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Portlandite

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About PortlanditeHide

Formula:
Ca(OH)2
Colour:
Colourless, light yellow
Lustre:
Pearly
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
2.227 - 2.233
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Member of:
Name:
In allusion to the occurrence of Ca(OH)2 as a product of hydration of portland cement.
Rare in nature, but an important phase in cement materials and concrete. Indicative of a very high pH value.


Classification of PortlanditeHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4/F.03-100
4.FE.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
E : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
6.2.1.4

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
2 : X(OH)2
7.4.12

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
4 : Oxides of Be, Mg and the alkaline earths

Physical Properties of PortlanditeHide

Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, light yellow
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Sectile
Cleavage:
Perfect
{0001}
Density:
2.227 - 2.233 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.24 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of PortlanditeHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.574 nε = 1.547
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.027
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low

Chemical Properties of PortlanditeHide

Formula:
Ca(OH)2

Crystallography of PortlanditeHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.59 Å, c = 4.9 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.365
Unit Cell V:
54.69 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Minute hexagonal plates. Tabular {0001}, with {101¯0} as linear faces (artificial material).

Type Occurrence of PortlanditeHide

Other Language Names for PortlanditeHide

Relationship of Portlandite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AmakiniteFe2+(OH)2Trig.
BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
TheophrastiteNi(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
4 photos of Portlandite associated with PericlaseMgO
4 photos of Portlandite associated with SpurriteCa5(SiO4)2(CO3)
4 photos of Portlandite associated with QuartzSiO2
4 photos of Portlandite associated with EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
3 photos of Portlandite associated with AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
3 photos of Portlandite associated with ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
3 photos of Portlandite associated with Oldhamite(Ca,Mg)S
3 photos of Portlandite associated with FluoriteCaF2
3 photos of Portlandite associated with CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
1 photo of Portlandite associated with VateriteCaCO3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.FE.05AmakiniteFe2+(OH)2Trig.
4.FE.05BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.05PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FE.05TheophrastiteNi(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.10BayeriteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.FE.10DoyleiteAl(OH)3Tric.
4.FE.10GibbsiteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m
4.FE.10NordstranditeAl(OH)3Tric. 1 : P1
4.FE.15BöhmiteAlO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.FE.15Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
4.FE.20GrimaldiiteCrO(OH)Trig.
4.FE.20HeterogeniteCo3+O(OH)Hex.
4.FE.25FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.25Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FE.30QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.FE.35FerrihydriteFe3+10O14(OH)2Trig.
4.FE.40FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)Hex.
4.FE.40Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2OHex.
4.FE.45QuetzalcoatliteZn6Cu3(TeO6)2(OH)6 · AgxPbyClx+2yTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

6.2.1.1BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
6.2.1.2AmakiniteFe2+(OH)2Trig.
6.2.1.3PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
6.2.1.5TheophrastiteNi(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.4.1BromelliteBeOHex. 6mm : P63mc
7.4.2BehoiteBe(OH)2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.4.3ClinobehoiteBe(OH)2Mon. 2 : P21
7.4.4ChrysoberylBeAl2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.4.5Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m)
7.4.6Magnesiotaaffeite-6N’3SMg2BeAl6O12Trig.
7.4.7PericlaseMgOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.4.8BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.4.9SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.4.10MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.4.11LimeCaOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
7.4.13ChlormayeniteCa12Al14O32[◻4Cl2]Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
7.4.14HydrocalumiteCa4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2 : P21
7.4.15MarokiteCaMn3+2O4Orth.
7.4.16Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.4.17HollanditeBa(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16Mon. 2/m
7.4.18Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10Mon. 2/m
7.4.19Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Portlandite is slightly water soluble (~1.73 g/L at 20°C), yielding a high pH solution. Portlandite is also soluble in acids and in glycerin; however, it is insoluble in ethanol.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for PortlanditeHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Tilley (1933), Mineralogical Magazine: 23: 419.
American Mineralogist (1934): 19: 35.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 641-642.
American Mineralogist (1963): 48: 924-930.

