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Phosgenite

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About PhosgeniteHide

Formula:
Pb2CO3Cl2
Colour:
Colourless, white, yellow, brown, greenish or pink; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Adamantine
Hardness:
2 - 3
Specific Gravity:
6.12 - 6.15
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Name:
From phosgen, a name for carbonyl dichloride, COCl2, because the mineral contains carbon, oxygen, and chlorine.
Phosgenite is formed in the oxidation zone of lead ore deposits, especially where sea water is present or other sources of chlorine.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Phosgenite.


Classification of PhosgeniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.BE.20

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
E : With Pb, Bi
16a.3.4.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
3 : (AB)2(XO3)Zq
12.1.23

12 : Carbonates with other anions
1 : Carbonates with halides

Pronounciation of PhosgeniteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of PhosgeniteHide

Adamantine
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, white, yellow, brown, greenish or pink; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2 - 3 on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
Measured
Comment:
The hardness on {110} is less parallel to [001] than perpendicular to it.
Tenacity:
Sectile
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Distinct on {001} and {110}; less distinct on {010}
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Translation gliding:
Translation gliding with T{110}, t[001].
Comment:
The crystals can easily be flexed about directions perpendicular to [001].
Density:
6.12 - 6.15 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.124 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of PhosgeniteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.118 nε = 2.145
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.027
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Very weakly pleochroic with O - reddish and E - greenish in thick sections.
Comments:
Weakly biaxial at times, noticeable after mechanical deformation.

Chemical Properties of PhosgeniteHide

Formula:
Pb2CO3Cl2
IMA Formula:
Pb2(CO3)Cl2

Crystallography of PhosgeniteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P4/mbm
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.16 Å, c = 8.883(6) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.089
Unit Cell V:
591.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals short prismatic to prismatic [001]; thick tabular rare {001}; thin tabular very rare. Normally terminated by large {001}, with {111} dominant at times. Massive, granular.

Crystallographic forms of PhosgeniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Phosgenite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Phosgenite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Phosgenite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Phosgenite - {110}, {001}, modified
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of PhosgeniteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
Epitaxy Comments:
Cerussite on phosgenite, with cerussite {100} [010] parallel to phosgenite {001}[120].

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Surface conditions in lead-bearing ore bodies.

Type Occurrence of PhosgeniteHide

Synonyms of PhosgeniteHide

Other Language Names for PhosgeniteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
28 photos of Phosgenite associated with GalenaPbS
12 photos of Phosgenite associated with CerussitePbCO3
9 photos of Phosgenite associated with AnglesitePbSO4
7 photos of Phosgenite associated with DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4
7 photos of Phosgenite associated with ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
6 photos of Phosgenite associated with FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
5 photos of Phosgenite associated with GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
4 photos of Phosgenite associated with PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
4 photos of Phosgenite associated with LaurionitePbCl(OH)
3 photos of Phosgenite associated with NealitePb4Fe2+(As3+O3)2Cl4 · 2H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.BE.XAbellaiteNaPb2(CO3)2(OH)Hex. 6mm : P63mc
5.BE.05ShannonitePb2O(CO3)Orth.
5.BE.10HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2Trig.
5.BE.15PlumbonacritePb5O(OH)2(CO3)3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
5.BE.25Bismutite(BiO)2CO3Orth. mm2 : Imm2
5.BE.30KettneriteCaBiCO3OFOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.BE.35BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Immm

