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About PavoniteHide

Martin Alfred Peacock
Ag may be replaced by minor Cu and Bi by minor Pb.
Steel-gray to tin white
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1953 by Edward Wilfrid Nuffield from the Latin pavo (= peacock) in honor of Martin Alfred Peacock [January 15, 1898 Edinburgh, Scotland - October 30, 1950 Toronto, Ontario, Canada], Canadian mineralogist and crystallographer, Professor of Mineralogy (1937-1950), University of Toronto, for his many contributions to the study of mineral sulfosalts, culminating in the posthumously published Atlas of X-Ray Data for the ore minerals. Peacock was an eminent morphological crystallographer and a pioneer in X-ray mineralogy in Canada.
Typically forms fine lamellar intergrowths with cupropavonite.
Compare also cupromakopavonite.

Difficult to distinguish from benjaminite; single-crystal XRD methods are necessary (Harris & Chen, 1975).

See also Unnamed (Se-analogue of Pavonite) and its probable Cu- and S-bearing variety 'UM1989-28-Se:AgBiCuS'.

Classification of PavoniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
A : Galena derivatives with little or no Pb

8 : 1 < ø < 2

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
2 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Ag

Physical Properties of PavoniteHide

Steel-gray to tin white
VHN50=188 kg/mm2 - Vickers
6.8 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.80 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of PavoniteHide

Strong, in pale to intense blue and light tan to brown
Colour in reflected light:
Gray-pink-white and blue-gray-white in oil

Chemical Properties of PavoniteHide


Ag may be replaced by minor Cu and Bi by minor Pb.

Crystallography of PavoniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.35 Å, b = 4.03 Å, c = 16.34 Å
β = 94.5°
a:b:c = 3.313 : 1 : 4.055
Unit Cell V:
876.39 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Tiny bladed crystals, massive.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0005141PavoniteMakovicky E, Mumme W G, Watts J A (1977) The crystal structure of synthetic pavonite, AgBi3S5, and the definition of the pavonite homologous series The Canadian Mineralogist 15 339-34819770293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Hydrothermal veins

Type Occurrence of PavoniteHide

Other Language Names for PavoniteHide

Traditional Chinese:塊硫鉍銀礦

Varieties of PavoniteHide

KitaibeliteA Pb-bearing pavonite.
Originally reported from Nagybörzsöny, Börzsöny Mts., Pest Co., Hungary.

Relationship of Pavonite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BenjaminiteAg3Bi7S12Mon. 2/m : B2/m
CupromakopavoniteAg3Cu8Pb4Bi19S38Mon. 2/m : B2/m
CupromakovickyiteCu4AgPb2Bi9S18Mon. 2/m : B2/m
CupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5 Mon. 2/m : B2/m
DantopaiteAg5Bi13S22Mon. 2/m : B2/m
LuboržákiteMn2AsSbS5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
MakovickyiteCu1.12Ag0.81Pb0.27Bi5.35S9Mon. 2/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Pavonite associated with GustaviteAgPbBi3S6
1 photo of Pavonite associated with BismuthiniteBi2S3
1 photo of Pavonite associated with BenjaminiteAg3Bi7S12
1 photo of Pavonite associated with EskimoiteAg7Pb10Bi15S36

