Vicenza. In: Zorzi F., Boscardin M. (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, 173-246.
Japan
 
  • Oita Prefecture
    • Saiki City
Chishitsu Chousajo (1902)
Kenya
 
  • Kiambu County
Bulletin of the Imperial Institute - Geology and Mineral Resources of Kenya (1948) p297
  • Taita-Taveta County
Mercier A., Debat P. & Saul J.M. (1999): Exotic origin of the ruby deposits of the Mangari area in SE Kenya. Ore Geology Reviews, 14, 83-104.
Mercier A., Debat P. & Saul J.M. (1999): Exotic origin of the ruby deposits of the Mangari area in SE Kenya. Ore Geology Reviews, 14, 83-104.
      • Tsavo West
Levitski, A.G., Sims, D.H.R. (1997) Surface geochemical techniques in gemstone exploration at the Rockland Ruby Mine, Mangare area, SE Kenya. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 59(2), 87-98.
A. Mercier, P. Debat, John M. Saul, Exotic origin of the ruby deposits of the Mangari area in SE Kenya, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 14, Issue 2, March 1999, Pages 83-104,
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Madagascar
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Alaotra-Mangoro
    • Ambatondrazaka
      • Didy
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.; Peretti, A., FGG, F., & Hahn, L. (2012). Record-breaking discovery of ruby and sapphire at the Didy mine in Madagascar: Investigating the source. InColor Fall/Winter, 22-35.
  • Analanjirofo
    • Fenoarivo Atsinanana
      • Saranambana
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
T.R.Yager: The Mineral Industry of Madagascar. US.Geological Survey Yearbook 2001, 201-204.
    • Vavatenina
      • Ambodimangavalo
Vincent Pardieu, Supharart Sangsawong, and Stanislas Detroyat (2015)Rubies from a New Deposit in Zahamena National Park, Madagascar, Gems & Gemology, Winter 2015, Vol. 51, No. 4.
  • Anosy
    • Amboasary Sud
      • Tranomaro
Martins da Pedra photo
    • Betroka
      • Isoanala
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
  • Atsimo-Andrefana
    • Ampanihy
      • Ejeda
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
      • Gogogogo
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.; Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., ... & Ralison, B. (2007). Oxygen isotope systematics of gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: relevance for their geological origin. Mineralium Deposita, 42(3), 251-270.
      • Vohitany
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
  • Atsinanana
    • Vatomandry
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., ... & Ralison, B. (2007). Oxygen isotope systematics of gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: relevance for their geological origin. Mineralium Deposita, 42(3), 251-270.
  • Ihorombe
    • Ihosy
      • Ranohira
Gem News.Gems & Gemmology 39 (3): 222-249
      • Zazafotsy
Pezzotta F. (2005): Rubini e zaffiri. Corindoni policromi di Amboarohy, Ihosy, Madagascar. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana,30 (2): 116-124
  • Vakinankaratra
    • Antsirabe II
      • Ambohitsimanova
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
Rakotondrazafy, A.F.M., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Rakotosamizanany, S., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Maluski, H., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., and Ratrimo, V. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 134-154.
Malawi
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).
  • Central Region
    • Ntcheu
H.G. Dill, A review of mineral resources in Malawi: With special reference to aluminium variation in mineral deposits, Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 47, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 153-173, ISSN 1464-343X, 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2006.12.006.; Dill, H. G., & Ludwig, R. R. (2008). Geomorphological-sedimentological studies of landform types and modern placer deposits in the savanna (Southern Malawi). Ore Geology Reviews, 33(3), 411-434.; Henn, U., Bank, H., & Bank, F. H. (1990). Red and orange corundum (ruby and padparadscha) from Malawi. Journal of Gemmology, 22(2), 83-89.
  • Southern Region
    • Mwanza
Mozambique
 