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

12.1.1NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2ClIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Fd3
12.1.2BarentsiteNa7Al(HCO3)2(CO3)2F4Tric.
12.1.3RouvilleiteNa3(Ca,Mn,Fe)2(CO3)3FMon. 2/m : B2/b
12.1.4ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
12.1.5DeferniteCa6(CO3)2-x(SiO4)x(OH)7(Cl,OH)1-2x (x<0.5)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
12.1.6BrenkiteCa2(CO3)F2Orth.
12.1.7Stenonite(Sr,Ba,Na)2Al(CO3)F5Mon. 2/m
12.1.8Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P6c2
12.1.9Bastnäsite-(La)La(CO3)FHex.
12.1.10Bastnäsite-(Y)Y(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P62c
12.1.11Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2Mon. m : Bb
12.1.12Parisite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
12.1.13Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b
12.1.14Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b
12.1.15Synchysite-(Nd)CaNd(CO3)2F
12.1.16Röntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3Trig. 3 : R3
12.1.17Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F Hex.
12.1.19Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
12.1.20Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3FTrig.
12.1.21Cebaite-(Ce)Ba3Ce2(CO3)5F2
12.1.22ThorbastnäsiteThCa(CO3)2F2 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
12.1.24BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
12.1.25AlbrechtschraufiteCa4Mg(UO2)2(CO3)6F2 · 17-18H2OTric. 1 : P1
12.1.26KettneriteCaBiCO3OFOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Fluorescence of PhosgeniteHide

Fluoresces yellow in LW & SW UV, X-rays and cathode rays.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in dilute HNO3 with effervescence. Decomposed slowly in cold water, which extracts lead chloride.

Readily alters to, and is replaced by, Cerussite.
Health Risks:
Contains lead. Wash hands after handling. Do not lick or ingest; do not inhale dust when breaking. Do not grind dry.

References for PhosgeniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition: 78 (as "Hornblei").
Klaproth, M.H. (1802) Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, vol. 3: 141 (as "Salzsaures Bleierz").
Jameson, R. (1804) A System of Mineralogy. First edition, 2 volumes, Edinburgh (as Corneous Lead).
Beudant, F.S. (1832) Traité élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 502 (as Kerasine).
Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. Ed.: 61 (as Phosgen-spath).
Breithaupt, A. (1841) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie, Vol. 2: 183.
Glocker, E.F. (1847) Generum et specierum mineralien secundum ordines naturals digestorum synopsis. Halle: 248 (as Galenoceratite, Bleikerat).
Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the Mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. 483pp., London: 421 (as Cromfordite).
Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 703.
Kokscharow, N.I. (1881) Materialien zur Mineralogie Russlands. VIII, 118.
Goldschmidt, V. (1893) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 21: 321.
Sohncke (1896) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich: 26: 97.
de Schulten (1897) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 20: 191.
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1899) On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 12, n° 55, 102-110.
Pilipenko (1906) Nachr. Tomsk. Univ.: 14.
Lacroix (1909) 3: 779.
Pilipenko (1909) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: II: 368.
Lacroix (1910) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 151: 276.
Tarrico (1910) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Att.: 19: 278.
Tacconi (1911) 1st. Lombardo, Rend.: 44: 991.
Mügge (1914) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 43.
Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 6: 150.
Anders (1921) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Leipzig: 73: 117.
Mélon analysis in: Buttgenbach (1925) Livre jubil., Soc. géol. Belgique.
Rodolico (1928) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Att.: 8: 171.
Koch (1929) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Beil.-Bd., Stuttgart: 59: 97.
Onorato E. (1934) La struttura della fosgenite. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 37-61.
Oftedal (1945) Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo: 24: 79.
Sillén and Petersson (1945) Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo: 24: 79.
Sillén and Petersson (1945) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 21: 1.
Angelelli and Valvano (1946) Rev. soc. geol. Argentina: 1: 257.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 256-259.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 237, 500-501.
Giuseppetti, G. and Tadini, C. (1974) Reexamination of the structure of phosgenite, Pb2Cl2(CO3). Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 21: 101-109.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 543.
Ladislav Bohatý, Petra Becker, Hanjo Rhee, André Kaltenbach, Hans J. Eichler, Hitoki Yoneda, Akira Shirakawa, Ken-ichi Ueda, and Alexander A. Kaminskii (2013) Phosgenite, PbCO2CO3Cl2 - a novel SRS-active crystal. Physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters 7, 429-433.