Internet Links for PortlanditeHide

Localities for PortlanditeHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Angola
 
  • Huíla Province
    • Lubango City Council
Amores-Casals, S., Melgarejo, J. C., Bambi, A., Gonçalves, A. O., Morais, E. A., Manuel, J., ... & Molist, J. M. (2019). Lamprophyre-Carbonatite Magma Mingling and Subsolidus Processes as Key Controls on Critical Element Concentration in Carbonatites—The Bonga Complex (Angola). Minerals, 9(10), 601.
Australia
 
  • Victoria
    • Swan Hill Rural City
      • Lake Boga
Bill Birch (1996) Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 2, #2, 47-50.; W.D.Birch 1996. Portlandite and other recent mineral discoveries in the granites at Lake Boga, and Wycheproof and Pyramid Hill, Victoria. Australian Journal of Mineralogy Vol.2 No.2 Dec. 1996, pp. 47-50
Belgium
 
  • Wallonia
    • Hainaut
      • Charleroi
        • Montignies-sur-Sambre
Rui Nunes collection
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • New Westminster Mining Division
      • Hope
Manor, M.J., Scoates, J.S., Nixon,G.T., and Ames, D.E. (2014): Platinum-group mineralogy of the Giant Mascot Ni-Cu-PGE
  • Québec
    • Laurentides
      • Deux-Montagnes RCM
        • Oka
Sokolov S.V. (2010) On portlandite from carbonatite complexes. Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
    • Nord-du-Québec
      • Kativik
Daniel F. Rosa and Robert F. Martin (2010) A spurrite-, merwinite- and srebrodolskite-bearing skarn assemblage, West Clearwater Lake impact crater, northern Quebec. The Canadian Mineralogist (December 2010), 48(6):1519-1532
China
 
  • Shaanxi
    • Hanzhong
      • Mian County
Zhongtang Yang, Zhiming Li, Gengbiao Qiao, Zhongbao Song, Xiaozhou Liu, and Wei Wan (2008): Geology and Prospecting 44(2), 38-44; Zhongtang Yang, Gengbiao Qiao, Zhiming Li, Xiaoyong Yang, Hongping Huang, Xianghua Lan, Zhongbao Song, Xiaozhou Liu, and Wei Wan (2009): Chinese Journal of Geology 44(1), 88-102
Czech Republic
 
  • South Moravian Region
    • Brno-Country District
      • Oslavany
Hršelová, P., Cempírek, J., Houzar, S., Sejkora, J. (2013): S,F,Cl-rich mineral assemblages from burned spoil heaps in the Rosice-Oslavany coalfield, Czech Republic. Can. Mineral.: 51(1): 171-188
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Loire
      • La Pacaudière
        • Le Crozet
Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Beaumont
XRD analysis (B. Devouard and E. Médard, Clermont-Ferrand)
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
Eytier J.R. & Ch., Favreau G., Devouard B., Vigier J. (2004), Minéraux de pyrométamorphisme de Lapanouse-de Sévérac (Aveyron), Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°85, pp: 3-58
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Franconia
      • Haßberge
        • Maroldsweisach
Pöllmann, H. (1991): Die Afwillit-Portlandit Paragenese im Basalt des Zeilbergs bei Maroldsweisach/Unterfranken. Aufschluss, 42, 257-266
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Hüsten
David Nieto collection, 5/93.
      • Märkischer Kreis
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Mayen-Koblenz
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
[Jasmund, K., Hentschel, G., Seltene Mineralparagenesen in den Kalksteineinschlüssen der Lava des Ettringer Bellerberges bei Mayen (Eifel), Beitr. Minera. Petr. 10, 296-314, 1964] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
Galuskin, E.V., Krüger, B., Krüger, H., Blass, G., Widmer, R., Galuskina, I.O. (2016): Wernerkrauseite, CaFe3+2Mn4+O6 - the first non-stoichiometric post-spinel mineral, from Bellerberg volcano, Eifel, Germany. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 485-493
            • Southern lava flow
Hentschel, G. (1961): Seltene Mineralneubildungen in einem Kalksteineinschluß der Lava des Ettringer Bellerberges, Fortschritte Mineralogie, Vol. 39, 345
    • Rhein-Lahn-Kreis
      • Bad Ems
        • Frücht
Wet Chemical by Gerhard Möhn
    • Vulkaneifel
      • Daun
        • Üdersdorf
Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Hungary
 
  • Nógrád County
    • Bátonyterenye
Szakáll-Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary
Israel
 
