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Pyroaurite

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About PyroauriteHide

Formula:
Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Colour:
Yellow to brownish-white, white, gray, silver-white, greenish or colourless
Lustre:
Vitreous, Waxy, Pearly
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
2.1 - 2.14
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named in 1865 by Lars Johan Igelström from the Greek πυρ -οζ for "fire" and Latin aurum for "gold" in allusion to the golden-yellow color assumed by the mineral on heating at relatively low temperatures. Pyroaurite was first found at Långban, Värmland, Sweden..
Later, XRD studies of the type material showed it to contain coexisting hexagonal and rhombohedral phases (Aminoff and Broome 1933). Frondel (1941) reserved the name pyroaurite for the hexagonal phase and Sjögrenite was introduced for the rhombohedral phase.
In 2012, the hydrotalcite super-group was redefined by S. J. Mills, A. G. Christy, J. M. R. Genin, T. Kameda, and F. Colombo. Pyroaurite was redefined incorporating the former sjögrenite with two polytypes, pyroaurite-3R (formerly pyroaurite, sensu lacto) and pyroaurite-2H (formerly sjögrenite). Both polytypes may occur in a single crystal, with the 2H phase at the core and the 3R phase at the rim (Almann 1968, cited after Mills et al 2012).
The Fe3+ analogue of Hydrotalcite, Stitchtite and Desautelsite, and forms solid solutions with these minerals. Sjögrenite (now pyroaurite-2H) is now considered a polytype (Mills et al., 2012).

See also the related Coalingite and brugnatellite.

Commonly originates as a low temperature alteration product of Magnetite In serpentinites.

May also be an alteration product of iowaite.




Classification of PyroauriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.DA.50

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
D : Carbonates with additional anions, with H2O
A : With medium-sized cations
16b.6.2.3

16b : HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
6 : AmBn(XO3)pZqxH2O & with (m+n):p = 8:1
11.13.2

11 : Carbonates
13 : Carbonates of Fe

Physical Properties of PyroauriteHide

Vitreous, Waxy, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Yellow to brownish-white, white, gray, silver-white, greenish or colourless
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{0001}
Fracture:
Micaceous
Density:
2.1 - 2.14 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.12 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of PyroauriteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.564 nε = 1.543
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.021
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
O = pale yellowish, brownish, reddish
E = colourless

Chemical Properties of PyroauriteHide

Formula:
Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
IMA Formula:
Mg6Fe3+2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Common Impurities:
Cr,Al,Mn

Crystallography of PyroauriteHide

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Pyroaurite-2HPyroaurite-3R
Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2OMg6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Hexagonal Trigonal 
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
P63/mmc R3m
  
a = 3.113(3) Å, c = 15.61(1) Å
a = 3.1094(2) Å, c = 23.4117(9) Å
a:c = 1 : 5.014a:c = 1 : 7.529
V 131.01 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 196.03 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
  

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.6 Å(10)
3.89 Å(7)
2.62 Å(4)
2.33 Å(4)
1.981 Å(5)
1.556 Å(2)
1.526 Å(2)
Comments:
Powder pattern indistinguishable from that of desautelsite (Mn3+-analogue).

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
In serpentinites and magnesian skarns.

Type Occurrence of PyroauriteHide

Synonyms of PyroauriteHide

Other Language Names for PyroauriteHide

Varieties of PyroauriteHide

Chrome-PyroauriteA Cr-bearing pyroaurite.

