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Rhomboclase

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About RhomboclaseHide

Formula:
(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
May contain minor As.
Colour:
Blue, colourless, white, yellow, light green, grey; colourless in transmitted light
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
2.23
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
From the Latin, rhombus, rhomb, plus Greek klasis, to break, in allusion to the basal cleavage and crystal form.
A common acidic alteration product of iron sulphides (pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite), frequently found as crusts and powders associated with other iron sulphates such as römerite, halotrichite etc.


Classification of RhomboclaseHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.CB.55

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
29.1.1.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
1 : Hydrated Acid Sulfates
25.10.6

25 : Sulphates
10 : Sulphates of Fe alone

Physical Properties of RhomboclaseHide

Sub-Vitreous, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Blue, colourless, white, yellow, light green, grey; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Elastic
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {001} perfect; on {110} good.
Fracture:
Conchoidal, Fibrous
Density:
2.23 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.21 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of RhomboclaseHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.534 nβ = 1.553 nγ = 1.638
2V:
Measured: 27° , Calculated: 54°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.104
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r > v weak

Chemical Properties of RhomboclaseHide

Formula:
(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O

May contain minor As.

Crystallography of RhomboclaseHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.72 Å, b = 18.33 Å, c = 5.42 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.53 : 1 : 0.296
Unit Cell V:
965.67 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals thin tabular {001}, with rhombic outline. Also forms stalactites with a radiating bladed structure.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0006292RhomboclasePeterson R C, Valyashko E, Wang R (2009) The atomic structure of (H3O)Fe3+(SO4)2 and rhomboclase, (H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2*2H2O The Canadian Mineralogist 47 625-6342009Alcoparrosa, Chile0180
0007142RhomboclaseMajzlan J, Navrotsky A, McCleskey R B, Alpers C N (2006) Thermodynamic properties and crystal structure refinement of ferricopiapite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, and Fe2(SO4)3(H2O)5 European Journal of Mineralogy 18 175-1862006synthetic0293
0015649RhomboclaseMereiter K (1974) Die Kristallstruktur von Rhomboklas, H5O2+{Fe[SO4]2*2H2O}- Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 21 216-2321974synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Weathering of pyrite rich orebodies, especially in arid climates.

Type Occurrence of RhomboclaseHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Pyritic ore body
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for RhomboclaseHide

German:Rhomboklas
Simplified Chinese:板铁矾

Common AssociatesHide

HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Rhomboclase associated with RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
1 photo of Rhomboclase associated with SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe)SO4 · H2OTric.
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2OMon.
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2OMon.
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. m : Bb
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2OTet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35Alpersite(Mg,Cu)(SO4) · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2OTric. 1
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteAl2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe4(SO4)6(H2O)12· 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon.
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.10.1SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.10.2RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.3SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
25.10.4FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.10.5MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.7LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.8KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.9CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
25.10.10ParacoquimbiteFe4(SO4)6(H2O)12· 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.10.11QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.12FerricopiapiteFe3+0.67Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.13MetahohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.14HohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 8H2OTric. 1
25.10.15ButleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.16ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.10.17AmarantiteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 7H2OTric. 1
25.10.18FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon.
25.10.19Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.10.20RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.21BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.22CopiapiteFe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RhomboclaseHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Krenner (1891) Ak. Értes., Budapest: 2: 96 (as Rhomboklas).
Scharizer (1901) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 35: 345 (as Saures Ferrisulfate).
Krenner (1907) Földtani Közlöny, Budapest (Magyarhone Földtani Torsulat): 37: 204.
Scharizer (1907) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 43: 113.
Scharizer (1921) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 56: 353.
Posnjak and Merwin (1922) Journal of the American Chemical Society: 44: 1983.
Scharizer (1927) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 65: 335.
Krenner (1928) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 265.
Bandy (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 740.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 436-437.
Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 21: 216-232.
Mineralogical Magazine (1974): 39: 611.
American Mineralogist (1995): 80: 408.
Peterson, R. C., Valyashko, E. and Wang, R. (2009): The atomic structure of (H3O)Fe3+(SO4)2 and rhomboclase, (H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2•2H2O. Can. Mineral.: 47: 625-634.
Bolanz, R. (2014): The fate of As5+ during the thermal transformation of As-bearing rhomboclase to (H3O)Fe(SO4)2. 92nd Annual Meeting of the DMG, Jena, Germany, September 21-24. [http://programmplaner.conventus.de/nc/dmg2014/?tx_coprogramm_pi1[programm]=333&tx_coprogramm_pi1[session]=64&tx_coprogramm_pi1[currentPage]=&tx_coprogramm_pi1[action]=programm&tx_coprogramm_pi1[controller]=Source&cHash=98aa4ec242a9518e851e5ddd5090696b]
Majzlan, J., Grevel, K.-D., Kiefer, B., Nielsen, U.G., Grube, E., Dachs, E., Benisek, A., White, M.A., Johnson, M.B. (2017): Thermodynamics and crystal chemistry of rhomboclase, (H5O2)Fe(SO4)2·2H2O, and the phase (H3O)Fe(SO4)2. American Mineralogist: 102, 643-654.