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 723-724.
Galuskin, E.V., Gfeller, F., Armbruster, T., Sharygin, V.V., Galuskina, I.O., Krivovichev, S.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M., Dzierżanowski, P., Wirth, R. (2015): Mayenite supergroup, part III: Fluormayenite, Ca12Al14O32[□4F2], and fluorkyuygenite, Ca12Al14O32[(H2O)4F2], two new minerals from pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, South Levant. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 123-136
  • Southern District (HaDarom District)
    • Arad
Sharygin, Victor V.; Yakovlev, Grigory A.; Wirth, Richard; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Sokol, Ellina V.; Nigmatulina, Elena N.; Karmanov, Nikolai S.; Pautov, Leonid A. (2019) Nataliakulikite, Ca4Ti2(Fe3+,Fe2+)(Si,Fe3+,Al)O11, a New Perovskite-Supergroup Mineral from Hatrurim Basin, Negev Desert, Israel. Minerals 9, no. 11: 700.
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
      • Rome
        • Valleranello
Carlini, R., and Signoretti, E. (2018) Il Lazio classico: le cave di leucitite della provincia di Roma (Vallerano, Laghetto e Osa). Fossils & Minerals, 4, 24-53.
    • Viterbo Province
      • Montalto di Castro
        • Pietra Massa Locality
Passaglia, E. & Turconi, B. (1982): Silicati ed altri minerali di Montalto di Castro - VT. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1982, 97-110.
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Genoa
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 22 (3), 39-41.
      • Ne
        • Reppia
          • Monte Copello
· Ciriotti, M.E., Möckel, S. (2004): Novità 2003 da Gambatesa: manganarsite (3° ritrovamento mondiale), calce (“lime”) e portlandite. Micro (UK report), 1/2004, 7-12. · Marchesini, M., Bracco, R., Ciriotti, M.E., Möckel, S. (2007): Niente "calce" e "portlandite" a Gambatesa. Micro (UK report), 1/2007, 67-68.
  • Sicily
    • Metropolitan City of Catania
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
        • Mt Etna
Forti, P., Marino, A. (1995) Nota preliminare sul ritrovamento di un nuovo minerale di grotta nei "Pozzi dell'Eruzione del 1923" (SICT1084). In: Atti del 1° Convegno regionale di Speleologia della Sicilia, Ragusa 14-16 Dicembre 1990. Gruppo Grotte Ragusa & Provincia regionale di Ragusa, Ragusa, Volume 1, pages 92-100; Forti, P. (2005) Genetic processes of cave minerals in volcanic environments: An overview. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 67, 1, 3-13; Barone, G., Mazzoleni, P., Priolo, G. (2015) Catalogo delle mineralizzazioni secondarie riscontrate all'interno di alcune grotte vulcaniche etnee. In: De Nitto, L., Maurano, F., Parise, M., eds., Atti XXII Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia Euro Speleo Forum 2015 “Condividere i dati”, 2 giugno 2015 Pertosa-Auletta (SA). Memorie dell’Istituto Italiano di Speleologia, serie II, vol. 29, Sessione documentazione – A1, 99-109.
  • Umbria
    • Perugia Province
      • Spoleto
Stoppa F., Scordari F., Mesto E., Sharygin V.V. and Bortolozzi G. - Calcium-aluminium-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy (2010). Centr.Eur.J.Geosci. 2 (2), pag. 175-187 .; Stoppa, F., & Schiazza, M. (2014). Extreme chemical conditions of crystallisation of Umbrian Melilitolites and wealth of rare, late stage/hydrothermal minerals. Central European Journal of Geosciences, 6(4), 549-564.
Jordan
 
  • Amman Governorate
Pitty, A. F., & Alexander, W. R. (2010). A natural analogue study of cement buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a repository host rock IV: an examination of the Khushaym Matruk (central Jordan) and Maqarin (northern Jordan) sites. NDA-RWMD Technical Report, NDA, Moors Row, UK.
    • Hashem region
      • Lisdan-Siwaga Fault
        • Siwaga
Sokol, E. V., Kokh, S. N., Khoury, H. N., Seryotkin, Y. V., & Goryainov, S. V. (2016). Long-term immobilisation of Cd 2+ at the Tulul Al Hammam natural analogue site, central Jordan. Applied Geochemistry, 70, 43-60.
  • Irbid Governorate
    • Maqarin area
http://www.natural-analogues.com/maqarin.htm; Khoury, H. N., Salameh, E., & Abdul-Jaber, Q. (1985). Characteristics of an unusual highly alkaline water from the Maqarin area, northern Jordan. Journal of Hydrology, 81(1), 79-91.; Khoury, H. and Nassir, S. (1982): High temperature mineralization in the bituminous limestone in Maqarin area - North Jordan. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 144, 197-213.
Mexico
 
  • Morelos
    • Cuernavaca
Ward's Natural Science Establishment specimen
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
Bancroft, P., Nordrum, F.S. & Lyckberg, P.(2001): Kongsberg revisited. Mineralogical Record 32: 181-205
Oman
 
