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Renierite

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About RenieriteHide

09217330015703723325510.jpg
Armand M. V. J. Renier
Formula:
(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Colour:
Orange-bronze, tarnishes reddish
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
4 - 5
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
Named after Armand Marie Vincent Joseph Renier (Verviers 26 June 1876 - Leuze 9 October 1951), Director of the Geological Survey of Belgium. It was originally written as reniérite, but the diacritic mark has since been dropped.
Charge balance maintained by coupled substitution Zn+Ge = Cu+As.

Compare the Zn- and As-free member germanite.


Classification of RenieriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.CB.35a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
2.9.4.1

2 : SULFIDES
9 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
6.2.3

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
2 : Sulphogermanates

Physical Properties of RenieriteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Orange-bronze, tarnishes reddish
Hardness:
4 - 5 on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of RenieriteHide

Formula:
(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Common Impurities:
Ga,Pb

Crystallography of RenieriteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:
P4 2c
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.62 Å, c = 10.55 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.993
Unit Cell V:
1,189.88 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.06 Å(100)
2.65 Å(30)
1.871 Å(80)
1.600 Å(60)
Comments:
(for Zn-rich As-poor renierite)

Type Occurrence of RenieriteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Musée de Minéralogie, Ecole des Mines de Paris

Synonyms of RenieriteHide

Other Language Names for RenieriteHide

German:Renierit
Simplified Chinese:硫铜锗矿
Spanish:Renierita
Traditional Chinese:硫銅鍺礦

Relationship of Renierite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
ColusiteCu13VAs3S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
GermanocolusiteCu26V2(Ge,As)6S32Iso.
NekrasoviteCu26V2(Sn,As,Sb)6S32Iso.
StibiocolusiteCu13V(Sb,Sn,As)3S16Iso.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
27 photos of Renierite associated with GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16
14 photos of Renierite associated with TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
12 photos of Renierite associated with BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
10 photos of Renierite associated with ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
9 photos of Renierite associated with BorniteCu5FeS4
7 photos of Renierite associated with GalliteCuGaS2
7 photos of Renierite associated with SphaleriteZnS
4 photos of Renierite associated with QuartzSiO2
2 photos of Renierite associated with GalenaPbS
2 photos of Renierite associated with CovelliteCuS

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.CB.AgmantiniteAg2MnSnS4Orth.
2.CB.05aColoradoiteHgTeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
2.CB.05aHawleyiteCdSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05aMetacinnabarHgSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05cPolhemusite(Zn,Hg)STet.
2.CB.05bSakuraiite(Cu,Zn,Fe)3(In,Sn)S4Iso.
2.CB.05aSphaleriteZnSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05aStilleiteZnSe
2.CB.05aTiemanniteHgSeIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05UM1998-15-S:CuFeZnCu2Fe3Zn5S10
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite(Fe,Zn)SIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.10aChalcopyriteCuFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10aEskeborniteCuFeSe2Tet.
2.CB.10aGalliteCuGaS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10bHaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
2.CB.10aLenaiteAgFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10bMooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16Tet.
2.CB.10bPutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2Iso.
2.CB.10aRoquesiteCuInS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10bTalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
2.CB.10aLaforêtiteAgInS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.15aČernýiteCu2(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15aFerrokësteriteCu2FeSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aHocartiteAg2(Fe2+,Zn)SnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15aIdaiteCu5FeS6Hex.
2.CB.15aKësterite Cu2ZnSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aKuramiteCu3SnS4Tet.
2.CB.15bMohiteCu2SnS3Mon.
2.CB.15aPirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aStanniteCu2FeSnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15cStannoiditeCu+6Cu2+2(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12Orth.
2.CB.15aVelikiteCu2HgSnS4Tet.
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZnCu8(Fe,Zn)3Ge2S12 (?)
2.CB.20ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
2.CB.20MawsoniteCu6Fe2SnS8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
2.CB.30ColusiteCu13VAs3S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
2.CB.30GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
2.CB.30GermanocolusiteCu26V2(Ge,As)6S32Iso.
2.CB.30NekrasoviteCu26V2(Sn,As,Sb)6S32Iso.
2.CB.30StibiocolusiteCu13V(Sb,Sn,As)3S16Iso.
2.CB.30Ovamboite Cu20(Fe,Cu,Zn)6W2Ge6S32Iso.
2.CB.30MaikainiteCu20(Fe,Cu)6Mo2Ge6S32
2.CB.35aHemusiteCu6SnMoS8Iso.
2.CB.35aKiddcreekiteCu6SnWS8Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.35aPolkovicite(Fe,Pb)3(Ge,Fe)1-xS4Iso.
2.CB.35aVincienniteCu+7Cu2+3Fe2+2Fe3+2Sn(As,Sb)S16Tet.
2.CB.35aMorozeviczite(Pb,Fe)3Ge1-xS4Iso.
2.CB.35bCatamarcaiteCu6GeWS8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.40LautiteCuAsSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.CB.45CadmoseliteCdSeHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45GreenockiteCdSHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)SHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45RambergiteMnSHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45Buseckite(Fe,Zn,Mn)SHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.55aCubaniteCuFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.55bIsocubaniteCuFe2S3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
2.CB.60PicotpauliteTlFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
2.CB.60RaguiniteTlFeS2Orth.
2.CB.65ArgentopyriteAgFe2S3Mon. 2/m
2.CB.65SternbergiteAgFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.70SulvaniteCu3VS4Iso.
2.CB.75VulcaniteCuTeOrth.
2.CB.80EmpressiteAgTeOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.85MuthmanniteAuAgTe2Mon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.9.4.2GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

