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Pekoite

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About PekoiteHide

Formula:
PbCuBi11S18
May contain minor Se replacing S.
Colour:
lead-grey
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2 - 3
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1976 by W.G. Mumme and J.A. Watts for the type locality, the Peko Mine, Australia.

Classification of PekoiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1975
2.HB.05a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
H : Sulfosalts of SnS archetype
B : With Cu, Ag, Fe, Sn and Pb
3.4.5.6

3 : SULFOSALTS
4 : ø = 3
5.7.17

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
7 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb and other metals

Physical Properties of PekoiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
lead-grey
Streak:
lead-grey
Hardness:
2 - 3 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good

Chemical Properties of PekoiteHide

Formula:
PbCuBi11S18

May contain minor Se replacing S.
IMA Formula:
CuPbBi11S18
Common Impurities:
Ag,Fe

Crystallography of PekoiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.47 Å, b = 33.74 Å, c = 4.01 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.34 : 1 : 0.119
Unit Cell V:
1,551.86 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of PekoiteHide

Synonyms of PekoiteHide

Other Language Names for PekoiteHide

German:Pekoit
Russian:Пекоит
Simplified Chinese:硒铋铜铅矿
Spanish:Pekoita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
5 photos of Pekoite associated with GladitePbCuBi5S9
2 photos of Pekoite associated with KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
2 photos of Pekoite associated with ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
1 photo of Pekoite associated with GoldAu
1 photo of Pekoite associated with QuartzSiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.HB.Carducciite(Ag2Sb2)Pb12(As,Sb)16S40Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HB.05aAikinitePbCuBiS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.HB.05aFriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18Orth. mm2
2.HB.05aGladitePbCuBi5S9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.05aHammaritePb2Cu2Bi4S9Orth.
2.HB.05cJaskólskiiteCuxPb2+x(Sb,Bi)2-xS5 (x ~ 0.15)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.05aKrupkaitePbCuBi3S6Orth.
2.HB.05aLindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.05bMeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.05aEmilitePb2.7Cu2.7Bi5.3S12Orth. mm2
2.HB.05UM2000-46-S:BiCuPbCu0.33Pb0.33Bi7.67S12
2.HB.05aSalzburgitePb1.6Cu1.6Bi6.4S12Orth. mm2
2.HB.05UM1990-54-Se:BiCuPbCuPb(Ni,Co)0.3Bi3Se6
2.HB.05aPaaritePb1.7Cu1.7Bi6.3S12Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.10cEclarite(Cu,Fe)Pb9Bi12S28Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.HB.10bGiessenitePb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57Mon. 2/m
2.HB.10bIzoklakeitePb27(Cu,Fe,Ag)2(Sb,Bi)19S57Orth.
2.HB.10aKobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.HB.10aTintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.HB.15BenavidesitePb4MnSb6S14Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HB.15JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HB.20dBerryiteCu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.HB.20bBuckhorniteAuPb2BiTe2S3Orth.
2.HB.20aNagyágite[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.HB.20eWatkinsoniteCu2PbBi4(Se,S,Te)8Mon.
2.HB.20cMuseumite[Pb2(Pb,Sb)2S8][(Te,Au)2]Mon. 2
2.HB.20eLitochlebiteAg2PbBi4Se8Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