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.JA.05eBenjaminiteAg3Bi7S12Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05aCupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5 Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05iLivingstoniteHgSb4S6(S2)Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.JA.05dMakovickyiteCu1.12Ag0.81Pb0.27Bi5.35S9Mon. 2/m
2.JA.05bGrumipluciteHgBi2S4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05dCupromakovickyiteCu4AgPb2Bi9S18Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05cKudriavite(Cd,Pb)Bi2S4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05aCupromakopavoniteAg3Cu8Pb4Bi19S38Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05DantopaiteAg5Bi13S22Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10aCuprobismutiteCu8AgBi13S24Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10cHodrušiteCu8Bi12S22Mon. 2/m
2.JA.10dPizgrischite(Cu,Fe)Cu14PbBi17S35Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10bKupčíkiteCu3.4Fe0.6Bi5S10Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.15CuboargyriteAgSbS2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
2.JA.20BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.JA.20MatilditeAgBiS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 2/m 2/m : B2/m,Pb,Fe)8(Sb,Bi)2S17Mon. Mon. 2/m : B2/m 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.2.1SmithiteAgAsS2Mon. 2/m
5.2.3ProustiteAg3AsS3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.2.4XanthoconiteAg3AsS3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.2.5Pearceite[(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7][Ag9CuS4]Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.6Pearceite-T2acTrig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
5.2.7Argentotennantite-(Zn)Ag6(Cu4Zn2)As4S12SIso. 4 3m : I4 3m
5.2.8MiargyriteAgSbS2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.2.9PyrargyriteAg3SbS3Trig. 3m : R3c
5.2.10PyrostilpniteAg3SbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.2.11StephaniteAg5SbS4Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
5.2.12Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.2.13BillingsleyiteAg7AsS6Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
5.2.14Polybasite-TacTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.15Freibergite Subgroup([Ag6]4+,((Cu,Ag)4 C2+2)Sb4S12S0-1Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
5.2.16AramayoiteAg3Sb2(Bi,Sb)S6Tric. 1 : P1
5.2.17MatilditeAgBiS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.21BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.23Benleonardite[Ag6(Sb,As)2S6Te][Ag9Cu(S,Te)2Te2]Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for PavoniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
NUFFIELD, E.W. (1954): Studies of the mineral sulpho-salts: XVIII - Pavonite, a new mineral. American Mineralogist 39, 409-415.
HARRIS, D.C. & CHEN, T.T. (1975) Studies of type pavonite material. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 408-410.
Harris, D. C. & Chen, T. T. (1975): Benjaminite, reinstated as a valid species. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 402-407.
Canadian Mineralogist (1977): 15: 339-348.
Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie (1979): 102: 351-367.
Chang, L. L. Y.; Wu, D.; Knowles, C. R. (1988): Phase relations in the system Ag2S-Cu2S-PbS-Bi2S3. Economic Geology 83, 405-418.
Wu, D. (1989): Stability of matildite (AgBiS2) and Ag2Bi4S7 and phase relations in the system silver sulfide (Ag2S)-bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3). Kuangwu Xuebao 9 (2), 126-131 (in Chinese).
Ilinca, G. & Makovicky, E. (1999): X-ray powder diffraction properties of pavonite homologues. European Journal of Mineralogy 11, 691-708.
Voronin, M. V. & Osadchii, E. G. (2013): Properties of silver and bismuth sulfosalt minerals, pavonite (AgBi3S5) and matildite (AgBiS2) and implications for ore deposits. Economic Geology, 108, 1203-1210.