Relationship of Pyroaurite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
DesautelsiteMg6Mn3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
DroninoiteNi6Fe2+3(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
HydrotalciteMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Hydrotalcite-3RMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
IowaiteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
ReevesiteNi6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2OTrig.
StichtiteMg6Cr3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
TakoviteNi6Al2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
UM1998-10-CO:CoHNiNi6Co2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
WoodalliteMg6Cr2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
20 photos of Pyroaurite associated with CalciteCaCO3
13 photos of Pyroaurite associated with MagnesiteMgCO3
6 photos of Pyroaurite associated with MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
6 photos of Pyroaurite associated with TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
6 photos of Pyroaurite associated with HydrotalciteMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
6 photos of Pyroaurite associated with BruciteMg(OH)2
6 photos of Pyroaurite associated with Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
5 photos of Pyroaurite associated with HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4
5 photos of Pyroaurite associated with AragoniteCaCO3
3 photos of Pyroaurite associated with LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.DA.AlexkhomyakoviteK6(Ca2Na)(CO3)5Cl·6H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
5.DA.05DypingiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5H2OMon.
5.DA.05GiorgiositeMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5-6H2O
5.DA.05HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
5.DA.05WidgiemoolthaliteNi5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5H2OMon.
5.DA.05UM1986-10-CO:ClHMgMnZn (also called Mineral F, Dunn, 1995)Mg5(Zn,Mn)3(CO3)2(OH,Cl)12 · H2O
5.DA.05UM1987-01-CO:HMgSMg4(CO3)2(OH)4 · 6H2O ?Mon.
5.DA.10ArtiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
5.DA.10IndigiriteMg2Al2(CO3)4(OH)2 · 15H2O
5.DA.10ChlorartiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)Cl · 2H2OTrig. 3m : R3c
5.DA.15OtwayiteNi2(CO3)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
5.DA.15ZaratiteNi3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O ?Iso.
5.DA.20KambaldaiteNaNi4(CO3)3(OH)3 · 3H2OHex.
5.DA.25CallaghaniteCu2Mg2(CO3)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon.
5.DA.30Claraite(Cu,Zn)15(CO3)4(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)14·7H2OTric.
5.DA.35HydroscarbroiteAl14(CO3)3(OH)36 · nH2OTric.
5.DA.35ScarbroiteAl5(CO3)(OH)13 · 5H2OHex.
5.DA.40CaresiteFe2+4Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2OTrig.
5.DA.40QuintiniteMg4Al2(OH)12(CO3) · 3H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P63 2 2
5.DA.40CharmariteMn2+4Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2OHex.
5.DA.45Stichtite-2HMg6(Cr,Al)2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.DA.45BrugnatelliteMg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2OHex.
5.DA.45ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
5.DA.45Hydrotalcite-2HMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.DA.45Pyroaurite-2HMg6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.DA.45ZaccagnaiteZn4Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2OHex.
5.DA.50ComblainiteNi4Co2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2OTrig.
5.DA.50DesautelsiteMg6Mn3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
5.DA.50HydrotalciteMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
5.DA.50ReevesiteNi6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2OTrig.
5.DA.50StichtiteMg6Cr3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
5.DA.50TakoviteNi6Al2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
5.DA.50UM1998-10-CO:CoHNiNi6Co2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
5.DA.55CoalingiteMg10Fe3+2(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2OTrig.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

16b.6.2.1HydrotalciteMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
16b.6.2.2StichtiteMg6Cr3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
16b.6.2.4DesautelsiteMg6Mn3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.13.1SideriteFeCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
11.13.3Pyroaurite-2HMg6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
11.13.4BrugnatelliteMg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2OHex.
11.13.5CoalingiteMg10Fe3+2(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2OTrig.
11.13.6AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for PyroauriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Igelström, L.J. (1866) Nya och sällsynta mineralier från Vermlands och Örebro län. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar: 1865(22): 605-611.
Aminoff, G., Broomé, B. (1930) Contributions to the mineralogy of Långban. III. Contributions to the knowledge of the mineral pyroaurite. Kungliga Svenska vetenskapsakademiens handlingar: 9(3): 23-48.
Comucci P. (1930) Ricerche sulla struttura della piroaurite. Periodico di Mineralogia - Roma: 143-148.
Frondel, C. (1941) Constitution and polymorphism of the pyroaurite and sjögrenite groups. American Mineralogist: 26: 295-315.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman, Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 656-658.
Processi verbali della Società Toscana di scienze naturali in Pisa: 24: 92-105.
Acta Crystallographica (1968) B24: 972-977.
Mills, S.J., Christy, A.G., Genin, J.-M.R., Kameda, T., Colombo, F. (2012) Nomenclature of the hydrotalcite supergroup: natural layered double hydroxides. Mineralogical Magazine: 76: 1289-1336.
Zhitova, E.S., Ivanyuk, G.Yu,, Krivovichev, S.V., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Pakhonovsky, Ya.A., Mikhaihva, Yu.A. (2016) Crystal chemistry of pyroaurite from the Kovdor massif (Kola peninsula, Russia) and Långban Fe-Mn Deposit (Varmland, Sweden). Zapiski RMO: 145(3): 81-93.

