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Qandilite

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About QandiliteHide

Formula:
(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
Colour:
Black
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
7
Specific Gravity:
4.03
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
Named after the metamorphic Qandil Group of rocks, including the discovery locality.
This page provides mineralogical data about Qandilite.


Classification of QandiliteHide

Approved
First Published:
1985
4.BB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations
7.2.5.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
7.9.23

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti

Physical Properties of QandiliteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Black
Streak:
Black
Hardness:
Hardness:
VHN100=960 - 1045 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
three sets of octahedral (111) cleavages
Density:
4.03 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.04 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of QandiliteHide

Type:
Isotropic
Colour in reflected light:
light is grey with a pinkish tint.
Internal Reflections:
none

Chemical Properties of QandiliteHide

Formula:
(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4

Crystallography of QandiliteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fd3m
Setting:
Fd3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.4033(14) Å
Unit Cell V:
593.40 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Comment:
Wechsler on synthetic material has a=8.4376

Geological EnvironmentHide

Paragenetic Mode(s):

Type Occurrence of QandiliteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
The forsterite skarn is heavily impregnated with dark-coloured minerals of qandilite, perovskite, and spinel which are homogeneously distributed throughout the rock
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Strathclyde University, the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, Scotland.
National Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan.
Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mines, Paris, France.
Musee de Mineralogie, Paris, France.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Reference:
Al-Hermezi, H.M. (1985) Qandilite, a new spinel end-member, Mg2TiO4, from the Qala-Dizeh region, NE Iraq. Mineralogical Magazine: 49: 739-744.

Synonyms of QandiliteHide

Other Language Names for QandiliteHide

German:Qandilit
Spanish:Qandilita

Relationship of Qandilite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AhrensiteSiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
BrunogeieriteGe4+Fe2+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Filipstadite(Fe3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
Ringwoodite(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
Tegengrenite(Mn3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mg2O4Trig.
UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.BB.ChenmingiteFeCr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.BB.ThermaerogeniteCuAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Cochromite(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05CoulsoniteFe2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05CuprospinelCu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.
4.BB.05Filipstadite(Fe3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
4.BB.05FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnesiocoulsoniteMgV2O4Iso.
4.BB.05MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05TrevoriteNi2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05VuorelaineniteMn2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ZincochromiteZnCr2O4Iso.
4.BB.10HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10Jacobsite-QT(Mn2+)M(Fe3+2)O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.15Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
4.BB.15Titanomaghemite(Ti4+0.50.5)Fe2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P43 3 2
4.BB.20Tegengrenite(Mn3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mg2O4Trig.
4.BB.25XieiteFe2+Cr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

7.2.5.2UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.2RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.9.3AnataseTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2Orth.
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6Mon.
7.9.11HiboniteCaAl12O19Hex.
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6Amor.
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.14Jacobsite-QT(Mn2+)M(Fe3+2)O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.17UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9Hex.
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16Mon.
7.9.20KennedyiteFe2TiO5
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10Hex.
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38Trig.
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16Tet.
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13Mon.
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in hot HCl, but only partially soluble in cold HCl, hot H2S04, and hot HN03. Strongly magnetic
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for QandiliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Al-Hermezi, H.M. (1985) Qandilite, a new spinel end-member, Mg2TiO4, from the Qala-Dizeh region, NE Iraq. Mineralogical Magazine: 49: 739-744.
Jambor, J.L., Bladh, K.W., Ercit, T.S., Grice, J.D., Grew, E.S. (1988) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 73: 927-935.
Wechsler, B.A., Von Dreele, R.B. (1989) Structure refinement of Mg2TiO4, MgTiO3 and MgTi2O5 by time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction. Acta Crystallographica: B45: 542-549.
Bosi, F., Hålenius, U., Skogby, H. (2014) Crystal chemistry of the ulvöspinel-qandilite series. American Mineralogist: 99: 847-851.