Internet Links for PavoniteHide

Localities for PavoniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Catamarca Province
    • Andalgalá Department
Hubert, P., Werner, H., & Dan, T. (2009). A contribution to the knowledge of the mineralization at Mina Capillitas, Catamarca. Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina, 64(3), 514-524.
  • Jujuy Province
    • Rinconada Department
      • Mina Pirquitas
DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.; Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Sureda, R. J. (2005, January). Occurrence and paragenesis of tellurium in mineral deposits of Argentina. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1419-1422). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.; Coira, B. L., & de Brodtkorb, M. K. (1995) Polymetallic mineralization associated with Cenozoic volcanism in Northern Puna, Argentina. In Pacrim (Vol. 95, pp. 135-140).
Slater, E. T. (2016). The Cortaderas Zone, Pirquitas Mine, NW Argentina: An Example of Miocene Epithermal Ag-Zn-Pb-Sn Mineralization in the Andean Tin Belt (Masters thesis, Laurentian University of Sudbury).
Paar, W.H., Miletich, R., Topa, D., Criddle, A.J., De Brodtkorb, M.K., Amthauer, G., Tippelt, G. (2000) Suredaite, PbSnS3, a new mineral species, from the Pirquitas Ag-Sn deposit, NW-Argentina: mineralogy and crystal structure. American Mineralogist: 85: 1066-1075.
  • Tierra del Fuego Province
    • Ushuaia Department
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
  • Northern Territory
    • Katherine
Hein, K. A. A. (1994). The structure and geochemistry of gold mineralisation in the Mt. Todd goldfield, Pine Creek Inlier, Northern Territory (Doctoral dissertation, University of Tasmania).
Hein, K. A. A. (1994). The structure and geochemistry of gold mineralisation in the Mt. Todd goldfield, Pine Creek Inlier, Northern Territory (Doctoral dissertation, University of Tasmania).
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Cherry Gardens
Grguric, B.A. & Toma, J. (2017): Ore and gangue mineralogy of the Almanda mine, Cherry, Gardens, South Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 18 (1), 51-61.
  • Carinthia
    • Spittal an der Drau District
      • Großkirchheim
        • Zirknitz
          • Kleine Zirknitz valley
            • Kluidscharte
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995; Paar, W. H., & Chen, T. T. (1982). Ore mineralogy of the Waschgang gold-copper deposit, Upper Carinthia, Austria. Tschermaks mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, 30(3), 157-175.
  • Salzburg
    • St. Johann im Pongau District
      • Bad Hofgastein
Makovicky, E., Paar, W.H., Putz, H., Zagler, G. (2010): Dantopaite, Ag5Bi13S22, the 6P natural member of the pavonite homologous series, from Erzwies, Austria. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 467-481.
    • Tamsweg District
      • Muhr (Murwinkel)
        • Rotgülden
          • Lower Rotgülden lake
[Lapis 1993:5 p.13-28]; Wallner, D., Raith, J.G. & Paar, W. (2017): Gold and silver at Rotgülden deposit - where are they hosted? Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 163, 91. (Abs.)
Putz (2003)
Chris Auer collection (analysed by Hubert Putz)
  • Vorarlberg
    • Bludenz District
      • Silbertal
        • Fresch alp
Kolitsch, U. (2015): 1926) Akanthit, Albit, Allanit-(Ce), Anglesit, Bismuthinit, Chamosit, Cobaltit, Corkit, Fluorapatit, Galenit, Guanajuatit, Hessit, Hidalgoit, Kalifeldspat, Klinochlor, Matildit, Monazit-(Ce), Muskovit, Plumbojarosit, Rutil, Sphalerit, Stephanit, Tetraedrit, Titanit, gediegen Wismut und Zirkon vom Langsee (Seekopf), Alpe Fresch, Silbertal im Montafon, Vorarlberg. Pp. 229-231 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2015): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXIV. Carinthia II, 205./125., 207-280.
  • Oruro
    • Cercado Province
      • Oruro City
Keutsch, F. & Brodtkorb, M. (2007) Metalliferous parageneses of the San Jose mine. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 26, 485-491.; Keutsch, F., & Brodtkorb, M. D. (2008). Metalliferous paragenesis of the San José mine, Oruro, Bolivia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 25(4), 485-491.
    • Dalence Province
      • Huanuni
Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Shimizu, M., & Kato, A. (1996). Pavonite from the Ikuno mine, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The Canadian Mineralogist, 34(6), 1323-1327.
    • Poopó Province
      • Pazña
        • Monserrat-Antequera mining district
[MinRec 32:461]
  • Potosí