António Joaquim Monteiro Photo, photo ID: 792608
Pardieu, V., Sangsawong, S., Muyal,J.,Chauviré, B., Massi, L. and N. Sturman (2013) Rubies from the Montepuez area (Mozambique). GIA News from Research October 12, 2013.
Pardieu, V., Sangsawong, S., Muyal,J.,Chauviré, B., Massi, L. and N. Sturman (2013) Rubies from the Montepuez area (Mozambique). GIA News from Research October 12, 2013.
Pardieu, V., Sangsawong, S., Muyal,J.,Chauviré, B., Massi, L. and N. Sturman (2013) Rubies from the Montepuez area (Mozambique). GIA News from Research October 12, 2013.
Pardieu, V., Sangsawong, S., Muyal,J.,Chauviré, B., Massi, L. and N. Sturman (2013) Rubies from the Montepuez area (Mozambique). GIA News from Research October 12, 2013.
Pardieu, V., Sangsawong, S., Muyal,J.,Chauviré, B., Massi, L. and N. Sturman (2013) Rubies from the Montepuez area (Mozambique). GIA News from Research October 12, 2013.
Pardieu, V., Sangsawong, S., Muyal,J.,Chauviré, B., Massi, L. and N. Sturman (2013) Rubies from the Montepuez area (Mozambique). GIA News from Research October 12, 2013.
http://gemexplorer.org/archives/niassa-mozambique
  • Tete Province
    • Chimessolo
António Manuel Ináçio Martins.
Myanmar
Seidler, Ned (1964) Gems and jewelry. The Odyssey Press, New York, 44 pages.; Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel [in Dutch].; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).;
  • Kachin State
Han Htun & George E. Harlow. Identifying Sources among Burmese Rubies. American Museum Natural History website accessed 7/3/2013
    • Mohnyin District
      • Hpakant Township (Hpakan; Phakant; Phakan)
Han Htun & George E. Harlow. Identifying Sources among Burmese Rubies. American Museum Natural History website accessed 7/3/2013; Aung, H. L., & Zin, T. T. (2017, November). Some Characteristics of Nanyaseik Area Corundum and Other Assorted Gemstones in Myanmar. In International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing (pp. 173-181). Springer, Singapore.; Aung, H. L., & Zin, T. T. (2017, October). Nanyaseik ruby of phakant township, Kachin state, northern Myanmar. In Consumer Electronics (GCCE), 2017 IEEE 6th Global Conference on (pp. 1-2). IEEE.; Aung, H. L., & Zin, T. T. (2017, November). Exploring Gemstones in Northern Part of Myanmar. In International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing (pp. 182-188). Springer, Singapore.
    • Myitkyina District
Han Htun & George E. Harlow. Identifying Sources among Burmese Rubies. American Museum Natural History website accessed 7/3/2013
  • Mandalay Region
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma4.htm
Adams, F.D., Graham, R.P.D. (1926) On some minerals from the Ruby Mining District of Mogok, Upper Burma. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Section IV, 113-136.; Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).; Morris, N. (2005) Diamonds and other gems. Appleseed Editions, East Sussex.; Giuliani, G., Fallick, A.E., Garnier, V., France-Lanord, Ch., Ohnenstetter, D., Schwarz, D. (2005) Oxygen isotope composition as a tracer for the origins of rubies and sapphires. Geology, 33, 249-252.; Yui, T.-F., Khin Zaw, Wu, C.-M. (2008) A preliminary stable isotope study on Mogok Ruby, Myanmar. Ore Geology Reviews 34, 192-199; Doppler, G. (2010) Petrogenese und Geochemie von ausgewählten Korund (Rubin)-lagerstätten. Master’s Thesis, University of Graz, Austria, 140 pp. (in German); Malsy, A., Klemm, L. (2010) Distinction of gem spinels from the Himalayan mountain belt. CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry, 64(10), 741-746.; Harlow, G.E., Bender, W. (2013) A study of ruby (corundum) compositions from the Mogok Belt, Myanmar: Searching for chemical fingerprints. American Mineralogist 98, 1120-1132.; Giuliani, G., Dubessy, J., Banks, D.A., Lhomme, T., Ohnenstetter, D. (2015) Fluid inclusions in ruby from Asian marble deposits: genetic implications. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 393-404.; Khin Zaw, Lin Sutherland, Tzen-Fu Yui, Sebastien Meffre, Kyaw Thu (2015) Vanadium-rich ruby and sapphire within Mogok Gemfield, Myanmar: implications for gem color and genesis. Mineralium Deposita, 50, 25-39.; Krzemnicki, M.S., Wang, H.A.O. (2019) Age dating on ruby set in iconic ruby necklace by Harry Winston. Facette, 25, 20-21.