Internet Links for QandiliteHide

Localities for QandiliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
India
 
  • Telangana
    • Nalgonda District
Kaur, G., Mitchell, R. H., & Ahmed, S. (2016). Typomorphic mineralogy of the Vattikod lamproites from Mesoproterozoic Ramadugu Lamproite Field, Nalgonda District, Telangana, India: A plausible manifestation of subduction-related alkaline magmatism in the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt?.
Iraq (TL)
 
  • Sulaymaniyah Governorate
    • Qala-Diz (Qala-Dizeh; Qala-Diza)
      • Hero
Mineralogical Magazine(1985) 49, 739-744
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Benevento
      • Cusano Mutri
Mondillo N., Balassone G., Boni M., Rollinson G. (2011): Karst bauxites in the Campania Apennines (southern Italy): a new approach. Per. Mineral., 80, 3, 407-432.
    • Naples
Pascal, M.-L., Di Muro, A., Boudouma, O., Fointeilles, M., Principe, C. (2008): Zirconlite, calzirtite, baddeleyite, betafite, geikielite and qandilite in skarn ejecta from Vesuvius - inferences for the magma-wallrock interactions. EGU General Assembly 2008. Geophysical Research Abstract, 10, EGU2008-A-06674, 2008. ; Pascal, M.-L., Di Muro, A., Boudouma, O., Fointeilles, M., Principe, C. (2008): Zirconolite, calzirtite, baddeleyite, betafite, geikielite and qandilite in skarn ejecta from Vesuvius - inferences for the magma-wallrock interactions. EGU General Assembly 2008. Geophysical Research Abstract, 10, EGU2008-A-06674, 2008. ; Pascal, M. L., Fonteilles, M., Boudouma, O., & Principe, C. (2011). Qandilite from Vesuvius skarn ejecta: Conditions of formation and miscibility gap in the ternary spinel–qandilite–magnesioferrite. The Canadian Mineralogist, 49(2), 459-485.
Nigeria
 
  • Ebonyi
Ituma, C. G., Etukudoh, A. B., Abuh, M. A., Akpomie, K. G., & Obioha, C. I. (2018). Utilization of Nkpuma-Akpatakpa clay in ceramics: characterization and microstructural studies. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 22(1), 47-53.
Russia
 
  • Arkhangelsk Oblast
    • Zimny Bereg District
      • Zimny Bereg kimberlite field
        • Kepina occurrence
Golubkova, A. B., Nosova, A. A., & Larionova, Y. O. (2013). Mg-ilmenite megacrysts from the Arkhangelsk kimberlites, Russia: genesis and interaction with kimberlite melt and postkimberlite fluid. Geochemistry International, 51(5), 353-381.
        • Verkhotina occurrence
Golubkova, A. B., Nosova, A. A., & Larionova, Y. O. (2013). Mg-ilmenite megacrysts from the Arkhangelsk kimberlites, Russia: genesis and interaction with kimberlite melt and postkimberlite fluid. Geochemistry International, 51(5), 353-381.
  • Khabarovsk Krai
    • Ayan-Maya district
      • Aldan shield
Lennikov, A. M., Zalishak, B. L., & Oktyabrsky, R. A. (2004). The Konder massif of ultramafic and alkaline rocks and related PGM mineralization. In Interim IAGOD Conf. Excursion Guidebook. Vladivostok: Dalnauka (p. 29).
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
[World of Stones 12:49]
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape
    • Namakwa
      • Khâi-Ma
        • Pofadder
Wu, F. Y., Yang, Y. H., Mitchell, R. H., Li, Q. L., Yang, J. H., & Zhang, Y. B. (2010). In situ U–Pb age determination and Nd isotopic analysis of perovskites from kimberlites in southern Africa and Somerset Island, Canada. Lithos, 115(1-4), 205-222.
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Highland
      • Ballachulish
Ferry, J.M. (1996) Three novel isograds in metamorphosed siliceous dolomites from the Ballachulish aureole, Scotland. American Mineralogist, 81(3-4), 485-496.
USA
 
  • Michigan
    • Menominee Co.
      • Hermansville
Xu, J., Melgarejo, J. C., i Abat, L. T., & Castillo-Oliver, M. (2017) Magma mingling at the Menominee pipe, USA? Contributions from texture and mineral chemistry. 11th International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstract No. 11IKC-4625, 2017
 
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