    • Sud Lípez Province
      • Cerro Bonete
NUFFIELD, E.W. (1954): Studies of the mineral sulpho-salts: XVIII - Pavonite, a new mineral. American Mineralogist 39, 409-415. HARRIS, D.C. & CHEN, T.T. (1975) Studies of type pavonite material. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 408-410. ; Karup-Møller, S. (1977). Mineralogy of some Ag-(Cu)-Pb-Bi sulphide associations. Bulletin Geological Society Denmark, 26, 41-68.
USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 252.
      • Cerro Morokho (Cerro Moruco)
USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 251.
  • Minas Gerais
MinRec 33:352
  • Northwest Territories
    • Camsell River area
D. C. Harris (1973) Mineralogical Investigation of a copper-silver-bismuth ore from Terra Mining and Exploration Limited, Camsell River Area. Mines Branch Investigations Report IR73-27; Badham, J. P. N. (1975) Mineralogy, paragenesis and origin of the Ag-Ni, Co arsenide mineralisation, Camsell River, N. W. T. Canada. Mineralium Deposita 10:153-175
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cape Breton Co.
      • Gabarus Bay
Dennis, Frank A. F. (1987) Petrology and Mineralization of the Deep Cove Pluton, Gabarus Bay, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Master of Science Thesis, Acadia University.
  • Ontario
    • Timiskaming District
      • Cobalt-Gowganda region
Grice, Joel D. (1989) Cobalt: the Silver City. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 85-91; 159-161.
          • Coleman Township
the Canadian Mineralogist V 11 Part 1 1971
        • South Lorrain Township
Handbook of Mineralogy; Petruk (1971): The Silver-Arsenide Deposits of the Cobalt-Gowganda Region, Ontario. Can. Mineral. 11, 196-231
  • Yukon
    • Mayo mining district
Watson, K.W., (1996) Table of minerals identified from the Keno-Galena Hill area: unpublished company report, United Keno Hill Mines Ltd. Report No UKH96/01 Technical Report
  • Anhui
    • Tongling
      • Shizishan ore field
Huan Hu, Rucheng Wang, Jianjun Lu, and Guanghua Liu (2001): Mineral Deposits 20(1), 86-98; Yunsheng Ren, Liandeng Liu, Jiwu Zhang, and Guohua Chen (2005): Gold 26(5), 9-12
  • Guangxi
    • Hechi
      • Luocheng Mulao Autonomous County
Liu, J., Chen, W., & Liu, Q. (2018). Sb-Bi Alloys and Ag-Cu-Pb-Sb-Bi Sulphosalts in the Jialong Cu-Sn Deposit in North Guangxi, South China. Minerals, 8(1), 26.
      • Nandan County
        • Dachang Sn-polymetallic ore field
Xilin Li (1990): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 9(4), 378-384; Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244; Yingchen Ren (1999): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 14(1), 1-12, 38
Mineral Deposits 4(1), 74
    • Hezhou
      • Zhongshan Co.
        • Shanhu W-Sn ore field (Shanhu Mine)
Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy; Yunying Shu and Peiling Zhou (1990): Journal of Guilin University of Technology 10(2)
  • Hunan
    • Changsha
      • Liuyang City
Liu, J. (2017). Indium mineralization in a Sn-poor skarn deposit: A case study of the Qibaoshan deposit, South China. Minerals, 7(5), 76.
    • Chenzhou
      • Guiyang Co.
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Chifeng City (Ulanhad League; Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Hexigten Banner (Keshiketeng Co.)
        • Muxiga
Danyang Liu (1991): North China Nonferrous Metals Geology 1991(2), 17-22
  • Jiangxi
    • Fuzhou
      • Dongxiang Co.
Xia Ai and Zengyi Chen (1993): Geology and Prospecting 29(4), 25-29
    • Ganzhou
      • Yudu Co.
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
  • Shanxi
    • Datong
      • Lingqiu County
Zhaolong Li and Lianying Zhang (1999): Mineral Deposits 18(1), 11-21
  • Sichuan
    • Garzê Autonomous Prefecture (Ganzi Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Baiyü County
Xiaoming Qu, Zengqian Hou, and Shugui Zhou (2001): Acta Geoscientia Sinica 23(1), 29-34
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Colmar-Ribeauvillé
        • Ste Marie-aux-Mines
          • Neuenberg
            • Sankt Jakob vein
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
This mine worked the same vein as Gabe gottes mine. From the 19th century, ore from a large part of the Saint-Jacques mine network was transported to level -40 of Gabe Gottes before being sent to the processing plant. The mineralization of this sector is therefore very comparable to that of Gabe-Gotes.
  • Kvemo Kartli
    • Bolnisi District
Ramaz Migineishvili (2005) Hybrid nature of the Madneuli Cu-Au deposit, Georgia. IGCP Project 486, 2005 Field Workshop, Kiten, Bulgaria, 14-19 September 2005