        • Bernardmyo
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Lay-tha Taung
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Chaung-gyi
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Star Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kathé (Kathe)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kin (Guard Post)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyatpyin Central
          • Baw-lon-gyi (Big Ball)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyatpyin North
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyauk-Pyat-That
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Harlow, G.E. & Hawthorne, F.C. (2008): Herderite from Mogok, Myanmar, and comparison with hydroxyl-herderite from Ehrenfriedersdorf, Germany. American Mineralogist, 93, 1545-1549.
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok; Kyaw Thu (2007) The Igneous Rocks of the Mogok Stone Tract: Their Distributions, Petrography, Petrochemistry, Sequence, Geochronology and Economic Geology. PhD Thesis University of Yangon, Myanmar
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok; Kyaw Thu (2007) The Igneous Rocks of the Mogok Stone Tract: Their Distributions, Petrography, Petrochemistry, Sequence, Geochronology and Economic Geology. PhD Thesis University of Yangon, Myanmar
Pavel M. Kartashov data
          • Yadanar-kaday-kadar
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Marble Ark
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok; Yui, T.-F., Khin Zaw, Wu, C.-M. (2008): A preliminary stable isotope study on Mogok Ruby, Myanmar. Ore Geol. Rev. 34, 192-199.
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Pyaung-pyin
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel [in Dutch].
Rob Lavinsky
            • Dattaw-mid
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok Sutherland, F.L., Khin Zaw, Meffre, S., Thompson, J., Goemann, K., Kyaw Thu, Than Than Nu, Zin, M.M. and Harris, S.J. (2019): Diversity in ruby geochemistry and its inclusions: Intra- and inter-continental comparisons from Myanmar and eastern Australia. Minerals 9, 28.
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Nampai Valley (Nampan Valley)
Dana 6: 1031.
        • Pein-Pyit (Painpyit; Pyan Pyit)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
      • Thabeikkyin Township (Tha Pate Kyin Township)
http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma4.htm
  • Shan State
    • Kyaukme District
      • Momeik Township
Win, T.T., Davies, R.M., Griffin, W.L., Wathanakul, P. & French, D.H. (2001). Distribution and characteristics of diamonds from Myanmar. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 19, 563-577.
    • Loilen District
Garnier, V., Ohnenstetter, D., Giuliani, G., Blanc, P., & Schwarz, D. (2002). Trace-element contents and cathodoluminescence of “trapiche” rubies from Mong Hsu, Myanmar (Burma): geological significance. Mineralogy and petrology, 76(3-4), 179-193; Giuliani, G., Fallick, A.E., Garnier, V., France-Lanord, Ch., Ohnenstetter, D., and Schwarz, D. (2005): Oxygen isotope composition as a tracer for the origins of rubies and sapphires. Geology, 33, 249-252. ; Doppler, G. (2010): Petrogenese und Geochemie von ausgewählten Korund (Rubin)-lagerstätten. Master’s Thesis, University of Graz, Austria, 140 pp. (in German); https://www.gemstone.org/incolor/42/17/; Giuliani, G., Dubessy, J., Pignatelli, I., Schwarz, D. (2018): Fluid inclusions study of trapiche and non-trapiche rubies from the Mong Hsu deposit, Myanmar. Canadian Mineralogist 56, 691-703.; Sutherland, F.L., Khin Zaw, Meffre, S., Thompson, J., Goemann, K., Kyaw Thu, Than Than Nu, Zin, M.M. and Harris, S.J. (2019): Diversity in ruby geochemistry and its inclusions: Intra- and inter-continental comparisons from Myanmar and eastern Australia. Minerals 9, 28.
    • Mu Se District
      • Namhkam Township (Nanhkan Township; Namhkan Township)
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Han Htun & George E. Harlow. Identifying Sources among Burmese Rubies. American Museum Natural History website accessed 7/3/2013
Nepal
J. Gemmol. 1986. V. 20. N 1. P. 3-10
  • Province No. 3
    • Dhading District
      • Ganesh Himal Massif
Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
Rob Lavinsky specimen
New Zealand
 