Internet Links for RhomboclaseHide

Localities for RhomboclaseHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • City of Mount Isa
      • Mount Isa
Sielecki, R. (1988) The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field. Mineralogical Record, Vol. 19, pg. 469-490.
No reference listed
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan district
        • Mt Heemskirk mineral field
R Bottrill, unpublished. XRD and XRF analyses, 2020
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Leibnitz District
      • Leutschach an der Weinstraße
Taucher, J. (1997)
Bolivia
 
  • Oruro
    • Cercado Province
[MinRec 32:476]
[MinRec 32:479]
    • Dalence Province
      • Santa Fé mining district
Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Canada
 
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cape Breton Co.
Zodrow, E.L. (1989) Summary report of secondary sulphate minerals, Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada. Nova Scotia Department of Mines & Energy, Report 89-3, Mines & Minerals Branch Report of Activities, Part A: 141-143.
  • Saskatchewan
Greengrass, K., Last, W. M., Deleqiat, J., & Suklmn, S. (1999). Waldsea lake Revisited: Another look at the Recent History of One of Western Canada's Best-studied Meromictic lakes.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Mejillones
        • Mejillones peninsula
identified by Gerhard Möhn
      • Sierra Gorda
Raman Spectroscopy by Joy Desor
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Cerritos Bayos
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 437, 480.; Kampf, A.R.; Mills, S.J.; Housley, R.M.; Williams, P.A.; Dini, M. (2012): Alcaparrosaite, K3Ti4+Fe3+(SO4)4O(H2O)2, a new hydrophobic Ti4+ sulfate from Alcaparrosa, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine 76, 851-861.
Inostroza, M., Aguilera, F., Menzies, A., Layana, S., González, C., Ureta, G., ... & Tagle, R. (2020). Deposition of metals and metalloids in the fumarolic fields of Guallatiri and Lastarria volcanoes, northern Chile. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 393, 106803.
  • Arica y Parinacota
    • Parinacota Province
Inostroza, M., Aguilera, F., Menzies, A., Layana, S., González, C., Ureta, G., ... & Tagle, R. (2020). Deposition of metals and metalloids in the fumarolic fields of Guallatiri and Lastarria volcanoes, northern Chile. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 393, 106803.
China
 
  • Xinjiang
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Yizhou District
Xu Ying-xia, Ding Kui-shou, Qin Ke-zhang, Miao Yu, Fang Tong-hui, Xu Xing-wang, and Sun He (2006): Geology in China 33(3), 605-616.
Costa Rica
 
  • Cartago Province
    • Irazú Volcano
Ulloa, A., Gázquez, F., Sanz-Arranz, A., Medina, J., Rull, F., Calaforra, J.M., Alvarado, G.E., Martinez, M., Avard, G., de Moor, J., De Waele, J. (2018) Extremely high diversity of sulfate minerals in caves of the Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) related to crater lake and fumarolic activity. International Journal of Speleology, 47(2), 229-246.
Czech Republic
 
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald
        • Münstertal
          • St Trudpert
Kleinander, R. (2009): Die antimonerzführenden Gänge im Münstergrund bei St. Trudpert. Mineralien-Welt 20 (5), 42-50.
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Hesse
    • Kassel Region
      • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
        • Nentershausen
          • Süß
            • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1992
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1988) Mineralogische Notizen IV. Der Aufschluss, 39, 153-168.
  • Thuringia
    • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German). [identification announced; no description given yet]
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
Rieck, B., Kolitsch, U., Voudouris, P., Giester, G. and Tzeferis, P. (2018): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Mineralien-Welt 29 (5), 32-77 (in German).
  • South Aegean
    • Thira
      • Santorini Island
        • Santorini Caldera
Balić-Žunić, T., Garavelli, A., Jakobsson, S. P., Jonasson, K., Katerinopoulos, A., Kyriakopoulos, K., & Acquafredda, P. (2016). Fumarolic minerals: An overview of active European volcanoes. In Updates in Volcanology-From Volcano Modelling To Volcano Geology. InTechOpen.
Hungary
 
