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Ardealite

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About ArdealiteHide

Formula:
Ca2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
Colour:
Light yellow, yellow, brownish yellow, colourless
Lustre:
Dull, Earthy
Hardness:
1 - 1½
Specific Gravity:
2.30 - 2.34
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named by Josef Schadler and Franz Halla in 1931 for "Ardeal," the old Romanian name for Transylvania, where the type locality is situated.
A secondary mineral resulting from the breakdown of bat guano in caves in reaction with calcite.


Classification of ArdealiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.CJ.50

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
J : With only large cations
43.1.1.1

43 : COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
1 : Acid Compound Phosphates, etc·
22.3.2

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
3 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with sulphates

Physical Properties of ArdealiteHide

Dull, Earthy
Transparency:
Translucent
Comment:
Fine-grained mineral
Colour:
Light yellow, yellow, brownish yellow, colourless
Streak:
Pale yellow
Hardness:
1 - 1½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Density:
2.30 - 2.34 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.32 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ArdealiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.531 nβ = 1.539 nγ = 1.546
2V:
Measured: 86°
Birefringence:
0.015
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.015
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of ArdealiteHide

Formula:
Ca2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca2(PO3OH)(SO4) · 4H2O

Crystallography of ArdealiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
m - Domatic
Space Group:
Bb
Setting:
Cc
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.721 Å, b = 30.992 Å, c = 6.25 Å
β = 117.26°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.185 : 1 : 0.202
Unit Cell V:
985.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals very thin platy, minute. Forms thin crusts and fine-grained pulverulent to clayey masses.
Comment:
Space Group of Cc is based on synthetic material.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.73 Å(100)
3.93 Å(21)
3.87 Å(36)
3.15 Å(20)
3.08 Å(55)
2.849 Å(24)
2.813 Å(25)
1.810 Å(27)
Comments:
ICDD 41-585

Type Occurrence of ArdealiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Fine-grained, earthy to powdery masses.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Natural History Museum, London, England, UK: #1933,87.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Limestone cave
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for ArdealiteHide

German:Ardealit
Spanish:Ardealita

Common AssociatesHide

BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2O
Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
NewberyiteMg(HPO4) · 3H2O
Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.CJ.CaesiumpharmacosideriteCsFe4[(AsO4)3(OH)4]·4H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
8.CJ.JeankempiteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 7H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.05StercoriteNa(NH4)HPO4 · 4H2OTric.
8.CJ.10Mundrabillaite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2OMon. m : Pm
8.CJ.10Swaknoite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2OOrth.
8.CJ.15NabaphiteNaBaPO4 · 9H2OIso.
8.CJ.15NastrophiteNa(Sr,Ba)PO4 · 9H2O
8.CJ.20HaidingeriteCaHAsO4 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
8.CJ.25VladimiriteCa4(AsO4)2(AsO3OH) · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.CJ.30FerrarisiteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.35Machatschkiite(Ca,Na)6(AsO4)(HAsO4)3(PO4,SO4) · 15H2OHex.
8.CJ.40PhaunouxiteCa3(AsO4)2 · 11H2OTric.
8.CJ.40RauenthaliteCa3(AsO4)2 · 10H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.45Brockite(Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(La)La(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Tristramite(Ca,U,Fe)(PO4,SO4) · 2H2OHex.
8.CJ.45Smirnovskite(Th,Ca)PO4 · nH2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.50BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2OMon. m : Bb
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.CJ.50PharmacoliteCa(HAsO4) · 2H2OMon. m
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · 2H2OMon.
8.CJ.55McneariteNaCa5(AsO4)(HAsO4)4 · 4H2OTric.
8.CJ.60DorfmaniteNa2HPO4 · 2H2OOrth.
8.CJ.65SincositeCa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 5H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/nnm
8.CJ.65BariosincositeBa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 4H2OTet.
8.CJ.70CatalanoiteNa2(HPO4) · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ibca
8.CJ.75GuériniteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.CJ.85NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2OOrth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