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German); Gröbner, J., Kolitsch, U. und Bayerl, R. (2005): Interessante Uranmineralien im Stinkspat der Grube Clara. Lapis 30 (10), 34-39; 90; Gröbner, J., Bayerl, R. und Kolitsch, U. (2006): Weitere Beobachtungen zu den Uran- und Vanadium-Paragenesen der Grube Clara aus den Jahren 2002, 2004 und 2005. Erzgräber 20, 1-10; Staude, S., Dorn, A., Pfaff, K., & Markl, G. (2010). Assemblages of Ag–Bi sulfosalts and conditions of their formation: the type locality of schapbachite (Ag0. 4Pb0. 2Bi0. 4S) and neighboring mines in the Schwarzwald ore district, southern Germany. The Canadian Mineralogist, 48(3), 441-466; Kolitsch, U., Bayerl, R. and Topa, D. (2019): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald (V). Mineralien-Welt 30 (3), 12-27 (in German).
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Neustadt an der Waldnaab District
        • Waidhaus
          • Hagendorf
  • Pest County
    • Szob District
[var: Kitaibelite] No reference listed
  • Akita Prefecture
    • Kitaakita District
      • Takanosu
Karup-Møller, S. (1977). Mineralogy of some Ag-(Cu)-Pb-Bi sulphide associations. Bulletin Geological Society Denmark, 26, 41-68.
  • Gifu Prefecture
    • Hida City
      • Kamioka mine
MARIKO, T., KAWADA, M., MIURA, M., & ONO, S. (1996). Ore Formation Processes of The Mozumi Skarn-type Pb-Zn-Ag Deposit in the Kamioka Mine, Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan. Shigen-Chishitsu, 46(260), 337-354.
  • Hokkaidō Prefecture
    • Shiribeshi Subprefecture
Shuji Ono, et al. (2004) Resource Geology, 54, 4, 453-464.; Ono, S., Hirai, K., Matsueda, H., & Kabashima, T. (2004). Polymetallic Mineralization at the Suttsu Vein‐type Deposit, Southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. Resource Geology, 54(4), 453-464.
  • Hyogo Prefecture
    • Asago City
      • Ikuno-cho-ono
Shimizu, M., & Kato, A. (1996). Pavonite from the Ikuno mine, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The Canadian Mineralogist, 34(6), 1323-1327.; Shimizu, M., Kato, A., & Matsuyama, F. (1998). Two Se‐bearing Ag–Bi Sulphosalts, Benjaminite and Matildite from the Ikuno Deposits, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan–Au–Ag Mineralization in Polymetallic Zone. Resource Geology, 48(2), 117-124.
Shimizu, M., & Kato, A. (1996). Pavonite from the Ikuno mine, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The Canadian Mineralogist, 34(6), 1323-1327.
    • Yabu City
      • Oya-cho
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Niigata Prefecture
    • Uetsu
Izumino, Y., & Nakashima, K. (2015). Bismuth minerals from the W–Mo–Sn deposits hosted in the Iwafune granitoids, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 110(6), 300-312.
  • Okayama Prefecture
    • Takahashi City
      • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
        • Shitouyouze
Matsueda, H. (1981) Journal of the Mining College, Akita University, Ser. A, Mining Geology, 6, #1, 1-43.
  • Yamaguchi Prefecture
    • Mine City
Nagashima, M., Akasaka, M., & Morifuku, Y. (2016). Ore and Skarn Mineralogy of the Yamato Mine, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan, with Emphasis on Silver‐, Bismuth‐, Cobalt‐, and Tin‐bearing Sulfides. Resource Geology, 66(1), 37-54.
  • Zacatecas
    • Fresnillo Municipality
Stone, J.B. and McCarthy, J.C., 1948, Mineral and metal variation in the veins of Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Mexico.: A.I.M.E., Transactions, v. 178, p. 91-106 Gemmell, J.B., Zantop, H. and Birnie, R.W., 1989, Silver sulfosalts of the Santo Nino vein, Fresnillo District, Zacatecas, Mexico: Canadian Mineralogist, v. 27, no. 3, p. 401-418 MacDonald, A.J., Kreczmer, M.J. and Kesler, S.E., 1986, Vein, manto, and chimney mineralization at the Fresnillo silver-lead-zinc mine, Mexico.: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 23, no. 10, p. 1603- 1614
  • Huancavelica
    • Angaraes Province
Crowley, Jack A., Currier, Rock H., & Szenics, Terry (1997) Mines and Minerals of Peru. Mineralogical Record, Vol.28, No.4. 98p.
B. Duval, Y. Moëlo and P. Picot, Bull. Minéral. , 1986, 109, pp. 649-655.
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kamienna Góra County
      • Gmina Kamienna Góra
        • Rędziny
Gołębiowska B., Pieczka A., Parafiniuk J. 2006: Cu(Ag)-Pb-Bi(Sb) sulphosalts from Rędziny (Western Sudetes, Poland). Mineralogia Polonica - Special Papers, vol. 28, 78-80; Pieczka, A., Gołębiowska, B., & Parafiniuk, J. (2011). Gold in sulfide-telluride assemblages at Rędziny, Rudawy Janowickie Range. Gold in Poland, AM Monograph, (2), 119-134.