Internet Links for PyroauriteHide

Localities for PyroauriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Darling Co.
      • Barraba
Oskierski, H. C., Dlugogorski, B. Z., & Jacobsen, G. (2013) Sequestration of atmospheric CO₂ in chrysotile mine tailings of the Woodsreef Asbestos Mine, Australia: Quantitative mineralogy, isotopic fingerprinting and carbonation rates, Chemical Geology, vol. 358, 156-169.; Turvey, C. C., Wilson, S. A., Hamilton, J. L., Tait, A. W., McCutcheon, J., Beinlich, A., ... & Southam, G. (2018). Hydrotalcites and hydrated Mg-carbonates as carbon sinks in serpentinite mineral wastes from the Woodsreef chrysotile mine, New South Wales, Australia: Controls on carbonate mineralogy and efficiency of CO2 air capture in mine tailings. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 79, 38-60.
  • Tasmania
    • Huon Valley municipality
      • Huon-Channel region
        • Weld river district
[Pyroaurite-2H] Bottrill R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Tasmanian Geological Survey Bulletin 73, 254p. (p. 163)
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Corinna-Savage River district
Bottrill & Taheri, 2008, Savage River mine, Unpub. Rept, Mineral Resources Tasmania
R Bottrill, unpub MRT rept
Anderson, P., Bottrill, R. & Davidson, P. (2002): Famous mineral localities: The Lord Brassey mine, Tasmania. Mineralogical Record 33, 321-332 .
    • West Coast municipality
      • Trial Harbour district
[Pyroaurite-2H] Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
      • Zeehan district
        • Dundas mineral field
R Bottrill & R Woolley, unpublished data 2017
Bottrill R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Tasmanian Geological Survey Bulletin 73, 254p. (p. 144); BOTTRILL, R. S., and BAKER, W. E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Bulletin 73, Mineral Resources Tasmania. 254 pages.
        • Mt Heemskirk mineral field
[Pyroaurite-2H] Bottrill R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Tasmanian Geological Survey Bulletin 73, 254p. (p. 163)
        • North Dundas
          • Serpentine Hill
Bottrill R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Tasmanian Geological Survey Bulletin 73, 254p. (p. 144)
    • West Tamar municipality
      • Beaconsfield district
R Bottrill, unpub.data
  • Western Australia
    • Kalgoorlie-Boulder Shire
      • Kanowna Goldfield
Barnes, S. J., Wells, M. A., & Verrall, M. R. (2009). Effects of magmatic processes, serpentinization, and talc-carbonate alteration on sulfide mineralogy and ore textures in the Black Swan disseminated nickel sulfide deposit, Yilgarn Craton. Economic Geology, 104(4), 539-562.
    • Wiluna Shire
      • Lake Way Station
Disseminated and Massive Nickel Sulphide Deposits,Honeymoon Well Complex, Western Australia; M Gole and M Woodhouse, Journal of the Virtual Explorer; ISSN 1441-8142 Vol 1 paper 2, 2000
Gole, M., Woodhouse, M.(2000), Disseminated and Massive Nickel Sulphide Deposits Honeymoon Well Complex Western Australia, (ed) Gordon Lister, Geological Research for the Exploration Industry, Journal of the Virtual Explorer, electronic edition, ISSN 1441-8142, Vol 1, Paper 2, 2000
Grguric, B.A., Seat, Z., Karpuzov, A.A., Simonov, O.N. (2013) The West Jordan deposit, a newly-discovered Type 2 dunite-hosted nickel sulphide system in the northern Agnew-Wiluna Belt, Western Australia. Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 51, pg. 79-92
Wilson, S.A., Harrison, A.L., Dipple, G.M., Power, I.M., Barker, S.L.L., Ulrich, M.K., Fallon, S.J., Raudsepp, M., Southam, G. (2014) Offsetting of CO2 emissions by air capture in mine tailings at the Mount Keith Nickel Mine, Western Australia: Rates, controls and prospects for carbon neutral mining. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 25 121-140
Grguric, B.A. (2003) Minerals of the MKD5 nickel deposit, Mount Keith, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 9, No.2 pp.55-71.
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Melk District
      • Persenbeug-Gottsdorf
peter neschen collection
Löffler, E. & Kolitsch, U. (2011): Die Mineralien der Loja bei Persenbeug, Niederösterreich (II). Mineralien-Welt. 22 (4): 51-62
  • Styria
    • Bruck-Mürzzuschlag District
      • Breitenau am Hochlantsch
        • Eibegggraben
Bojar, H.-P. & Postl, W. (2005)
      • Pernegg an der Mur
        • Kirchdorf
          • Traföß
Post. W. & Bojar, H.-P. (2006)
    • Graz-Umgebung District
      • Frohnleiten
        • Kirchdorf
Kolitsch, U. & Brandstätter, F. (2009): 1608) Magensioferrit, Pyroaurit und Tochilinit vom Kirchdorftunnel der Brucker Schnellstraße, Steiermark. P. 226-227 in: Niedermayr, G. et al. (2009): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LVIII. Carinthia II, 199/119, 189-236.
    • Leoben District
      • Kraubath an der Mur
Exel, R. (1993); Taucher, J. & Hollerer, Ch. E. (2006)
    • Murtal District
      • Sankt Margarethen bei Knittelfeld
        • Sankt Lorenzen bei Knittelfeld
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Südoststeiermark District
      • Klöch
Postl, W., Bernhard, F. & Walter, F. (2010): 1669) Brucit, Pyroaurit und Strontianit aus dem Steinbruch in Klöch. Pp. 253-255 in Niedermayr et al. (2010): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LIX. Carinthia II, 200./120., 199-260.
Brazil
 