22.3.1ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2OOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
22.3.3Machatschkiite(Ca,Na)6(AsO4)(HAsO4)3(PO4,SO4) · 15H2OHex.
22.3.4ClinotyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4,SO4)4(OH,O)10 · 10H2OMon.
22.3.5PeisleyiteNa2Al9[(P,S)O4]8(OH)6•28H2OTric. 1 : P1
22.3.6ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2OTrig. 3 : R3
22.3.7WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
22.3.8Schlossmacherite(H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
22.3.9SvanbergiteSrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
22.3.10KemmlitziteSrAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6Trig.
22.3.11SanjuaniteAl2(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 9H2O
22.3.12KribergiteAl5(PO4)3(SO4)(OH)4 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
22.3.13HotsoniteAl11(SO4)3(PO4)2(OH)21 · 16H2OTric.
22.3.14WeileriteBaAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
22.3.15TsumebitePb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
22.3.16ArsentsumebitePb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
22.3.17HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
22.3.18HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6Trig.
22.3.19OrpheitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6Trig.
22.3.20CoconinoiteFe3+2Al2(UO2)2(PO4)4(SO4)(OH)2 · 20H2OMon.
22.3.21Sasaite(Al,Fe3+)14(PO4)11(SO4)(OH)7 · 83H2OOrth.
22.3.22Tristramite(Ca,U,Fe)(PO4,SO4) · 2H2OHex.
22.3.23CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
22.3.24BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
22.3.25DiadochiteFe3+2(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OAmor.
22.3.26SarmientiteFe3+2(AsO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
22.3.27BukovskýiteFe3+2(AsO4)(SO4)(OH) · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
22.3.28ZýkaiteFe3+4(AsO4)3(SO4)(OH) · 15H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P2 2 2
22.3.29TooeleiteFe3+6(As3+O3)4(SO4)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
22.3.30Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)Amor.
22.3.31Xiangjiangite(Fe3+,Al)(UO2)4(PO4)2(SO4)2(OH) · 22H2OTet.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Commonly intermixed with Brushite and Gypsum.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ArdealiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Halla, F. (1931) Isomorphe Beziehungen und Doppelsalzbildung zwischen Gips und Brushit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 80: 349.
Schadler, J. (1932) Ardealite, ein neues mineral, CaHPO4·CaSO4·4H2O. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie: 40-41.
Henderson, E.P., Foshag, W.F. (1932) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 17: 251-252.
Hill and Hendricks (1936) Indust. Eng. Chem.: 28: 440 (Rist analysis cited).
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1010-1011.
Sakae, T., Nagata, H., Sudo, T. (1978) The crystal structure of synthetic calcium phosphate-sulfate hydrate, Ca2HPO4SO4 •4H2O, and its relation to brushite and gypsum. American Mineralogist: 63: 520–527.
Aslanian, S., Stoilova, D. (1982) Étude de l'ardéalite, membre intermédiaire du système gypse-brushite. Bulletin de Minéralogie: 105: 621–624.
Balenzano, F., Dell’Anna, L., Di Pierro, M., Fiore, S. (1984) Ardealite, CaHPO4CaSO4 •4H2O: a new occurrence and new data. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Monatshefte: 1984: 461–467.
Dumitraş, D.-G. (2017): A re-investigation of ardealite from the type locality, the "dry" Cioclovina Cave (Şureanu Mountains, Romania). European Journal of Mineralogy 29, 1055-1066.