  • Al Batinah Region (Ad Batinah Region)
    • Semail Ophiolite
      • Lower Semail Nappe
Neal, C., Stanger, G. (1984): Calcium and magnesium hydroxide precipitation from alkaline groundwaters in Oman, and their significance to the process of serpentinization. Mineralogical Magazine: 48: 237-241
Palestine
 
  • West Bank
    • Hatrurim Formation
Galuskin, E.V., Gfeller, F., Armbruster, T., Sharygin, V.V., Galuskina, I.O., Krivovichev, S.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M., Dzierżanowski, P., Wirth, R. (2015): Mayenite supergroup, part III: Fluormayenite, Ca12Al14O32[□4F2], and fluorkyuygenite, Ca12Al14O32[(H2O)4F2], two new minerals from pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, South Levant. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 123-136.
Shulamit Gross (1977) The mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geol. Surv. of Israel, bull. # 70.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kłodzko County
      • Gmina Nowa Ruda
        • Przygórze
          • Bolesław Mine
Łukasz Kruszewski PXRD data
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Siemianowice Śląskie City Co.
Kruszewski L. 2006: Oldhamite-periclase-portlandite-fluorite assemblage and coexisting minerals of burnt dump in Siemianowice Śląskie - Dąbrówka Wielka area (Upper Silesia, Poland) - preliminary report. Mineralogia Polonica Special Papers, vol.28, 118-120
Romania
 
  • Caraş-Severin
    • Banat Mountains
      • Oraviţa Skarns
Marincea, S., Dumitras, D. G., Ghinet, C., & Bilal, E. (2014, September). Superposed parageneses in the gehlenite-bearing, high-temperature skarns from Oraviţa (Banat, Romania). In IMA2014.
  • Hunedoara
    • Hunedoara
Marincea, Ş., Bilal, E., Verkaeren, J., Pascal, M.-L., and Fonteilles, M. (2001) Superposed paragenesis in spurrite-, tilleyite- and gehlenite-bearing skarns from Cornet Hill, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist: 39: 1435-1453.; Marincea, Ş., Dumitraş, D. G., Călin, N., Anason, A. M., Fransolet, A. M., & Hatert, F. (2013). Spurrite, tilleyite and associated minerals in the exoskarn zone from Cornet Hill (Metaliferi Massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania). The Canadian Mineralogist, 51(3), 359-375.
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
      • Korkino
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 48
  • Murmansk Oblast
Sokolov, S. V. (2014). Portlandite in rocks of carbonatite massifs. Geochemistry International, 52(8), 698-701.
    • Northern Karelia
Sokolov, S. V. (2014). Portlandite in rocks of carbonatite massifs. Geochemistry International, 52(8), 698-701.
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
      • Vitim Plateau
Pavel M. Kartashov data (2012)
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo
    • Phalaborwa
      • Loolekop
Sokolov S.V. (2010) On portlandite from carbonatite complexes. Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
  • Northern Cape
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Black Rock
Minerals of South Africa
      • Hotazel
Speziale, S., Reichmann, H. J., Schilling, F. R., Wenk, H. R., & Monteiro, P. J. M. (2008). Determination of the elastic constants of portlandite by Brillouin spectroscopy. Cement and Concrete Research, 38(10), 1148-1153.
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
[Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Minerals of South Africa
Sweden
 
  • Västernorrland County
    • Sundsvall
      • Alnö
Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
Tajikistan
 
  • Gorno-Badakhshan
Sokolov S.V. (2010) On portlandite from carbonatite complexes. Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.; Sokolov, S. V. (2014). Portlandite in rocks of carbonatite massifs. Geochemistry International, 52(8), 698-701.
Tunisia
 
  • Siliana
    • Siliana
      • Djebel Sekarna
Dill, Weiss, Botz, Dohrmann, Paleontological, mineralogical and chemical studies of syngenetic and epigenetic Pb–Zn–Ba–P mineralizations at the stratotype of the K/P boundary, International Journal of Earth Sciences, Feb 2010.
UK
 
  • Northern Ireland
    • Ulster
      • Co. Antrim
        • Glenoe
Henmi, C., Kusachi, I., Henmi, K., Sabine, P.A., and Young, B.R. (1973) A new mineral bicchulite, the natural analogue of gehlenite hydrate, from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan and Carneal, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, Mineralogical Journal, 7, 243-251.; Nawaz, R. (1977) A second occurrence of killalaite. Mineralogical Magazine, 41, 546-548.
        • Larne
Mineralogical Magazine (1933): 23: 419-420; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 590.
USA
 
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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