  • Pará
    • Carajás mineral province
      • Canaã dos Carajás
de Carvalho, M. L. M., de Oliveira, S. B., & Benique, M. E. C. (1997). Caracterização Da Piroaurita Do Maciço Máfico-ultramáfico Do Vermelho-serra Dos Carajás, PA. Geochimica Brasiliensis, 11(1).
Bulgaria
 
  • Yambol Province
    • Tundzha Obshtina
Marcus Vau Collection
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Thompson Nickel Belt
Franchuk, Anatoliy, Peter C. Lightfoot, and Daniel J. Kontak. "High tenor Ni–PGE sulfide mineralization in the South Manasan ultramafic intrusion, Paleoproterozoic Thompson Nickel Belt, Manitoba, Canada." Ore Geology Reviews 72 (2016): 434-458.
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cape Breton Co.
      • Scotch Lake
Sabina, A.P. (1965) Rocks and Minerals for the Collector - Northeastern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, and Prince Edward Island. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 65-10.
  • Ontario
    • Cochrane District
      • Timmins area
Mandarino, J.A. (1966): Canadian Mineralogist 8, 668-669.
    • Hastings County
      • Madoc Area
        • Madoc Township
Sabina, Ann, P (1987) Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Hull-Maniwaki, Quebec; Ottawa-Peterborough, Ontario. Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 41.
    • Nipissing District
      • Olrig Township
M. L Keith (1946) Brucite Deposits In The Rutherglen District, Ontario. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 57:967-984; Geological Survey Of Canada Paper 70-50.
    • Sudbury District
      • Reeves Township
Ann P.Sabina (2000), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Cobalt-Belleterre-Timmins, Ontario and Quebec. GSC Misc. Report 57, p.178
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Abitibi RCM
        • La Motte
Sabina (2003)126
            • Marbridge No. 1 mine
Mineral Record (1976) 7:4 pp174-178
    • Chaudière-Appalaches
      • Les Appalaches RCM
        • Saint-Julien
SABINA, A.P. (1967) Geological Survey of canada Paper, 66-51, 170p
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
GRICE, J.D. (1989) The Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Quebec: The Western World's Largest Asbestos Deposit. In: Famous Mineral Localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 115-123; 179-181.
    • Laurentides
      • Antoine-Labelle RCM
        • Notre-Dame-du-Laus
Van Velthuizen, J. V. (1993): The Parker Mine, Notre Dame du Laus (Québec). Mineralogical Record, 24(5): 369-373.
      • Argenteuil RCM
        • Grenville-sur-la-Rouge
          • Kilmar
GSC Miscellaneous Report 33
    • Outaouais
      • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
        • Chelsea
Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 41
        • Wakefield
Sabina, A.P. (1987) Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Hull-Maniwaki, Quebec, Ottawa-Peterborough, Ontario. GSC Misc. Report 41, 34-35 p.
  • Yukon
    • Dawson mining district
Sabina, A.P. (1972) Rocks & minerals for the collector: The Alaska Highway, Dawson Creek, British Columbia to Yukon/Alaska border. GSC paper 72-32. Reissued (1992) as GSC Miscellaneous Report 50, 98-99.
Finland
 
  • Satakunta
    • Siikainen
Sandström, F. (2012): Otamo dolomitbrott i Siikainen, Finland. Litiofilen. 29 (2), 23-38
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Schwandorf
        • Winklarn
[Pyroaurite-2H] Blaß, G. and Graf, H.W. (1994) Neue Funde. Mineralien-Welt, 2/94, 46-47.; Wittern, A. (2001) Mineralfundorte in Deutschland.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Grane Reservoir
[Pyroaurite-2H] Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.
  • Saxony
    • Mittelsachsen
      • Großschirma
