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Pentahydrite

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About PentahydriteHide

Formula:
MgSO4 · 5H2O
Colour:
Colourless, pale blue
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Name:
In allusion to its chemical composition having five (PENTA-) molecules of water (HYDR-) in its formula.

Classification of PentahydriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.CB.20

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
29.6.7.3

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
6 : AXO4·xH2O
25.3.4

25 : Sulphates
3 : Sulphates of Mg

Physical Properties of PentahydriteHide

Vitreous
Colour:
Colourless, pale blue
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale

Optical Data of PentahydriteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.482 nβ = 1.492 nγ = 1.493
2V:
Measured: 45° , Calculated: 34°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.011
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of PentahydriteHide

Formula:
MgSO4 · 5H2O
IMA Formula:
Mg(SO4) · 5H2O

Crystallography of PentahydriteHide

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.33 Å, b = 10.55 Å, c = 6.07 Å
α = 99.17°, β = 109.88°, γ = 75°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.6 : 1 : 0.575
Unit Cell V:
367.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of PentahydriteHide

Synonyms of PentahydriteHide

Other Language Names for PentahydriteHide

Varieties of PentahydriteHide

kelleriteA cuprian variety of pentahydrite.

Relationship of Pentahydrite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BelogubiteCuZn(SO4)2·10H2OTric. 1 : P1
ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.
SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe)SO4 · H2OTric.
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2OMon.
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2OMon.
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. m : Bb
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2OTet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35AlpersiteMg(SO4) · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2OTric. 1
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteFeAl(SO4)3 · 9H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon.
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

29.6.7.1ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
29.6.7.2SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
29.6.7.4JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.3.1KieseriteMgSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m
25.3.2SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.3.3StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.5HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
25.3.6EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.3.7CaminiteMg7(SO4)5(OH)4 · H2OTet.
25.3.8VanthoffiteNa6Mg(SO4)4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.9BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
25.3.10KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.11LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2OTrig.
25.3.12UklonskoviteNaMg(SO4)F · 2H2OMon.
25.3.13LangbeiniteK2Mg2(SO4)3Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
25.3.14LeoniteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
25.3.15PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
25.3.16Efremovite(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3Iso.
25.3.17Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.18PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for PentahydriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hobbs (1905) American Geologist, Minneapolis (1888-1905): 36: 184 (as Epsomite).
Keller (1908) Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society: 47: 81 (as Double Sulphate of Copper and Magnesium).
Allen and Day (1927) Carnegie Institute Washington Publication: 378: 42.
Milton and Johnston (1938) Economic Geology 33: 749.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 492.
American Mineralogist (1951) 36: 641.
Acta Crystallographica B28: 1448-1455.
Peterson, R.C., Hammarstrom, J.M., Seal, R.R., II (2006): Alpersite (Mg,Cu)SO4•7H2O, a new mineral of the melanterite group, and cuprian pentahydrite: their occurrence within mine waste. American Mineralogist 91, 261-269.

Internet Links for PentahydriteHide

Localities for PentahydriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • San Juan Province
    • Iglesia Department
Bengochea, L. y Mas, G. (1998), Aparición de jarlita y sulfatos secundarios en el Valle del Cura, Argentina. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía, 21-A. Resúmenes de comunicaciones del Congreso de Mineralogía y Petrología, SEM 98 y 18° Reunión de la SEM, pág. 44-45.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Tablelands Region
Harris, D.L., Lottermoser, B.G., Duchesne, J. (2003) Ephemeral acid mine drainage at the Montalbion silver mine, north Queensland. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 50(5), 797-809.
  • Western Australia
    • Wiluna Shire
Wilson, S.A., Harrison, A.L., Dipple, G.M., Power, I.M., Barker, S.L.L., Ulrich, M.K., Fallon, S.J., Raudsepp, M., Southam, G. (2014) Offsetting of CO2 emissions by air capture in mine tailings at the Mount Keith Nickel Mine, Western Australia: Rates, controls and prospects for carbon neutral mining. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 25 121-140
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • St. Johann im Pongau District
      • Bad Hofgastein
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
  • Tyrol
    • Innsbruck-Land District
      • Hall
        • Hall valley
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden District
      • Hallstatt
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Canada
 
  • Saskatchewan
Last, W. M. (1990). Paleochemistry and paleohydrology of Ceylon Lake, a salt-dominated playa basin in the northern Great Plains, Canada. Journal of Paleolimnology, 4(3), 219-238.
Costa Rica
 
  • Cartago Province
    • Irazú Volcano
Ulloa, A., Gázquez, F., Sanz Arranz, A., Medina García, J., Rull Pérez, F., Calaforra, J. M., ... & De Waele, J. (2018). Extremely high diversity of sulfate minerals in caves of the Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) related to crater lake and fumarolic activity.
Czech Republic
 
  • South Moravian Region
    • Brno-Country District
      • Oslavany
Hršelová, P., Cempírek, J., Houzar, S., Sejkora, J. (2013): S,F,Cl-rich mineral assemblages from burned spoil heaps in the Rosice-Oslavany coalfield, Czech Republic. Can. Mineral.: 51(1): 171-188
Germany
 