3.4.5.1AikinitePbCuBiS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.4.5.2KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6Orth.
3.4.5.3GladitePbCuBi5S9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.4.5.4HammaritePb2Cu2Bi4S9Orth.
3.4.5.5FriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18Orth. mm2
3.4.5.7LindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.7.1SeligmannitePbCuAsS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
5.7.2BournonitePbCuSbS3Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
5.7.3MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.4GladitePbCuBi5S9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.5LindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.6KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6Orth.
5.7.7HammaritePb2Cu2Bi4S9Orth.
5.7.8FriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18Orth. mm2
5.7.9AikinitePbCuBiS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
5.7.10NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7Orth.
5.7.11JaskólskiiteCuxPb2+x(Sb,Bi)2-xS5 (x ~ 0.15)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.12TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
5.7.13KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
5.7.14ProuditeCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.7.15NordströmiteCuPb3Bi7(Se4S10)Mon.
5.7.16WatkinsoniteCu2PbBi4(Se,S,Te)8Mon.
5.7.18PetroviciteCu3HgPbBiSe5Orth.
5.7.19Eclarite(Cu,Fe)Pb9Bi12S28Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
5.7.20MarriteAgPbAsS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.21ArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72Tric. 1 : P1
5.7.22AndoriteAgPbSb3S6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.23RamdohritePb5.9Fe0.1Mn0.1In0.1Cd0.2Ag2.8Sb10.8S24Mon. 2/m
5.7.24RoshchiniteAg19Pb10Sb51S96Orth.
5.7.25OurayiteAg3Pb4Bi5S13Orth.
5.7.26EskimoiteAg7Pb10Bi15S36Mon.
5.7.27FizélyiteAg5Pb14Sb21S48Mon. 2/m
5.7.28OwyheeiteAg3+xPb10-2xSb11+xS28, -0.13 < x > +0.20Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.29FreieslebeniteAgPbSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.30DiaphoriteAg3Pb2Sb3S8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.31SterryiteCu(Ag,Cu)3Pb19(Sb,As)22(As-As)S56Mon. 2/m
5.7.32VikingiteAg5Pb8Bi13S30Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.7.33ZoubekiteAgPb4Sb4S10Orth.
5.7.34SchirmeritePbAgBi3S6 - Pb3Ag1.5Bi3.5S9Orth.
5.7.36GustaviteAgPbBi3S6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.37KitaibeliteAg10PbBi30S51
5.7.38TreasuriteAg7Pb6Bi15S32Mon.
5.7.39BenjaminiteAg3Bi7S12Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.7.40Lengenbachite Ag4Cu2Pb18As12S39Tric.
5.7.41BerryiteCu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.7.42NeyiteAg2Cu6Pb25Bi26S68Mon.
5.7.43Larosite(Cu,Ag)21PbBiS13Orth.
5.7.44CupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.7.45PadĕraiteCu7[(Cu,Ag)0.33Pb1.33Bi11.33]S22Mon.
5.7.46RayitePb8(Ag,Tl)2Sb8S21Mon.
5.7.47RathiteAg2Pb12-xTlx/2As18+x/2S40Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.48HatchiteAgTlPbAs2S5Tric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for PekoiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Mumme, W.G., Welin, E., and Wuensch, B.J. (1976) Crystal chemistry and proposed nomenclature for sulfosalts intermediate in the system bismuthinite-aikinite (Bi2S3-CuPbBiS3). American Mineralogist: 61: 15-20.
Mumme, W.G. and Watts, J.A. (1976) Pekoite, CuPbBi11S18, a new member of the bismuthinite-aikinite mineral series: its crystal structure and relationship with naturally- and synthetically-formed members. Canadian Mineralogist (1976): 14: 322-333.
Mumme, W.G. and Watts, J.A. (1976) Additional physical, optical and x-ray data for pekoite. Canadian Mineralogist: 14: 578.
Birch, W.D. and Mumme, W.G. (1985) Pekoite from Narechen, Bulgaria - a possible solution to the bonchevite problem. Mineralogical Magazine: 49: 135-137.
Mozgova, N.N., Nenasheva, S.N., Chistyakova, N.I., Mogilevkin, S.B., and Sivtsov, A.V. (1990) Compositional fields of minerals in the bismuthinite-aikinite series. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 35-45.
Pring, A. (1995) Annealing of synthetic hammarite, Cu2Pb2Bi4S9, and the nature of cation-ordering processes in the bismuthinite-aikinite series. American Mineralogist: 80: 1166-1173.
Topa, D., Makovicky, E., and Paar, W.H. (2002) Composition ranges and exsolution pairs for the members of the bismuthinite–aikinite series from Felbertal, Austria. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 849–869.

Internet Links for PekoiteHide

Localities for PekoiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia (TL)
 
  • Northern Territory
    • Barkly Region
      • Tennant Creek
AM 1976, 15-20. Mumme, W.G., Watts, J.A. (1976) Pekoite, CuPbBi11S18, A New Member of the Bismuthinite-Aikinite Mineral Series: Its crystal structure and relationship with naturally -and synthetically-formed members, Canadian Mineralogist, Vol 14, pages 322-333, 1976. 
  • Queensland
    • Charters Towers Region
Wormald, Peter John (1993) Geology of the Mt. Leyshon gold deposit, Australia: a study of breccia pipe formation, facies and brecciation mechanisms. PhD thesis, James Cook University of North Queensland.
  • Western Australia
    • Kalgoorlie-Boulder Shire
      • Kalgoorlie-Boulder
Mueller, Andreas G.; Lawrance, Louisa M.; Muhling, Janet; Pooley, Gregory D. (2012): Mineralogy and PTX relationships of the Archean Hannan South Au-Cu (Co-Bi) deposit, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia: thermodynamic constraints on the formation of a zoned intrusion-related skarn. Economic Geology 107, 1-24.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Spittal an der Drau District
      • Großkirchheim
        • Zirknitz
          • Kleine Zirknitz valley
            • Kluidscharte
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995; Paar, W. H., & Chen, T. T. (1982). Ore mineralogy of the Waschgang gold-copper deposit, Upper Carinthia, Austria. Tschermaks mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, 30(3), 157-175.
      • Weißensee
        • Wurten
          • Alteck
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
Bergbau in Westkärnten
  • Salzburg
    • Zell am See District
      • Mittersill
        • Mittersill Scheelite deposit
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
Brazil
 
  • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Currais Novos
No reference listed
Bulgaria
 
  • Burgas Province
    • Burgas
      • Burgas
Kolkovski B, Bogdanov , Borodaev Y, Naidenova E, Eskenazi G. (2003): Bismuth mineralization in the Vurli Bryag deposit, Burgas ore district. Ann Sof. Univ., 95, 1-xx (in Bulgarian).
  • Plovdiv Province
    • Asenovgrad Obshtina
Birch, W.D. and Mumme, W.G. (1985) Pekoite from Narechen, Bulgaria―a possible solution to the bonchevite problem. Mineralogical Magazine, 49(1), 135-137.
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Lac-du-Bonnet area
      • Bernic Lake
Richard Gunter specimen; Černý, P., Harris, D.C. (1978) The Tanco pegmatite at Bernic Lake, Manitoba. XI. Native elements, alloys, sulfides and sulfosalts. The Canadian Mineralogist, 16(4), 625-640.; Grice, Joel D. (1989) Bernic Lake, Manitoba: Mining for Space-age Elements. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 64-67; 153-155.
China
 
  • Jiangsu
    • Nanjing
      • Jiangning District
Xiangping, G., Watanabe, M., Ohkawa, M., Hoshino, K., Shibata, Y., and Desong, C. (2001): Canadian Mineralogist 39(6), 1641-1652.
Europe
 
  • Balkan Mountains
http://www.bgd.bg/summanual_2003_5.htm; Mladenova, V., Kerestedjian, T., & Dimitrova, D. (2001). Ag-Cu-Pb-Bi mineralization from the Svishti Plaz gold deposit, Central Balkan Mountain, Bulgaria. Geochem. Mineral. Petrol, 38, 55-66.
France
 
  • Corsica
    • Corse-du-Sud
      • Testa
Lheur, C., Meisser,N., Pecorini, R. and Steinmetz, A. (2011): Nouveautés minéralogiques en Corse. La Régne Minéral. 102: 33-40
Hungary
 
  • Fejér County
    • Pátka
collector: László Tóth, WDS: Norbert Zajzon; Zajzon N, Szakáll S, Kristály F, Mádai F (2014) Aikinite-bismuthinite series sulphosalts from Pátka, Velence Hills, Hungary. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 137
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
Lapis, 19 (10), 15-21+86.
Japan
 
  • Yamagata Prefecture
Izumino, Y., Nakashima, K., & Nagashima, M. (2014). Cuprobismutite group minerals (cuprobismutite, hodrušhite, kupčíkite and padĕraite), other Bi–sulfosalts and Bi–tellurides from the Obari mine, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 109(4), 177-190.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karaganda Region
    • Shet
      • Akchatau (Aqshatau; Akschatau; Akchataul; Akshatau)
Efimov A.V. Bismuthian mineralisation of tin and wolfram deposits, 1993
Morocco
 
  • High Atlas Mountains
    • Tichka massif
Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., Roberts, A. C., Stanley, C. J., & Culetto, F. J. (2006). Jonassonite, Au (Bi, Pb) 5S4, a new mineral species from Nagybörzsöny, Hungary. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(5), 1127-1136.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Jelenia Góra County
      • Szklarska Poręba
        • Szklarska Poręba-Huta
Pieczka, A. & Golebiowska, B. (2012): Cuprobismutite homologues in granitic pegmatites from Szklarska Poręba, Karkonosze Massif, southwestern Poland. Canadian Mineralogist 50, 313-324.; Pieczka, A., & Gołębiowska, B. (2012). Cuprobismutite homologues in granitic pegmatites from Szklarska Poręba, Karkonosze massif, southwestern Poland. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(2), 313-324.; Mochnacka, K., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Mayer, W., & Pieczka, A. (2015). Ore mineralization related to geological evolution of the Karkonosze–Izera Massif (the Sudetes, Poland)—Towards a model. Ore Geology Reviews, 64, 215-238.
Romania
 