Internet Links for PhosgeniteHide

Localities for PhosgeniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca Province
    • Andalgalá Department
Effenberger, H., Lengauer, C.L., Libowitzky, E., Putz, H. & Topa, D. (2015): Pb6Al(OH)8Cl2(NO3)5·3H2O from the Capillitas deposit, Argentina. Poster, MinPet 2015, Leoben, Austria, September 10-13; abstract in Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 161, 31.
    • Antofagasta de la Sierra department
      • Antofagasta de la Sierra
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258.; Angelelli, V. (1946): La fosgenita primaria del Salar del Plomo. (En colaboración con Valvano, J.). Soc. Geol. Argent., Rev., 257-269.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258; Mineralogical Record: 7: 30.
      • Northern Broken Hill Block
The Daydream Mine, G.D. Grose, Bungala Press 2002. The reference refers to minerals collected at the mine and identified by John Leach.
Mines of the Broken Hill District
  • Queensland
    • Mount Isa City Shire
[MinRec 19:482]
Sielecki, R. (1988) The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field. Mineralogical Record, Vol. 19, pg. 469-490.
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Arkaroola Region (Arkaroola Wilderness Sanctuary; Arkaroola Station)
          • Mount Fitton homestead
Australian Mineralogist (5), 5-8. (1990); Noble R.J., Just J. and Johnson J. E., 1983, Catalogue of South Australian Minerals:1983, Government Printer, Adelaide.
        • Leigh Creek
          • Beltana
            • Ediacaran Fossil Reserve
Noble R.J., Just J. and Johnson J. E., 1983, Catalogue of South Australian Minerals-1983, Government Printer, Adelaide.
        • Mount Lyndhurst station
Noble, RJ & Just, J, 1983 , Catalogue of South Australian minerals : 1983 , Dept. of Mines and Energy, South Australia, Adelaide.
        • Vulkathunha - Gammon Ranges National Park
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Chandlers Hill
Kolitsch, U. and Elliott, P. (1999): Mineralogy of the Mount Malvern Mine near Clarendon, South Australia. Australian J. Mineral. 5, 3-17.
        • Glen Osmond
No reference listed
No reference listed
  • Tasmania
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Waratah district
        • Magnet
[MinRec 19:383]
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan District
        • Dundas mineral field
Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
Bottrill, R.S., Williams, P.A., Dohnt, S., Sorrell, S., Kemp, N.R. (2006) Crocoite and associated minerals from Tasmania. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 12(2), 59-90.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258.
        • North Dundas
[MinRec 8:25]. Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
      • Tom Price
Am Min 72:1251-1256; American Mineralogist, Volume 72, pages 401-403, 1987
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Sankt Veit an der Glan District
      • Hüttenberg
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
U. Kolitsch and H. Pristacz (2009): An orthorhombic dimorph of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, from slags at Maria Waitschach, Austria, and Lavrion, Greece. Poster, Joint MinPet 2009 and 4th MSCC, Budapest, Hungary, September 7-11; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 83.; Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
  • Salzburg
    • Zell am See District
      • Leogang
        • Hütten
          • Schwarzleograben
            • Schwarzleo mining district
Bindi, L., Nestola, F., Kolitsch, U., Guastoni, A. & Zorzi, F. (2011): Fassinaite, Pb2+2(S2O3)(CO3), the first mineral with coexisting thiosulphate and carbonate groups: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 2721-2732.
      • Rauris
        • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
          • Kolm-Saigurn
A. Strasser: Die MInerale Salzburgs (1989)
Niedermayr, G. & Wittern, A. (2009): Mineralreiches Österreich - Tirol, Salzburg, Vorarlberg. Bode Verlag, Haltern, 144 pp.
  • Styria
    • Murtal District
      • Pölstal
        • Oberzeiring
C.Auer (2012)
  • Vorarlberg
    • Verwall Alps (Verwall Group)
      • Rinder valley (Gafluna valley)
Kolitsch, U. (2013): 1795) Bastnäsit(?)-(Ce), Chamosit, Chrysokoll, SEE-haltiger Epidot, Fluorit, Schwefel und andere Mineralien vom alten Bergbau am Fellimännle, Rindertal (Gaflunatal) im Montafon, Vorarlberg. P. 107 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2013): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXI. Carinthia II, 203./123., 91-146.
Brazil
 