T. Witzke (2001): Pyroaurit von Siebenlehn bei Nossen, Sachsen.- Aufschluss 52, 45-48
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 1882, II, p.119.
Italy
 
  • Aosta Valley
    • Montjovet
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Piacenza Province
      • Coli
- Baldizzone, G. (2008): I minerali del piacentino – come riconoscerli dove trovarli. Baldizzone G., stampa Tipolito Farnese, Piacenza, 113 pp.; - Baldizzone, G. (2008): I minerali del piacentino – come riconoscerli dove trovarli. Baldizzone G., stampa Tipolito Farnese, Piacenza, 113 pp.
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Lanterna Valley
            • Lanzada
              • Vallone del Cengiaccio (Cengiaccio; Cengiàsc; Cengiasco)
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
  • Piedmont
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Léssolo
        • Cálea
"Le miniere di Brosso" I.Campostrini 2001 - ed. Museo Regionale Torino
  • Sardinia
    • South Sardinia Province
      • Teulada
[Pyroaurite-2H] Conti L, Cozupoli D., Lombardi G, Traversa g. 1970 - Segnalazione di Sjögrenite nelle contattiti presso Teulada (Sardegna meridionale) Per. Min. Roma, vol. 39 A, (special volume), pp. 119-127
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province (Trentino)
      • Ala
        • Pilcante
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
Pagani, G. (1973): Le gite del G.M.L. nel '72. Cava di marmo a brucite in Val di Serra (Pilcante, TN). Notizie Gr. Mineral. Lombardo, 4, 1 (marzo 1973), 9; De Michele, V. (1974): Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol., 408 pp.; Boscardin, M., Bortolozzi, G., Cassinelli, C. (1984): I minerali della cava di Val di Serra, Pilcante, Trento. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 8, 4 (4-1984), 143-148; Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Casa Editrice Athesia, Bolzano-Bozen, 205 pp.
        • Ronchi Valley
Del Caldo A., Moro C., Gramaccioli C.M., Boscardin M. (1973): Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.
        • San Valentino Valley
Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
      • Terragnolo
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
        • Borcola Pass
Boscardin M., et alii "I minerali nel Vicentino" Montecchio Maggiore 2011
A. Mattiello collection
  • Veneto
    • Verona Province
      • Brentino Belluno
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
    • Vicenza Province
      • Cogollo del Cengio
M. Boscardin: Località mineralogiche consigliate: Le cave della val d'Astico - Notizie del Guppo Min. Lombardo - 10, Dec 1970, p. 7 - (This publication later changed its name in Rivista Minealogica Italiana)
      • Laghi
- Boscardin M., Daleffe A., Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011): Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni. Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 183 pp. - Zordan A. (2014): Provincia di Vicenza. In: Zorzi F., Boscardin M. (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta sei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, 173-246.
      • Posina
        • Borcola Pass
M. Boscardin L, De Zen,A.Zordan I minerali della val Leogra e della val D'Astico. Schio (VIcenza) Dicembre 1989 pp.120
        • Pasubio Massif
          • Punta della Lucche
Zordan A., Boscardin M. - Aggiornenti di mineralogia nel Vicentino. Determinazioni 2006. Studi e Ricerche - Associazione Amici del Museo - Museo Civico "G.Zannato", Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 13 (2006),pp.35-40.
          • Sogli Bianchi
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
      • Tonezza del Cimone
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
      • Valdastico
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
Japan
 