6.2.1GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
6.2.2BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4Tet.
6.2.4ArgyroditeAg8GeS6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
6.2.5CanfielditeAg8SnS6Orth. mm2
6.2.6Morozeviczite(Pb,Fe)3Ge1-xS4Iso.
6.2.7Polkovicite(Fe,Pb)3(Ge,Fe)1-xS4Iso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RenieriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Vaes, J. F. (1948) La reniérite (anciennement applelée «Bornite orange») Un sulfure germanifère provenant de la Mine Prince-Léopold, Kipushi (Congo Belge) [Renierite, a germanium-bearing sulfide from the Prince Leopold Mine, Kipushi, Belgian Congo]. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique, Bulletin 72: 19-32 (in French).
Lambot, H. (1950) Sur la reniérite. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique. Bulletin 73: 183-186 (in French).
Fleischer, M. (1950) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 35: 135-136.
Murdoch, J. (1953) X-ray investigation of colusite, germanite, and reniérite. American Mineralogist: 38: 794-801.
Strunz, H. (1959) Tsumeb, seine Erze und Sekundärmineralien, insbesondere der neu aufgeschlossenen zweiten Oxydationszone. Fortschritte der Mineralogie: 37: 87-90.
Terziyev, G.I. (1965) Tin-containing renierite from the Chelopech deposit. Spisanie Bulgarskoto Geologichesko Druzhestvo: 26: 375-3.
Lévy, C. (1967) Contribution a la minéralogie des sulfures de cuivre du type Cu3XS4. Mémoires du Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières: 54: 1-178.
Fleischer, M. (1968) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 53: 2103-2106.
Springer, G. (1969) Microanalytical investigations into germanite, renierite, briartite, and gallite. Neues Jahrbuch fiir Miner-alogie Monatshefte: 435-441.
Hayashi, Kenichiro; Kikutani, Tadashi; Sugaki, Asahiko (1985) Arsenic-bearing renierite from the Furutobe mine, Akita prefecture, Japan. Ganseki Kobutsu Kosho Gakkaishi: 80(10): 451-458 (in Japanese).
Bernstein, L.R. (1986) Renierite, Cu10ZnGe2Fe4S16-Cu11GeAsFe4S16: a coupled solid solution series. American Mineralogist: 71: 210-221.
Bernstein L.R., Reichel D.G., Merlino S. (1989) Renierite crystal structure refined from Rietveld analysis of powder neutron-diffraction data. American Mineralogist: 74: 1177-1181.
Mozgova, N. N.; Borodaev, Yu. S.; Nenasheva, S. N.; Efimov, A. V.; Gandhi, S. M.; Mookherjee, A. (1992) Rare minerals from Rajpura-​Dariba, Rajasthan, India. VII: Renierite. Mineralogy and Petrology: 46(1): 55-65.
Gill, S.B., Piercey, S.J., Layton-Matthews, D. (2016) Mineralogy and metal zoning of the Cambrian Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag-Au Lemarchant volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit, Newfoundland. The Canadian Mineralogist: 54: 1307-1344.