  • West Coast Region
    • Westland District
Grapes, R., Palmer, K. (1996) (Ruby—Sapphire)—Chromian Mica—Tourmaline Rocks from Westland, New Zealand. Journal of Petrology, 37(2), 293-315.
Christie, T., Brathwaite, B., Thompson, B. (1993) Mineral commodity report 1-aluminium. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd.
North Macedonia
 
  • Prilep Municipality
    • Prisad
      • Sivec Mountain
Dan Weinrich
Norway
 
  • Aust-Agder
    • Froland
Oftedahl, Chr. (1963): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway No 19. Red corundum of Froland at arendal. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 43, 431-439; Eldjarn, K. (1979): Mineraler i Norge- Korund. NAGS-nytt 6 (4): 29-31
  • Troms og Finnmark
Chris Clemens photo, photo id-954731
Pakistan
 
  • Azad Jammu and Kashmir
    • Muzaffarabad district
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
      • Neelum Valley
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
  • Gilgit-Baltistan
    • Astore District
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
    • Hunza District
Gübelin, E. (1982) Die Edelsteinvorkommen Pakistans. 1. Teil. Die Rubine aus dem Hunzatal. Lapis, 7(5), 19-26.; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 55
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 55
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
    • Skardu District
      • Basha Valley (Basha Nala; Basna)
Ikram Mineralogy
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
    • Mansehra District
      • Kaghan Valley
Jan, M. Q., & Khan, M. A. (1995). Potential For Ruby Mineralization In Upper Kaghan, Nw Himalaya. Journal Of Himalayan Earth Sciences, 28.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Świdnica County
      • Gmina Świdnica
Eligiusz Szełęg "Atlas skał i minerałów". Pascal 2007.
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Plastovsky District
      • Plast
        • Kochkar' District
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 50
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 50
Local geolofist S.V.Kolesnichenko data; Kissin, A.; Gottman, I.; Sustavov, S.; Murzin, V.; Kiseleva, D. (2020) The First Find of Cr2O3 Eskolaite Associated with Marble-Hosted Ruby in the Southern Urals and the Problem of Al and Cr Sources. Minerals 10, 101.
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Kovdor Massif
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Louhi District
[MinRec 28:132]
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Rezhevsky District
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 62
    • Shilovka River
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 62
  • Tyumen Oblast
[MinRec 32:42]
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 57
Somaliland
 
Thomas R. Yager (2002) The Mineral Industries Of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, And Somalia — 2002. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook
Sri Lanka
Seidler, Ned (1964) Gems and jewelry. The Odyssey Press, New York, 44 pages.; Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch). Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Central Province
LANKA, G. (1984). State Gem Corporation, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka. Non-Metallic Mineral Ores, 15, 343.
  • North Central Province
    • Polonnaruwa District
LANKA, G. (1984). State Gem Corporation, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka. Non-Metallic Mineral Ores, 15, 343.
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
  • Western Province
Switzerland
 
  • Bern
    • Hasli Valley
      • Grimsel area
        • Lower Aar glacier area
          • Lower Aar glacier
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 242.
  • Grisons
    • Moesa Region
      • Roveredo
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 242.
  • Ticino
    • Arbedo-Castione
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 242.
    • Leventina
      • Piumogna Valley
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
Tajikistan
 