  • Bihor
    • Nucet
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Shimizu, M., Kato, A., Cioflica, G., Lupulescu, M., Shimizu, M. (1998): Friedrichite from Băița Bihor, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist 36, 861-868.
Shimizu, M., Kato, A., Cioflica, G., Lupulescu, M., Shimizu, M. (1998): Friedrichite from Băița Bihor, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist 36, 861-868.
  • Caraş-Severin
    • Banat Mountains
      • Moldova Nouă-Sasca Cu-Mo ore field
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
  • Maramureș
    • Aurum
Plotinskaya, O. Y., Damian, F., Prokofiev, V. Y., Kovalenker, V. A., & Damian, G. (2009). Tellurides occurrences in the Baia Mare region, Romania. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 4(2), 89-100.
    • Băiuț
Mitt. .Österr. Miner. Ges. 143 (1998); Cook, N. J. Mineralogisches Institut der Universität Würzburg Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg Lecture to the Austrian Mineralogical Society 23 rd June 1997 in Salzburg.
Russia
 
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Ladoga Region
      • Pitkyaranta District (Pitkäranta District)
Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, p. 1307). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica District
      • Ľubietová
Pršek J., Mikuš T., 2006: Bi sulfosoli z lokality Ľubietová-Kolba. Min.Slovaca, Bratislava, 38, 159-164
    • Brezno District
Pršek J.,2004: Štruktúra a kryštálochémia sulfosolí zo sulfidických mineralizácii Západnych Karpát (Kandid. Diz.práca).Archív Katedry miner. a petrografie Prírodoved. Fak. UK,Bratislava, 135 s.
      • Bystrá
- Pršek, J., Ozdín, D. & Sejkora, J. (2008): Eclarite and associated Bi sulfosalts from the Brezno-Hviezda occurrence (Nízke Tatry Mts, Slovak Republic). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 185, 117-130.
  • Košice Region
    • Spišská Nová Ves District
Pršek J.,2004: Štruktžúra a kryštalochémia sulfosolí zo sulfidických mineralizácií Západných Karpát (Kandid. dizert. práca),Manuskript, archív Kated. miner. a petrológie PFUK Bratislava, 135 p.
  • Žilina Region
    • Liptovský Mikuláš District
      • Liptovské Kľačany
Bakoš, F., Chovan, M., Michálek, J., 2000 : Minerálne zloženie hydrotermálnej Sb, Cu, Pb, Zn, As mineralizácie na SV od Magurky v Nízkych Tatrách. Mineralia Slovaca, 32, 6,497 – 506
Ozdin D., Chovan M., 1999: New mineralogical and paragenetic knowledge about siderite veins in the vicinity of Vyšná Boca, Nízke Tatry Mts. Slov. Geol. Magazine, Bratislava, 5, 4, 255-271
Ozdín D. (2003): Mineralógia a genéza sideritovej mineralizácie Ďumbierskych Tatier. Dissertation thesis, Comenius University, 194 p.
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna County
    • Falun
No reference listed
Switzerland
 
  • Grisons
    • Maloja Region
      • Bregaglia
        • Bregaglia Valley (Bergell)
          • Albigna Valley
Schweizer Strahler, Vol. 9 Nr. 11 Aug. 1993
  • Valais
    • Anniviers
      • Saint-Luc
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 80; Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Highland
      • Loch Shin
Lowry, D., Stephens, W. E., Herd, D. A., & Stanley, C. J. (1994). Bismuth sulphosalts within quartz veining hosted by the Loch Shin monzogranite, Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(390), 39-48.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Bethel Census Area
      • Aniak Mining District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
      • Dos Cabezas Mountains
        • Dos Cabezas Mining District (Two Heads Mining District)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 232.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 324.
  • Washington
    • Snohomish Co.
      • Sultan Mining District
        • Vesper Peak
www.cannonmicroprobe.com/Mineral_Specimens.htm
    • Stevens Co.
      • Huckleberry Range
        • Deer Trail & Cedar Canyon Mining Districts
          • Turtle Lake
Handbook of Mineralogy
Uzbekistan
 
  • Tashkent
    • Okhangaron District
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Kovalenker, V. A., Safonov, Y. G., Naumov, V. B., & Rusinov, V. L. (1997). The Epithermal Gold-Telluride Kochbulak Deposit. Geology of Ore Deposits C/C of Geologiia Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 39, 107-128.
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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