  • Aichi Prefecture
    • Shinshiro city
Matsubara, S., & Kato, A. (1979) The Occurrence of Heazlewoodite and Cobaltpentlandite from the NakauriMine, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Mem. Natn. Sci.Mus., Tokyo, (12), December 1, 1979
Suzuki J, Ito M, Sugiura T (1976) A new copper sulfate-carbonate hydroxide hydrate mineral, (Mn,Ni,Cu)8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6·48H2O, from Nakauri, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology 71, 183-192; Matsubara, S., & Kato, A. (1979) The Occurrence of Heazlewoodite and Cobaltpentlandite from the NakauriMine, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Mem. Natn. Sci.Mus., Tokyo, (12), December 1, 1979
[Pyroaurite-2H] Alfredo Petrov - unpublished document - 2007
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.); Suzuki, J., Ito, M. (1973) A new magnesium carbonate hydrate mineral, Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2.8H2O, from Yoshikawa, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. J. Japan Assoc. Mineral. Petrol. Econ. Geol.: 68: 353-361; in: Fleischer, M., Cabri, L.J., Nickel, E.H., Pabst, A. (1977) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 62: 596
  • Fukuoka Prefecture
    • Kasuya District
上原誠一郎. (1987). Serpentine minerals from Sasaguri area, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. 岩石鉱物鉱床学会誌, 82(3), 106-118.
  • Mie Prefecture
    • Toba City
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
Kazakhstan
 
  • North Kazakhstan Region
    • Aiyrtau
      • Zlatogorsk
        • Zlatogorsk ultramafic intrusion
[Pyroaurite-2H] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
XRD Paolo Orlandi (Pisa University)
    • Zagora Province
      • Ightem
Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Myanmar
 
  • Mandalay Region
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
      • Mogok Township
        • Bernardmyo
Harlow G1, Thu K (2014) Hydrothermal recrystallization of dunitic olivine: peridot from Pyaung-Gaung, Myanmar and other examples. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 198
New Zealand
 
  • Tasman Region
    • Brightwater
Jenks, J. (1981) Carbonates of the Lee Valley, Gem and Treasure Hunter, p 11, June 1981.
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Modum
      • Snarum
Eldjarn, K.(1988): Etter Neumann. NAGS-nytt 15 (1-4),62 (in norwegian)
  • Hordaland
    • Bergen
      • Arna
Pers. Com. G. Raade 08.1983 in Geologisk Museum. Interne notater 1961-1990. Published by Geologisk Museums Venner, Oslo 1991,p 115
Poland
 