Internet Links for ArdealiteHide

Localities for ArdealiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Bathurst Co.
R Bottrill, unpub. Data
    • Westmoreland Co.
      • Oberon
Podgson RE, Osborne RAL, Colchester DM, Minerals of Jenolan Caves, New South Wales, Australia: Geological and Biological Interactions, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 134, 1-18.
  • Western Australia
    • Dandaragan Shire
      • Jurien Bay
Helictite 13:19-33
Bahamas
 
  • San Salvador District
    • San Salvador Island
Onac B.P., Mylroie J.E., White W.B. (2001): Mineralogy of cave deposits on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Carbonates and Evaporites, 16, 1, 8-16.; Onac B.P., Sumrall J., Mylroie J.E., Kearns J. (2009): Cave minerals of San Salvador Island, Bahamas. The University of South Florida karst studies series, 1, 70 pp.
Bulgaria
 
  • Gabrovo Province
    • Dryanovo
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Vidin Province
Handbook of Mineralogy
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Mejillones
        • Mejillones peninsula
SEM-EDS by Igor V. Pekov, IR Spectroscopy by Nikita V. Chukanov
France
 
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
      • Saint-Benoît
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Putnok District
      • Aggtelek
GEODA/2007/1; Audra, P., De Waele, J., Bentaleb, I., Chroňáková, A., Krištůfek, V., D’Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Madonia, G., Vattano, M., Scopelliti, G., Cailhol, D., Vanara, N., Temovski, M., Bigot, J.-Y., Nobécourt, J.-C., Galli, E., Rull, F., and Sanz-Arranz, A. (2019) Guano-related phosphate-rich minerals in European caves. International Journal of Speleology, 48, 1, 75-105.
Italy
 
  • Apulia
    • Metropolitan City of Bari
      • Altamura
Balenzano, F., Dell’Anna, L., Di Pierro, M., Fiore, S.(1984): Ardealite, CaHPO4CaSO4 • 4H2O: a new occurrence and new data. Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Monatsh., 461-467; Dell'Anna, L., Fiore, S., Laviano, R. (1989): I fosfati di cavità carsiche pugliesi: giaciture, natura e genesi. Atti del XV Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia. Castellana Grotte 10-13 settembre 1987. Comune di Castellana Grotte e Gruppo Puglia Grotte, Castellana Grotte, 171-187.
      • Castellana Grotte
Balenzano, F., Dell'Anna, L., Di Pierro, M. (1974) Ricerche mineralogiche su alcuni fosfati rinvenuti nelle Grotte di Castellana (Bari): strengite alluminifera, vivianite, taranakite, brushite e idrossiapatite. Società Italiana Mineralogia e Petrologia, Milano, Vol. XXX(2), 543-573.
    • Taranto Province
      • Martina Franca
Dell'Anna, L., Fiore, S., Laviano, R. (1989): I fosfati di cavità carsiche pugliesi: giaciture, natura e genesi. Atti del XV Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia. Castellana Grotte 10-13 settembre 1987. Comune di Castellana Grotte e Gruppo Puglia Grotte, Castellana Grotte, 171-187.
Dell'Anna, L., Fiore, S., Laviano, R. (1989): I fosfati di cavità carsiche pugliesi: giaciture, natura e genesi. Atti del XV Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia. Castellana Grotte 10-13 settembre 1987. Comune di Castellana Grotte e Gruppo Puglia Grotte, Castellana Grotte, 171-187.
  • Liguria
    • Savona Province
      • Toirano
Audra, P., De Waele, J., Bentaleb, I., Chroňáková, A., Krištůfek, V., D’Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Madonia, G., Vattano, M., Scopelliti, G., Cailhol, D., Vanara, N., Temovski, M., Bigot, J.-Y., Nobécourt, J.-C., Galli, E., Rull, F., and Sanz-Arranz, A. (2019) Guano-related phosphate-rich minerals in European caves. International Journal of Speleology, 48, 1, 75-105.
  • Sicily
    • Agrigento Province
      • Sambuca di Sicilia
Audra, P., De Waele, J., Bentaleb, I., Chroňáková, A., Krištůfek, V., D’Angeli, I. M., ... & Cailhol, D. (2019). Guano-related phosphate-rich minerals in European caves. International Journal of Speleology, 48(1), 75-105.
Japan
 