Internet Links for RenieriteHide

Localities for RenieriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca Province
    • Andalgalá Department
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.
Armenia
 
  • Syunik Province
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
    • Kafan District (Kapan)
Mederer, J., Moritz, R., Zohrabyan, S., Vardanyan, A., Melkonyan, R., & Ulianov, A. (2014). Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus: A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana districts. Ore Geology Reviews, 58, 185-207.
      • Kapan (Ghapan; Kafan; Zangezur; Madan)
Khachaturian, E. A. (1958): The mineral composition of ores of Kafan copper deposits. Izvest. Akad. Nauk Armyan. S.S.R., Ser. Geol i Geograf. Nauk 11 (No. 6), 25-38.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Queenstown district
Bottrill, R. S. (2000). A Mineralogical Field Guide for the Western Tasmania Minerals and Museums Tour.
Bottrill RS & Baker, WE (in prep) Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Mineral Resources Tasmania
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Zell am See District
      • Leogang
        • Hütten
          • Schwarzleograben
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
            • Schwarzleo District
R.Poeverlein (2016)
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
  • Styria
    • Leoben District
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Bulgaria
 
  • Pazardzhik Province
    • Panagyurishte (Panagurishte) Obshtina
      • Levski
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Bogdanov, K., Tsonev, D., & Popov, K. (2004). Mineral Assemblages And Genesis Of The Cu-Au Epithermal Deposits In The Southern Part Of The Panaguyrishte Ore District, Bulgaria. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, 36:406-415; Kouzmanov, K. (2004). Galena-bearing myrmekitic intergrowths from the Radka deposit, Bulgaria: Origin and mechanisms of formation. Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology, 41, 17-30.; Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., & Bogdanov, K. (2002) Trace mineralogy of the Upper Cretaceous banatitic Magmatic and metallogenetic Belt, SE Europe. In 11th Quadrennial IAGOD symposium–Geocongress 2002, Windhoek, Namibia, July 2002. CD Volume of extended abstracts.
      • Popintsi
Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., & Bogdanov, K. (2002) Trace mineralogy of the Upper Cretaceous banatitic Magmatic and metallogenetic Belt, SE Europe. In 11th Quadrennial IAGOD symposium–Geocongress 2002, Windhoek, Namibia, July 2002. CD Volume of extended abstracts.
  • Sofia City Province
    • Chelopech
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 29-36; Bonev, I.K.; Petrunov, R.; Cook, N. J.; Ciobanu, C. L. (2005): Kostovite and its argentian varieties: Deposits and mineral associations. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology. 42, 1-22; Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., & Bogdanov, K. (2002) Trace mineralogy of the Upper Cretaceous banatitic Magmatic and metallogenetic Belt, SE Europe. In 11th Quadrennial IAGOD symposium–Geocongress 2002, Windhoek, Namibia, July 2002. CD Volume of extended abstracts.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Alberni Mining Division
      • Buttle Lake
Economic Geology,(1996) Vol. 91-3, pp.507-526
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Victoria Lake Supergroup
Gill, S.B., Piercey, S.J. & Layton-Matthews, D. (2016): Mineralogy and metal zoning of the Cambrian Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag-Au Lemarchant volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit, Newfoundland. Canadian Mineralogist 54, 1307-1344.
  • Nova Scotia
    • Inverness Co.
      • Meat Cove
The Nova Scotia Mineral Occurrence Database (MODB)
DR Congo (TL)
 
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kipushi
Gramaccioli, C.M. (1985) Conoscere i minerali. I solfosali. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 96 pages.; Chabu, M. (1995) The Geochemistry Of Phlogopite And Chlorite From The Kipushi Zn-Pb-Cu Deposit, Shaba, Zaire. Canadian Mineralogist, 33, 547-558.; Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., Haack, U. (1999) Lead isotopes of the carbonate-hosted Kabwe, Tsumeb, and Kipushi Pb-Zn-Cu sulphide deposits in relation to Pan African orogenesis in the Damaran-Lufilian Fold Belt of Central Africa. Mineralium Deposita, 34, 273-283.; Nenasheva, S. (2003) New Data on Minerals, 38, 41-44.; Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., Melcher, F. (2009) Sediment-hosted Zn–Pb–Cu deposits in the Central African Copperbelt. Ore Geology Reviews, 35, 263-297.; http://www.champ-hannut.be/fichierpdf/Rev%20SP%202017%20NL.pdf
France
 
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-Maritimes
      • Guillaumes
R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J. Feraud, J. Vernet : "Inventaire Minéralogique de la France, N° 4, Alpes Maritimes", BRGM, 1974
India
 