  • Silesian Voivodeship
Warchulski, R., Gawęda, A., Szopa, K. (2014): Secondary phases from the Zn-Pb smelting slags from Katowice – Piekary Śląskie area, Upper Silesia, Poland: a SEM – XRD overview. Mineralogia Special Papers: 42: 110-111
    • Wodzisław Co.
      • Wodzisław Śląski
[Pyroaurite-2H] Ł. Kruszewski PXRD data
Romania
 
  • Caraş-Severin
    • Banat Mountains
      • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
Marincea, S. (1999) Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania: new data and review. Canadian Mineralogist, 37, 1343-1362.; Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.
  • Mehedinti
    • Almas Mountains
Gabor Koller specimen
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Zheleznogorsk (Korshunikha)
Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.; Mazurov et al (2007) Geology of Ore Deposits, 49, 271–284.
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Kovdor Massif
[Pyroaurite-2H] http://maurice.strahlen.org/kola/kovdor.htm
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Asbest
Dana 7:I:654.
Spain
 
  • Asturias
    • Salas
      • Carlés
Calvo, M. & Viñals, J. (2014). Mineralogy of the gold deposit in Carlés, Salas, Asturias, Spain. Mineral Up, 3 (6), 6-32
Sweden (TL)
 
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
Am Min 26 (1941); Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
[Pyroaurite-2H]
No reference listed
      • Persberg ore district
Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
[Pyroaurite-2H] Linden, R.H. (2002): Gåsgruvan, En mineralundersökning under åren 1996-2002. Östra Värmlands Mineralsällskap (Cited in Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
Kjell Gatedal
        • Pajsberg
Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
Turkey
 
  • Burdur Province
    • Doganbaba
American Mineralogist, Volume 61, pages 825-830, 1976
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Aberdeenshire
Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
    • Shetland
Heddle, M.F. (1878) The Geognosy and Mineralogy of Scotland. Orkney and Shetland: Islands of Uya, Haaf Grunay, Fetlar and Yell. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 2, p. 106-133. Rouxhet, P.G. & Taylor, H.F.W. (1969) Thermal decomposition of Sjögrenite and Pyroaurite. Chimia, vol. 23, p. 480-5.
[Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
Dr Stephen Moreton collection.
BMS Database
Heddle, M.F. (1901) Mineralogy of Scotland. vol. 1, p. 111.
Dr Stephen Moreton collection.
USA
 
  • California
    • Fresno Co.
      • New Idria Mining District
        • Archer Camp
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 198.
    • San Benito Co.
      • New Idria Mining District
        • Picacho Peak
Joseph F. Cooper Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A.Hadley (2003) Minerology of the Victor Claim, Clear Creek Area, New Idria District, San Benito County, California.
    • San Francisco Co.
      • San Francisco
        • Duboce Street near Market Street
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 199.
Schlocker, J. (1974) Geology of the San Francisco North quadrangle. USGS Professional Paper 782, 109 pp.: 59, 62; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 199.
    • Sonoma Co.
      • Healdsburg
[Pyroaurite-2H] Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 200.
[Pyroaurite-2H] www.minresco.com/syst/s.htm
  • Iowa
    • Sioux Co.
American Mineralogist: 52: 1261-1271.
  • Maryland
    • Cecil Co.
      • State Line Mining District
Mineralogical Record Vol 12 #3 May/June 1981 pp149-156
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Dunn, P.J. & Leavens, P.B.: Min.Rec.:12:371-372 (1981); Frondel, C.: Mins. of Franklin & Sterling Hill, NJ - a checklist (1972): Dunn(1995):Pt4:623-624.
Peter Chin
  • New York
    • New York City
      • Staten Island (Richmond Co.)
Collected by Steve Okulewicz
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lancaster Co.
      • State Line Chromite Mining District
        • Fulton Township
American Mineralogist 1965: 50: 1708-1716.
Mineralogical Record (1981): 12(3): 149-156.
        • Little Britain Township
          • Texas
Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
    • Lebanon Co.
      • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
  • Vermont
    • Orleans & Lamoille Cos.
      • Lowell & Eden
Rocks & Minerals: 21: 490; Rocks & Minerals: 22: 925; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 264.
 
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