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Stassfurt Potash deposit
      • Egeln
        • Tarthun
No reference listed
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Schlema-Hartenstein District
T. Witzke (1992): Neues zu den Mineralien von Schlema-Hartenstein und der Grube König David, Schneeberg, Erzgebirge.- Mineralien-Welt 3(6), 16-18
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
Rieck, B., Kolitsch, U., Voudouris, P., Giester, G. and Tzeferis, P. (2018): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Mineralien-Welt 29 (5), 32-77 (in German).
Hungary
 
  • Heves County
    • Recsk
Szakáll & Kovács,2007
Iceland
 
  • Southern Region
    • Rangárþing eystra
Balić-Žunić, T., Garavelli, A., Jakobsson, S. P., Jonasson, K., Katerinopoulos, A., Kyriakopoulos, K., & Acquafredda, P. (2016). Fumarolic minerals: An overview of active European volcanoes. In Updates in Volcanology-From Volcano Modelling To Volcano Geology. InTechOpen.
India
 
  • Rajasthan
    • Nagaur District
Sinha, R., & Smykatz-Kloss, W. (2003). Thermal characterization of lacustrine dolomites from the Sambhar Lake playa, Thar desert, India. Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry, 71(3), 739-750.
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Arandis
      • Rössing Mountains Area
Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 335 pp (in English).
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek Rural
      • Friedenau Farm 16
DILL, H.G., PÖLLMANN, H. , BOSECKER, K., HAHN, L. and MWIYA, S.(2002) Supergene mineralization in mining residues of the Matchless cupreous pyrite deposit (Namibia) – A clue to the origin of modern and fossil duricrusts in semiarid climates.- Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 75: 43-70
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Skien
      • Flakvarp
        • Torsberg
Larsen, A.O. (1993): Gruver og skjerp i Skien. Stathelle 1993. 72p. (p. 60)., Raade, G. Sæbø, P. Chr. (1990): Pentahydrite, MgS04*5H2O, from Dragehullert, Porsgrunn. Interne notater 1961-1990. Mineralogisk-Geologisk Museum, UiO, Oslo,p.149
Peru
 
  • Tacna
    • Jorge Basadre Province
Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
Poland
 
  • Lesser Poland Voivodeship
    • Olkusz Co.
      • Gmina Olkusz
Cabała, J., & Bzowska, G. (2008). Sulphate speleothems in Pomorzany Zn–Pb ore mine, southern Poland. Kras i speleologia, 12(21), 59-76.
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Cesnokov, B., M. Kotrly, and T. Nisanbajev (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Nesterovskiy, V. A., & Deiak, M. A. (2015). Cучасний МІНЕРАЛОГЕНЕЗ В ЕКЗОГЕННИХ СИСТЕМАХ КРИМСЬКОГО ПІВОСТРОВА. Збірник наукових праць Інституту геологічних наук НАН України, 8, 165-172. Modern mineral formation in exogenous systems of Crimean Peninsula
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Yana-Kolyma Foldbelt
Zayakina, N. V. (2019, March). Cranswickite—a rare tetrahydrate sulfate of magnesium MgSO4∙ 4H2O, the new find in Yakutia. In Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society (Vol. 148, No. 1, pp. 49-53).
Senegal
 
  • Ziguinchor Region
Montoroi, J. P. (1995) Mise eli évidence d'une séquence de précipitation des sels dails les sols sulfatés acides d'une vallée aménagée de Basse-Casamance (Sénégal). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 320, série II a, p. 395-402
Tunisia
 
  • Tataouine
Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Coconino County
Quick, T.J., R.G. Corbett, and B.M. Manner (1989) Efflorescent minerals occurring in the gorge of the Grand Canyon, Abstract with Programs, Geological Society of America: 21(4): 44-45; Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 7.
  • California
    • Alameda Co.
      • Oakland Hills (San Leandro Hills)
        • Oakland
          • Leona Heights
            • Leona Heights deposit
Jeffrey Weissman collection
    • Imperial Co.
      • Niland
Adams, P., & Lynch, D. (2014). A mineralogical inventory of geothermal features southeast of the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California. Trough to trough: The Colorado River and the Salton Sea (Reynolds, R, 39-43.
    • Sonoma Co.
      • West Mayacmas Mining District
Allen, Eugene T. & Arthur L. Day (1927), Steam wells and other thermal activity at “The Geysers,” California: Carnegie Institute Washington Publication 378: 39, 45; Vonsen, Magnus (1941) Preliminary report on minerals of The Geysers of Sonoma County, California. Mineralogist: 9: 246, 247; Vonsen, Magnus (1946), Minerals at “The Geysers,” Sonoma County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 290; 87-293; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 492.
  • Colorado
    • Mesa Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Teller Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 492.
  • Montana
    • Mineral Co.
      • Alberton
        • Fish Creek
Econ Geol (2004) 99:1727-1744
  • Nevada
    • Storey Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 492; Rocks & Minerals: 74(6): 380-390.
  • Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • Red Canyon
Joe Marty (2015) Minerals of the Blue Lizard Mine and other Western Localities, NCMA Annual Symposium 2015
  • Virginia
    • Louisa Co.
      • Gold-Pyrite Belt
        • Mineral
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Zimbabwe
 
  • Mashonaland West
    • Kadoma District
Frei, Martina (2005) Composition, formation, and leaching behaviour of supergene, polymetallic ores from the Sanyati deposit (Zimbabwe): A case study
 
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