  • Gorno-Badakhshan
http://gemexplorer.org/archives/ruby-mines-east-tajikistan
Litvinenko A.K., Barnov N.G. (2010): The history of Pamirs gemstones. Izvestiya Visshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy, Geologiya Razvedka (Proceedings of Higher Educational Institutions, Geology and Prospecting), No. 4, 70–74 (in Russian).
      • Rangkul
Elena S. Sorokina, Andrey K. Litvinenko, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Tobias Häger, Dorrit E. Jacob, and Zamoniddin Z. Nasriddinov (2015): Rubies and sapphires from Snezhnoe, Tajikistan. Gems & Gemology 51, 160-175.
E.Ya. Kievlenko, Geology of gems, 2003, p. 51; Sorokina E.S., Ozhogina E.G., Jacob D.E., Hofmeister W. (2012): Some features of corundum ontogeny and the quality of ruby from Snezhnoe deposit, Tajikistan (the Eastern Pamirs). Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society), 141 (6), 100–108 (in Russian).; Elena S. Sorokina, Andrey K. Litvinenko, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Tobias Häger, Dorrit E. Jacob, and Zamoniddin Z. Nasriddinov (2015): Rubies and sapphires from Snezhnoe, Tajikistan. Gems & Gemology 51, 160-175.
Smith, C.P. (1998): Rubies and pink sapphires from the Pamir Mountain Range in Tajikistan, former USSR. Journal of Gemmology, 26, 103-109.
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 53
Eugenii Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems
    • Pyandzh River Valley
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Tanzania
Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).
  • Arusha Region
    • Lake Manyara
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
    • Longido District
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Hintze, J. (2010) Safari ndjema - Afrikanisches Tagebuch (II): Rubin in Zoisit - ein Klassiker aus Longido in Tansania. Lapis, 35(12), 15-19 (in German).
      • Muriatata hills
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Hintze, J. (2010) Safari ndjema - Afrikanisches Tagebuch (II): Rubin in Zoisit - ein Klassiker aus Longido in Tansania. Lapis, 35(12), 15-19 (in German).
  • Dodoma Region
    • Mpwapwa District (Mpwampwa)
      • Mpapwa
Schmetzer, K., Radl, W. & Schwarz, D. (2009): Winza ein neues Rubinvorkommen in Tansania. Lapis 34 (5), 41-46.
  • Manyara Region
Mineralogical Record 35:145
  • Morogoro Region
Thomas Krassmann Collection
    • Mahenge
Hintze, J. (2011): Afrikanisches Tagebuch (III): Die Spinelle von Mahenge, Tansania. Lapis 36 (7-8), 26-30.
Hintze, J. (2011): Afrikanisches Tagebuch (III): Die Spinelle von Mahenge, Tansania. Lapis 36 (7-8), 26-30.
Hintze, J. (2011): Afrikanisches Tagebuch (III): Die Spinelle von Mahenge, Tansania. Lapis 36 (7-8), 26-30.
  • Rukwa Region
    • Nkasi District
      • Chala village
Hamza Kondo, 2003 Tanzanian Ruby Find Brings Hope. Colored Stone
USGS (2003) Minerals Yearbook - Tanzania.
  • Ruvuma Region
    • Songea Urban District
Lomthong, P. (2004) Characteristics of some Corundum from Songea Deposit, Tanzania.
    • Tunduru District
http://gemexplorer.org/archives/tunduru-tanzania; Macfarlane, M., Tallontire, A., & Martin, A. (2003). Towards an Ethical Jewellery Business. Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, London.
  • Tanga Region
Jaroslav Hyrsl specimens; Zwaan, P.C. (1974) Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Scripta Geol., 20, 1-41.; Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Hanni, Henry (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.;
Thailand
Seidler, Ned (1964) Gems and jewelry. The Odyssey Press, New York, 44 pages.; Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pages (p. 20).; Sutthirat, C., Saminpanya, S., Droop, G.T.R., Henderson, C.M.B., and Manning, D.A.C. (2001) Clinopyroxene-corundum assemblages from alkali basalt and alluvium, eastern Thailand: constraints on the origin of Thai rubies. Mineralogical Magazine, 65(2), 277-295.
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 44
    • Bo Rai District
O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.; Kievlenko, E.Ya. (2003) Geology of gems, 66.
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 66
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 66
USA
 