  • Pará
    • São Félix do Xingu
[MinRec 6:285]
  • São Paulo
    • Iporanga
[MinRec 6:285]
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Antofagasta
Arfè, G., Boni, M., Mondillo, N., Aiello, R., Balassone, G., Arseneau, V. and Soyk, D. (2016): Supergene alteration in the Capricornio Au-Ag epithermal vein system, Antofagasta Region, Chile. Can. Mineral. 54, 681-706.
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Tocopilla District
maurizio dini collection - analysed material
  • Tarapacá
    • El Tamarugal province
      • Pampa del Tamarugal
sample analysed by Tony Kampf, senior curator of NHM of LAC, California
China
 
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data of 2014
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Příbram District
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Carnoët
        • Menez-Plom
P. Le Roch collection
    • Finistère
      • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
  • Grand Est
    • Bas-Rhin
      • Sélestat-Erstein
        • Urbeis
Aufschluss 1/85
    • Haute-Marne
      • Langres
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258.
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Corrèze
      • Ussel
[MinRec 13:267]
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Villefranche-de-Rouergue
Patrice Queneau Collection
    • Lozère
      • Marvejols
        • St Léger-de-Peyre
Patrice Queneau Collection
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Kolitsch, U., Bayerl, R. and Topa, D. (2019): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald (V). Mineralien-Welt 30 (3), 12-27 (in German).
  • Hesse
    • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Cologne
      • Euskirchen
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Düsseldorf
      • Ratingen
        • Selbeck
Lapis 1988(1), 18-20
Heckmann, H. & Schertl, H.-P. (1990): Der Niederbergische Erzbergbau und seine Mineralien. Emser Hefte, 11 (2), 2-40.
      • Velbert
Lapis 1988(1), 13-35
    • The Ruhr
      • Essen
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
      • Marl
        • Marl-Hüls
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Neuwied
      • Puderbach
Lapis, 9 (9), 31-38.
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
[MinRec 7:124]
          • Dipseliza area
            • Dipseliza Mines
Branko Rieck collection
Fritz Schreiber collection
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
No reference listed
Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 102-110. ; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
          • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
No reference listed
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt 25 (2), 82-95 (in German).
          • Oxygon area
No reference listed
          • Panormos area
No reference listed
          • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Puntazeza area (Punta Zeza area)
Siidra, O.I., Krivovichev, S.V., Chukanov, N.V., Pekov, I.V., Magganas, A., Katerinopoulos, A., Voudouris, P. (2011): The crystal structure of Pb5(As3+O3)Cl7 from the historic slags of Lavrion, Greece – a novel Pb(II) chloride arsenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 337-345.
          • Sounion area
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch); Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt 25 (2), 82-95 (in German).
Ko Jansen Collection & photo
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Tourkolimanon area
No reference listed
          • Vrissaki area
Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt 25 (2), 82-95 (in German).
Iran
 
  • Isfahan Province
    • Nain County
      • Anarak District
Adib, D. and Ottemann, J. (1970): Mineralium Deposita, 5, 86-93.; Bariand, P. 1963. Contribution à la minéralogie de l’lran. Bulletin de la Société Française de minéralogie et de cristallographie, 86: 17-64. [Locality description in brief and mineralogical list with photographs] Bariand, P. 2003. Un apercu général sur la Minéralogie de I'Iran. Le Règne Minéral, 54: 41-51.
Ireland
 
  • Leinster
    • Co. Dublin
[UKJMM 19:12]
Green, D.I. (1998) Phosgenite: a first Irish occurrence from Killiney, Co. Dublin. U.K. Journal of Mines & Minerals, No. 19, p. 12.
Italy
 