  • Rajasthan
    • Udaipur Division
      • Udaipur District
Mozgova, N. N.; Borodaev, Yu. S.; Nenasheva, S. N.; Efimov, A. V.; Gandhi, S. M.; Mookherjee, A. (1992): Rare minerals from Rajpura-​Dariba, Rajasthan, India. VII: Renierite. Mineralogy and Petrology 46(1), 55-65.
Italy
 
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Gonnesa
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente - Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Volume 1 & 2. Nine Italian Mineralogical Groups/Associations, 192 + 239 pp.
      • Iglesias
        • Punta della Torre
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
    • Metropolitan City of Cagliari
      • Assemini
Stara, P. (1990): La miniera di San Leone (CA). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/1990, 121-136.
Japan
 
  • Akita
    • Kosaka
Hayashi, Kenichiro; Kikutani, Tadashi; Sugaki, Asahiko (1985): Arsenic-bearing renierite from the Furutobe mine, Akita prefecture, Japan. Ganseki Kobutsu Kosho Gakkaishi 80 (10), 451-458 (in Japanese).
    • Odate
Am. Min. 71 (1986), 210-221
Kazakhstan
 
  • Pavlodar Region
    • Bayanaul
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Baibatsha, A., Dyussembayeva, K., & Kassenova, A. (2015). Microparagenetic Associations of Gold in Ore-Forming Minerals from Deposits of Different Geological and Industrial Types of Kazakhstan. In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) (pp. 1-8). Springer International Publishing.; Baibatsha, A., Dyussembayeva, K., & Kassenova, A. (2015). Microparagenetic Associations of Gold in Ore-Forming Minerals from Deposits of Different Geological and Industrial Types of Kazakhstan. In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) (pp. 1-8). Springer, Cham.
Namibia
 
  • Oshikoto Region
Gramaccioli, C. M., 1985. Conoscere i minerali. I solfosali. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 96 pp
http://rruff.info/renierite/display=default/
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein
Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp.
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
Romania
 
  • Harghita
Hirtopanu, P. (2006). One hundred minerals for one hundred years (dedicated to the Centennial of the Geological Institute of Romania). In 3rd Conference on Mineral Sciences in the Carpathians, Miskolc Hungary. Acta Mineralogica–Petrographica, Abstract series (Vol. 5, p. 86).
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Magnitogorsk
Belogub, E.V., Novoselov, K.A., Yakovleva, V.A., and Spiro, B. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 239-254.
    • Verkhneuralsky District
Maslennikov, V. V., Maslennikova, S. P., Large, R. R., Danyushevsky, L. V., Herrington, R. J., & Stanley, C. J. (2013). Tellurium-bearing minerals in zoned sulfide chimneys from Cu-Zn massive sulfide deposits of the Urals, Russia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 107(1), 67-99.
  • Karachay-Cherkessia
Jambor J L, Grew E S (1994) New mineral names, American Mineralogist 79, 387-391
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
    • Igarka
Cox, D.P., Lindsey, D.A., Singer, D.A., Moring, B.C., and Diggles, M.F. (2003): USGS Open-File Report 03-107
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
Maslennikov, V. V., Maslennikova, S. P., Large, R. R., Danyushevsky, L. V., Herrington, R. J., & Stanley, C. J. (2013). Tellurium-bearing minerals in zoned sulfide chimneys from Cu-Zn massive sulfide deposits of the Urals, Russia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 107(1), 67-99.
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Granada
      • Motril
Morales Ruano, S., Touray,J.C., Barbanson, L., Fenoll Hach-Ali, P. (1996) Génesis de las mineralizaciones de Ge asociadas a esfaleritas portadoras de fluidos "incompatibles" del Cerro del Toro (Alpujárride, SE de España) Geogaceta, 20, pp. 1567-1570.
  • Asturias
    • Riosa
A. Paniagua et al. , Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 383-391.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Northwest Arctic Borough
      • Shungnak Mining District
        • Ruby Creek Prospect
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • Colorado
    • Boulder Co.
      • Jamestown Mining District
        • Inexco Mine
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Zambia
 
  • Central Province
    • Kabwe
      • Kabwe (Broken Hill)
Kamona, A. F. & Friedrich, G. H. (2007): Geology, mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry of the Kabwe carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposit, Central Zambia. Ore Geology Reviews 30, 217-243.; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., and Haack, U. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 273-283.
Zimbabwe
 
  • Mashonaland West
    • Kadoma District
Frei, Martina (2005) Composition, formation, and leaching behaviour of supergene, polymetallic ores from the Sanyati deposit (Zimbabwe): A case study
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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