  • Alabama
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • San Gabriel Mountains
Widely distributed in numerous collections.
  • Georgia
Gems and Minerals of America-Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
  • Indiana
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).
    • Granite Co.
      • Rock Creek Mining District
USGS Bull 269
Jay Ellis Ransom,1974, Gems and Minerals of America
    • Madison Co.
      • Alder Gulch Mining District (Virginia City Mining District; Fairweather Mining District)
[var: Star Ruby] Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
USGS Bull 269
  • New Jersey
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom -1974
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pp. (p. 20).
    • Clay Co.
Michael Streeter,2003, A Rockhounding Guide to North Carolinas Blue Ridge Mountains
      • Elf School area
Michael Streeter,2003, A Rockhounding Guide to North Carolinas Blue Ridge Mountains
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
U.S Bureau of Mines,Spatial Data Extracted from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System(MAS/MILS)CD-Rom,Sep,1995
Ransom,Jay Ellis,1974,Gems and Minerals of America
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Lincolnton
Rocks & Min.: 60:56.
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
      • Alarka
U.S Bureau of Mines,Spatial Data Extracted from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System (MAS/MILS)CD-Rom,Sep,1995
U.S Bureau of Mines,Spatial Data Extracted from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System(MAS/MILS)CD-Rom,Sep,1995
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J,1978,Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina
U.S Bureau of Mines,Spatial Data Extacted from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System(MAS/MILS)CD-Rom,Sep,1995.
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep, 1995
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep, 1995
      • Cowee Valley
        • Ellijay Mining District
            • Corundum Hill
Corundum and the peridotites of western North Carolina By Joseph Hyde Pratt, Joseph Volney Lewis
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
http://www.rosecreekmine.com/
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep, 1995
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep,1995
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep,1995
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep,1995
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep,1995
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J,1978,Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina,Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
Dana 6: 1077.
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1980) Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina : NCGS Information Circular 24
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1978)Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina;NCGS Information Circular 24
    • Transylvania Co.
Richard James Jacquot,Jr.2003,Rock,Gem,and Mineral Collecting Sites In Western North Carolina, pg # 144; American Mineralogist,Vol.18,No.4,April,1933
    • Wake Co.
      • Barton's Creek
Rocks & Minerals 47:645-648 (1972)
  • Utah
    • Tooele Co.
      • Oquirrh Mountains
        • Ophir Mining District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Washington
    • Okanogan Co.
      • Riverside
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon 1975
  • Wyoming
    • Fremont Co.
      • Granite Mountains
        • Graham Ranch
Rocks & Minerals 77:5 pp334-339
Rocks & Minerals 77:5 pp334-339; USGS Bull 1042G
      • Tin Cup Mountain
Rocks & Minerals 76:386
Vietnam
Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel [in Dutch].
  • Nghệ An Province
Van Long, P., Quang Vinh, H., Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Lhomme, T., Schwarz, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J. and Trong Trinh, P. (2004): Gem corundum deposits in Vietnam. Journal of Gemmology, 29, 129-142; Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004; Nguyôn Kinh Quèc, Nguyôn Quúnh Anh () Aquamarine, Beryl And Possibility Of Finding Emerald And Alexandrite In Việt Nam. Generations, 41, 50-58.
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
  • Yên Bái Province
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 66; Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Le Thi-Thu Huong, Laura M. Otter, Tobias Häger, Tim Ullmann, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Ulrike Weis, and Klaus Peter Jochum (2016): A New Find of Danburite in the Luc Yen Mining Area, Vietnam. Gems & Gemology, 52 (4), 393-401.
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004; Isabella Pignatelli, Gaston Giuliani, Christophe Morlot, Van Long Pham (2018) Trapiche ruby from Vietnam. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 326
Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Marble-hosted ruby deposits from Central and Southeast Asia: Towards a new genetic model. Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.; Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004; Malsy, A., & Klemm, L. (2010). Distinction of gem spinels from the Himalayan mountain belt. CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry, 64(10), 741-746.
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004; Khoi, N.N., Sutthirat, C., Tuan, D. A., Nam, N.V., Thuyet, N.T.M. and Nhung N.T. (2011) Ruby and sapphire from the Tan Huong-Truc Lau area, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. Gems & Gemol., 47 (3), 182–195.
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Zimbabwe
 
  • Masvingo
    • Chiredzi mining district (Hartley mining district)
MUGUMBATE, R. OESTERLEN, P.M., MASIYAMBIRI, S. & DUBE, W. (2001): Industrial Minerals and Rock Deposits of Zimbabwe.- Zimbabwe Geological Survey Mineral Resources Series No. 27., Harare; 159 pages.
  • Matabeleland South
    • Beitbridge District
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 82.
  • Midlands
    • Gweru District (Gwelo District)
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 82.
Extra Lapis English 14:58-59
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
版权所有© mindat.org1993年至2020年,除了规定的地方。 Mindat.org全赖于全球数千个以上成员和支持者们的参与。
隐私政策 - 条款和条款细则 - 联络我们 Current server date and time: 2020.2.24 06:37:07 Page generated: 2020.2.24 01:30:26
Go to top of page