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
      • Anzio
Palombi, S., Bellatreccia, F. & Pucci, R. (2009): Le scorie metallurgiche di Tor Caldara, Anzio - RM. Il Cercapietre, no. 1-2, 44-56. [http://www.gminromano.it/Cercapietre/rivista09/art03.pdf]
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Genoa
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Domusnovas
Stara, P., Rizzo, R. & Tanca, G.A. - Iglesiente - Arburese, Miniere e Minerali - Gruppi Min. Italiani Ed.Vol.I, 240pp.
      • Gonnesa
Pelloux, A. (1907) La collezione mineralogica Traverso del Museo Civico Genovese nel 1907. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 43, 178-217; Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. [with contributions of Vinci, A., Astolfi, M.] (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Associazione Mineralogica Sarda, Associazione Mineralogica Domusnovas, Gruppo Mineralogico Arburese, Gruppo Mineralogico Paleontologico Piacentino, Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo et al. Ed., Siena, Vol. 1, 239 pp.
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente - Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Volume 1 & 2. Nine Italian Mineralogical Groups/Associations, 192 + 239 pp.
      • Iglesias
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258; De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
        • Nebida
Pelloux, A. (1907) La collezione mineralogica Traverso del Museo Civico Genovese nel 1907. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 43, 178-217; Guida ai minerali Gruppo editore Fabbri ed. 1973 rist. 1985
        • Punta della Torre
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 1, 238 pp.
Lips, ALW (2006) A review of non-ferrous mineral deposits in Europe - Finalised initial database BRGM/RP -54957 - FR
    • Sassari Province
      • Sassari
Orlandi, P., & Gelosa, M. (2007). Argentiera della Nurra. I minerali di alterazione della miniera di sfalerite e galena argentifera. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (1), 22-31. ; Ara D., Sanna L., Rossi A., Galli E., De Waele J. (2013): Minerali secondari in ambiente sotterraneo: la miniera dell’Argentiera (Sardegna nord-occidentale). In: Cucchi F., Gudi P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 290-295.
    • South Sardinia Province
      • Fluminimaggiore
        • Oridda Valley
No reference listed
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G. A. (1996): Iglesiente – Arburese, Miniere e Minerali. Associazioni e Gruppi Mineralogici Italiani Ed., 238 pp.
      • Gonnosfanadiga
        • Fenugu Sibiri Mine
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 2°, 239 pp.
      • Guspini
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258; Lapis, 13(12), 16-19.
      • Sarrabus-Gerrei
        • Gerrei
          • Villaputzu
        • Sarrabus
          • Villaputzu
Kokscharow, N. [Koksharov, N.] (1865) Resultate genauer Krystall-Messungen. 1. Phosgenit. Bulletin de l'Académie Impérial des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 9 (1866), 231-235; Jervis, G. (1881) I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 3: Regioni delle Isole. Sardegna e Sicilia. Addenda ai precedenti volumi. Ermanno Loescher, Torino, XXII+539 pp.; Pelloux, A. (1907) La collezione mineralogica Traverso del Museo Civico Genovese nel 1907. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 43, 178-217; Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892. Seventh edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, Volume II, page 258; Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Brizzi, G. (1993) Sarrabus. Miniere e Minerali. Associazione Mineralogica Sarda, Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, Associazione Piemontese Mineralogia Paleontologia e Mostra Torinese Minerali, Centro Mineralogico Varesino, Amici Mineralogisti Fiorentini, Gruppo Mineralogico Paleontologico Piacentino, et al., Stige Milano Srl, Milano, 208 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Isola del Giglio
        • Giglio Island
          • Franco Promontory
Marinai, Nannoni, 1994. I minerali dell'Isola del Giglio. Circolo Culturale Gigliese.
      • Montieri
        • Gerfalco
Bazzoni, C. & Capperi, M. (2001): La miniera di «Montevecchio» in Toscana (Gerfalco - Grosseto). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2011, 236-241
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Luigi Chiappino
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
        • Sassetta
          • Canina Valley
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
        • Suvereto
Luigi Chiappino data
      • Piombino
Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N. (1992): I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77; Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N., Bartoli, M.L., Chiappino, L. (1992): Baratti (LI): una nuova località mineralogica italiana analoga al Laurion. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 15, 1 (1-1992), 1-14 [1a parte]; Cerutti, G., Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20, 4, 13-18 and 50.
  • Veneto
    • Metropolitan City of Venice
      • Venice
Adriano Perugini find & collection
Mexico
 