  • Heves County
    • Gyöngyösoroszi
Farkas, I. M. & Weiszburg, T. G. (2009): Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 57. (Abs.)
  • Veszprém County
    • Tapolca district
      • Lesenceistvánd
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Iceland
 
  • Northeastern Region
    • Skútustaðahreppur
      • Myvatn
Carson, G. L. (2015). Hydrothermal Acid-sulfate Alteration at Krafla and Námafjall, Ne Iceland: Implications for Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum, Mars. Masters thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Pozzuoli
Italo Campostrini - Università degli Studi di Milano
  • Piedmont
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Tavagnasco
Ciriotti, M.E., Martini, B. Salvetti, A., Dalla Fontana, G., Taronna, M., Alciati, C., Gedda, E.E., Franchino, G., Bittarello, E., Marengo, A., Rossetti, P., Brizio, P., Finello, G., Girodo Grant, S., Perotto, P. (2019): Tavagnasco Miniere e Minerali. Comune di Tavagnasco - AMI Associazione Micromineralogica Italiana, Eds., Tavagnasco., 480 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Capoliveri
J. Göske, T. Witzke, H. Pöllmann, S. Stöber (1997) - Neufunde von Sekundarmineralen in der Lagerstatte Calamita/Insel Elba - Der Aufschluss, 48: 305-313.
    • Lucca Province
      • Vergemoli
        • Fornovolasco
Mauro D. (2016): Studio cristallochimico di alcuni solfati di ferro della mineralizzazione a pirite tallifera di Fornovolasco (Alpi Apuane). Tesi magistrale, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Unviersità di Pisa, 137 pp.
Lebanon
 
  • South Governate
    • Jezzine District
Kruszewski, Ł., 2018/2019. Secondary sulfate minerals from Bhanine valley coals (South Lebanon) – a crystallochemical and geochemical study. Geological Quarterly (in press)
North Macedonia
 
  • Kavadarci Municipality
    • Rožden
Percival, T.J. & Radtke, A.S. (1994): Sedimentary-rock-hosted disseminated gold mineralization in the Alšar district, Macedonia. Canadian Mineralogist, 32, 649-655.
Peru
 
  • Pasco
    • Pasco province
      • Cerro de Pasco
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 437, 515.
Poland
 
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Rybnik County
      • Gmina Czerwionka-Leszczyny
Kruszewski, Ł. (2013): Supergene minerals from the burning coal mining dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, South Poland. International Journal of Coal Geology: 105: 91-109 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166516212002881)
    • Wodzisław County
      • Radlin
Łukasz Kruszewski (2012) Unique chloride assemblage of exhalative origin from burning coal-mining dump in Radlin (Rybnik Coal Area, S Poland). Mineralogical Society of Poland Special Papers 40
      • Rydułtowy
        • ROW Ruch Rydułtowy Mine
Kruszewski, Ł., Fabiańska, M.J., Segit, T., Kusy, D., Motyliński, R., Ciesielczuk, J., Deput, E., (2019): Carbon-nitrogen compounds, alcohols, mercaptans, monoterpenes, acetates, aldehydes, ketones, SF6, PH3, and other fire gases in coal-mining waste heaps of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) – a re-investigation by means of in situ FTIR external database approach. Science of The Total Environment (in press)
Portugal
 
  • Beja
    • Aljustrel
      • Aljustrel
        • Aljustrel Mine
Bobos, I.; Duraes, N.; Noronha, F. (2006): Mineralogy and geochemistry of mill tailings impoundments from Algares (Aljustrel), Portugal: Implications for acid sulfate mine waters formation. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 88, 1-5.
Romania
 
  • Hunedoara
    • Deva
      • Bocşa Mare
Apopei, A.I., Buzgar, N., Damian, G., Buzatu, A. (2005): The Raman study of weathering minerals from the Coranda-Hondol open pit (Certej gold-silver deposit) and their photochemical degradation products under laser irradiation. Canadian MIneralogist, 52, 1027-1038.
Andrei I. Apopei, Nicolae Buzgar, Gheorghe Damian, and Andrei Buzatu (2014) the Raman Study of Weathering Minerals from the Coranda-Hondol Open Pit (Certej Gold-silver Deposit) and Their Photochemical Degradation Products Under Laser Irradiation. Can Mineral 52:1027-1038.
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Slovakia (TL)
 