  • Hiroshima Prefecture
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
Malaysia
 
  • Sarawak
Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 79-80.
Mexico
 
  • Coahuila
    • Cuatrociénegas Municipality
      • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
        • Limestone caves
Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
Namibia
 
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Otavi
Handbook of Mineralogy
Romania
 
  • Brașov
Puşcaş, C. M., Kristaly, F., Stremţan, C. C., Onac, B. P., & Effenberger, H. S. (2014). Stability of cave phosphates: Case study from Liliecilor Cave (Trascău Mountains, Romania). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 191(2), 157-168.; Marincea, Ş., Dumitraş, D. g., Diaconu, G., & Fransolet, a. m. (2004) Mineralogical Data on the Bat Guano Deposit from Gura Ponicovei Cave (Almaj Mountains, Romania). Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits 81:126-129
  • Caraş-Severin
    • Banat Mts
      • Locva Mts (Locvei Mts)
Onac, B.P., Zaharia, L., Kearns, J. & Veres, D. (2007): Vashegyite from Gaura cu Musca Cave (Locvei Mountains, Romania): a new and rare phosphate occurrence. International J. of Speleology, 35, 67-73.
  • Constanța
Dumitras D, Marincea S, Diaconu G (2004) Thermal diagenesis in the phosphate-sulfate sequence from Gura Dobrogei Cave, Dobrogea, Romania. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 71
  • Hunedoara
    • Cerna valley
Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig (1931) 80, 349-352; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1010.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45; Dumitraş, D.-G. (2017): A re-investigation of ardealite from the type locality, the "dry" Cioclovina Cave (Şureanu Mountains, Romania). European Journal of Mineralogy 29, 1055-1066.
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava Co.
      • Hrušov
Cílek V., 2003: Mineralogické výzkumy v Hrušovské jeskyni ve Slovenském krasu. Slov.Kras, XLI, 225-227
      • Kečovo
Audra, P., De Waele, J., Bentaleb, I., Chroňáková, A., Krištůfek, V., D’Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Madonia, G., Vattano, M., Scopelliti, G., Cailhol, D., Vanara, N., Temovski, M., Bigot, J.-Y., Nobécourt, J.-C., Galli, E., Rull, F., and Sanz-Arranz, A. (2019) Guano-related phosphate-rich minerals in European caves. International Journal of Speleology, 48, 1, 75-105.
South Africa
 
  • North West
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
Minerals of South Africa
  • Western Cape
    • West Coast District
Miller, C. E., Mentzer, S. M., Berthold, C., Leach, P., Ligouis, B., Tribolo, C., ... & Porraz, G. (2016). Site-formation processes at Elands Bay Cave, South Africa. Southern African Humanities, 29(1), 69-128.
South Korea
 
  • Gangwon Province
    • Yeongwol-gun (Yongwol-gun)
Jun, Chang-Pyo ; Lee, Seong-Joo ; Kong, Dal-Yong ; Kang, Il-Mo ; Song, Yun-Goo (2010) Mineralogy of Secondary Phosphates and Sulfates Precipitated within the Sequence of Bat Guano Deposits in the Gossi Cave, Korea. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 395-402
Spain
 
  • Balearic Islands
B. Onac et al (2009) Mineral Diversity in Caves from Mallorca Island, Spain. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 325
      • Inca
Onac, B.P., Fornós, J.J., Ginés, A., Ginés, J. (2005): Mineralogical reconnaissance of caves from Mallorca Island. Endins, 27, 131-140.
      • Llucmajor
Onac, B.P., Fornós, J.J., Ginés, A., Ginés, J. (2005): Mineralogical reconnaissance of caves from Mallorca Island. Endins, 27, 131-140.
Venezuela
 
  • Miranda
Urbani, F. (1996) Venezuelan cave minerals: a review. Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleología, No.30, 1-13.
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
 
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