  • Baja California Sur
    • Mulegé Municipality
      • Santa Rosalía
Mineralogical Record: 29: 43.
          • Arroyo de la Soledad
Panczner(1987):92-350.
  • San Luis Potosí
    • Guadalcázar Municipality
      • Guadalcázar
Panczner (1987): 275, 318.
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Midelt Province
Jébrak, M., Marcoux, E., Masloubi, M., and Zaharaoui, M. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 406-415.
  • Oriental Region
    • Jerada Province
      • Touissit-Bou Beker mining district
Georges FAVREAU collection
Van King
[MinRec 18:430, 20:69; 20(5): 396.]
Namibia
 
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258; Mineralogical Record: 8: 29, 85; Mineralogical Record: 24: 235.
Norway
 
  • Akershus
    • Rælingen
      • Løvenstad
Kamphaug, E.(1986):Geologien i området Blystadlia-Rælingen. NAGS-nytt 13(3), 4-13.
  • Nordland
    • Sørfold
Ellingsen, H.V., Andersen, T. & Haugen, A., (2000): Nye mineraler fra amazonittpegmatitten ved Tennvatn, Nordland. Norsk Bergverksmuseums Skriftserie 17, 52-58.
    • Tysfjord
Husdal, T. (2019) Nyfunn av mineraler fra Tysfjord-pegmatittene, Nordland. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2019: 31-46
Poland
 
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Tarnowskie Góry County
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258.
Eligiusz Szełęg collection
Portugal
 
  • Beja
    • Castro Verde
      • Castro Verde
Pedro Alves collection and analytical data.
    • Odemira
      • São Luís
Pedro Alves collection and analytical data.
Russia
 
  • Altai Krai
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 252, 258.
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Asturias
    • Vegadeo
      • Meredo
        • Bedures hill (Vidures hill)
Calvo Rebollar, M. and Viñals i Olia, J. (2018). Cotunnita, cumengeita, diaboleita y otros minerales secundarios de plomo y cobre en la mina "La Reixidora", Monte Bedures, Meredo, Vegadeo (Asturias). Revista de Minerales, 7 (1), 26-30.
Tunisia
 
  • Kef
    • Tajerouine
      • Slata Pb-Zn deposit
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258.
    • Mahdia
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
UK
 