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 437; Mineralogical Magazine (1974): 39: 610.
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Huelva
      • Minas de Riotinto
MinMag 67(2):263-278
Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Romero, A., I. Gonzalez & E. Galan (2006): The role of efflorescent sulfates in the storage of trace elements in stream waters polluted by acid mine-drainage: the case of Peña del Hierro, southwestern Spain. Can. Mineral. 44, 1431-1446.
      • Nerva
Romero, A., I. Gonzalez & E. Galan (2006): The role of efflorescent sulfates in the storage of trace elements in stream waters polluted by acid mine-drainage: the case of Pena del Hierro, southwestern Spain. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 1431-1446.
Sweden
 
  • Stockholm County
    • Stockholm
Jalilehvand, F., Sandstrom, M., Persson, I., Gelius, U., & Frank, P. (2001). Acidity and Salt Precipitation on the Vasa; The Sulfur Problem. Proceedings 8th ICOM-CC WO AM Conference Stockholm 11-15 June 2001
Switzerland
 
  • Valais
    • Sierre
      • Anniviers
        • Saint-Luc
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 349.
Tajikistan
 
  • Sughd
    • Zeravshan Range
      • Yagnob River
PXRD (Lukasz Kruszewski)
Ukraine
 
  • Donetsk Oblast
Zanin, Y.N., Pisareva, G.M., Zamirailova, A.G., and Eder, V.G. (2009): Lithology and Mineral Resources 44(3), 267-269
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:69
        • Calumet and Arizona group of claims (Calumet and Arizona Mining Company group of claims)
Grant, Raymond W., Richard A. Bideaux & Sidney A. Williams (2006), Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995 to 2005: 3.
Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 7.
        • Queen Hill
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 531; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 354, 415; Merwin, H.E. & E. Posnjak (1937), Sulphate encrustations in the Copper Queen mine, Bisbee, AZ, Am.Min.: 22: 567-571; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 59.
MinRec 12:311
    • Pinal Co.
      • Pinal Mountains
        • Pioneer Mining District
          • Superior
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 354, 388.; Presmyk, L. (2020). The Magma Mine, Pioneer District, Superior, Pinal County, Arizona. Rocks & Minerals, 95(1), 68-91.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Coso Hot Springs
    • Shasta Co.
      • Klamath Mountains
        • West Shasta Copper - Zinc Mining District
          • Iron Mountain [town]
            • Iron Mountain
MinRec 22:382; Mineralogical Record 22:381-382; Nordstrom, D. K. and Alpers, C. N. (1999): Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restauration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 96, 3455-3462.; Majzlan, J., Alpers, C. N., Koch, C. B., McCleskey, R. B., Myneni, S. C., & Neil, J. M. (2011). Vibrational, X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of sulfate minerals from the weathered massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, California. Chemical Geology, 284(3), 296-305.
Jamieson, H. E., Robinson, C., Alpers, C. N., McCleskey, R. B., Nordstrom, D. K., & Peterson, R. C. (2005). Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California. Chemical Geology, 215(1), 387-405.
  • Georgia
    • Lincoln Co.
Collected by Julian Gray 21 September 2010. Confirmed by XRD at the University of Georgia.
  • Nevada
    • Lander Co.
      • Lewis Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • Red Canyon
J. Plášil, A.R. Kampf, A.V. Kasatkin, J. Marty, R. Škoda, S. Silva, J. Čejka (2013): Meisserite, Na5(UO2)(SO4)3(SO3OH)(H2O), a new uranyl sulfate mineral from the Blue Lizard mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 2975-2988
    • Utah Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Virginia
    • Louisa Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Lake Anna
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Rockbridge Co.
      • Lyndhurst-Vesuvius Mining District
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Mars
 
  • Aeolis quadrangle
    • Gusev Crater
      • Columbia Hills
        • Home Plate
Johnson, J.R., Bell, J.F. III, Cloutis, E., Staid, M., Farrand, W.H., McCoy, T., Rice, M., Wang, A., Yen, A. (2007): Mineralogic constraints on sulfur-ric soils from Pancam spectra at Gusev crater, Mars. Geophysical Research Letters: 34: L13202; Farrand, W.H., Johnson, J.R., Rice, M.S., Wang, A., Bell III, J.F. (2016): VNIR Multispectral Observations of Aqueous Alteration Materials by the Pancams on the Spirit and Opportunity Mars Exploration Rovers. American Mineralogist, in press;
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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