  • England
    • Bristol
      • Westbury on Trym
BMS Database
    • Cornwall
      • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
      • Falmouth
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 47 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]; Allan C. Dean, Robert F. Symes, John H. Thomas and Peter A. Williams (1983) Cumengéite from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine 47:235-236.
      • Gwinear-Gwithian
        • Gwithian
Michael Merry (collected 2007)
      • Mawnan
Paul De Bondt collection
      • Newquay
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 47 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
      • Padstow
        • Gunver Head
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 47 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]; BMS Database
      • Perranzabuloe
        • Penhale Point
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 47 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
        • Perran Iron Lode (Great Perran Iron Lode)
Steve Rust specimen
      • Porthleven
No reference listed
Russell, A. and Hutchinson, A. (1927) On laurionite and associated minerals from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 21, n° 116, 221-228.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 65.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 237, 500-501.; Golley & Williams (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual, 47.
      • St Endellion
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 47 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]; Keller, P., & Lloyd, D. (1991) Barstowite, 3PbCb.PbC03.H20, a new mineral from Bounds Cliff, St Endellion, Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine 55:121-125
      • St Hilary
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501. Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
      • St Minver
        • Trebetherick
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 47 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
      • St Teath
        • Treligga
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 47 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
      • Tintagel
        • Trebarwith
No reference listed
Peter Trebilcock.
    • County Durham
      • Castleside
Norman Wilson Personal Collection
    • Cumbria
      • Allerdale
        • Caldbeck
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1957).
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
    • Derbyshire
      • Derbyshire Dales District
Breithaupt A (1841) Phosgenites plumbosus kürzer phosgenit, Vollständiges Handbuch der Mineralogie 2, 183-184 Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Vol. 2, 60, 258; Mineralogical Record 23, 377-385; Mineralogical Record 24, 245-256, 401; Mineralogical Record 25, 39-41; Rock Currier
Russell, A. and Hutchinson, A. (1927) On Laurionite and Associated Minerals from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 21, n° 116, 221-228.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 237, 500-501.; Jones, J. (1982) Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society 8(4), 260-261.; Ford, T.D., Sarjeant, W.A.S., and Smith, M.E. (1993) UK Journal of Mines and Minerals 13, 16-55.
Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993) The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13:16-55
    • North Somerset
      • Clevedon
BMS Database
    • Staffordshire
      • Ecton
        • Back of Ecton
S Rust collection
  • Scotland
    • Moray
F. Rutley: "Elements of Mineralogy", 12th Ed. (1900)
      • Lossiemouth
No reference listed
BMS Database
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion
      • Ceulanymaesmawr
        • Talybont
          • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
S Rust Collection
    • Gwynedd
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanengan
          • Abersoch
BMS Database
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Osborn Mining District
        • Tonopah
          • Belmont Mountain
Raman analyzed at the University of Arizona.
      • Painted Rock Mountains
        • Painted Rock Mining District
          • Theba
Raman analyzed at the University of Arizona.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Mammoth Mining District
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141, 287; Peacor, D., et al (1985), Mammothite, a new mineral from Tiger, AZ, and Laurium, Greece, Min.Rec.: 15: 117-120; Fahey, J.J., et al (1950), Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, AZ, Am.Min.: 35: 93-98; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 54.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 202, 327; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, Arizona, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181; Palache, C. (1941b), Diaboleite from Mammoth mine, Tiger, AZ, Am.Min.: 26: 605-612; Fahey, J.J., et al (1950), Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, AZ, Am.Min.: 35: 93-98; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 54.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258; Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp. (includes catalog of minerals of California pp. 63-410), and miscellaneous observations on mineral products): 309; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 288.
  • Colorado
    • Custer Co.
      • Oak Creek Mining District (Ilse Mining District)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258; Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Idaho
    • Custer Co.
Gunnar Färber
  • Massachusetts
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Easthampton
Breithaupt A (1841) Phosgenites plumbosus kürzer phosgenit, Vollständiges Handbuch der Mineralogie 2, 183-184 (as 'Southampton, Massachusetts) Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258; Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
  • Nevada
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Pioche Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Lodi Hills
        • Lodi Mining District
          • Marble camp
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Doña Ana Co.
      • Organ Mountains
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 258; Northrop (1996) Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed.
Mineralogical Record: 4: 33; Mineralogical Record: 20: 30.
    • Socorro Co.
      • Hansonburg District
        • Bingham
          • Mex-Tex Mine
Mineralogical Record: 26(5): 483.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
  • Pennsylvania
    • Northampton Co.
      • Easton
Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Cranston
Miller, C. E. (1971) Rhode Island Minerals and Their Locations, O. D. Hermes, Ed., University of Rhode Island, Kingston
Alminas, Henry V.; Foord, Eugene E.; Tucker, Robert E. (1994) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geochronology of the U.S. Virgin Islands USGS Bulletin 2057 36p
  • Utah
    • Juab Co.
      • Tintic Mining District
        • Eureka
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 1092; Dana 6, App. 3 (1915) by W.E. Ford: 45; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 567; Encyclopedia of Minerals, 2nd Ed: 671.
  • Virginia
    • Wythe Co.
      • New River-Cripple Creek Region
        • Austinville-Ivanhoe Mining District
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich.
  • Washington
    • Pierce Co.
      • Tacoma
        • Ruston
Washington Geology, vol.25, no. 3, September 1997.
 
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