Piestrzyński, A., & Pieczonka, J. (2012). Low temperature ore minerals associations in the Kupferschiefer type deposit, Lubin–Sieroszowice mining district, SW Poland. Мінералогічний збірник, (2), 59-66.
  • Castelo Branco
    • Covilhã
      • Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis
D. Wimmers (1985) Silver Minerals of Panasqueira, Portugal: A New Occurrence of Te-Bearing Canfieldite. Mineralogical Magazine 49:745-748.
  • Vila Real
    • Sabrosa
Gaspar, O., Bowles, F.W., 1985; Mineralizações e Recuros em W/Sn...; Bowles, J. (1987). Silver mineralization at the Vale das Gatas tungsten mine, Portugal. Mineralogical Magazine, 51, 305-10.
  • Caraş-Severin
    • Oraviţa-Ciclova Cu-Mo-(W) ore field
Udubașa, G., Ďud'a, R., Szakáll, S., Kvasnytsya, V., Koszowska, E., Novák, M. (2002): Minerals of the Carpathians (Szakáll, S., ed.). Granit, Prague, Czech Rep., 482 pp.
Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., & Bogdanov, K. (2002) Trace mineralogy of the Upper Cretaceous banatitic Magmatic and metallogenetic Belt, SE Europe. In 11th Quadrennial IAGOD symposium–Geocongress 2002, Windhoek, Namibia, July 2002. CD Volume of extended abstracts.
  • Hunedoara
    • Stănija
Cook, N. J., & Ciobanu, C. L. (2004). Bismuth tellurides and sulphosalts from the Larga hydrothermal system, Metaliferi Mts, Romania: Paragenesis and genetic significance. Mineralogical Magazine 68:301–321
  • Maramureș
    • Băiuț
Mitt. .Österr. Miner. Ges. 143 (1998)
  • Altai Republic
    • Kosh-Agachsky District
Potseluev, A.A., Babkin, D.I., and Kotegov, V.I. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(5), 384-401.
  • Republic of Karelia
Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, pp. 1307-1311). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica; Иващенко, В. И., Голубев, А. И., Ivashchenko, V., & Golubev, A. (2015). НОВЫЕ АСПЕКТЫ МИНЕРАЛОГИИ И МЕТАЛЛОГЕНИИ ПИТКЯРАНТСКОГО РУДНОГО РАЙОНА. Серия Геология докембрия, (7), 127-148.
Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, p. 1307). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica.
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Indigirka River Basin
      • Ust'-Nera
American Mineralogist, Volume 79, pages 763-767, 1994
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Žarnovica District
      • Hodruša-Hámre
        • Hodruša-Hámre (Hodritsch) mines
Jeleň, S., Pršek, J., Kovalenker, V. A., Topa, D., Sejkora, J., Števko, M., & Ozdín, D. (2012). Bismuth Sulfosalts Of The Cuprobismutite, Pavonite And Aikinite Series From The Rozália Mine, Hodruša–Hámre, Slovakia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(2), 325-340.
  • Žilina Region
    • Liptovský Mikuláš District
Ozdín D., Pršek J., Chovan M., 2004: Sulfosoli na kremenných žilách s Fe-karbonátmi z Nízkych Tatier. Natura Carpatica, XLV, 235 - 236
  • Södermanland County
    • Nyköping
MinMag (1992) 56, 113-115; NJMAh (1994) 166 (3), 261-294
  • Alaska
    • Southeast Fairbanks Census Area
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Darwin Hills
        • Darwin Mining District
          • Darwin
Mineral News: 16 (9): 1; Gail E. Dunning, Yves MoÎlo, and Joseph F. Cooper, Jr. (2000) Ag-Cu-Pb-Bi Sulfosalts New to Darwin, Inyo County, California; Cooper; Fen and Dunning, Gail (2003) : Occasional Publication of the Bay Area Mineralogists, February, 2003.
Dunning, G.E., Moelo, Yves, Roberts, A.c., & Cooper, J. F (2000)., Ag-Cu-Pb-Bi Sulfosalts New To Darwin, Inyo County, California. Occasional Web Publication of the Bay Area Mineralogists, 2000
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
      • Alice Mining District (Yankee Mining District; Lincoln Mining District)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Ouray Co.
      • Red Mountain Mining District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; Karup-Møller, S. (1977). Mineralogy of some Ag-(Cu)-Pb-Bi sulphide associations. Bulletin Geological Society Denmark, 26, 41-68.
    • Park Co.
      • Montezuma Mining District
        • Hall Valley (Hall's Valley)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • San Juan Co.
      • Poughkeepsie Gulch
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; Karup-Møller, S. (1977). Mineralogy of some Ag-(Cu)-Pb-Bi sulphide associations. Bulletin Geological Society Denmark, 26, 41-68.
      • Red Mountain Mining District
        • Poughkeepsie Gulch
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; Karup-Møller, S. (1977). Mineralogy of some Ag-(Cu)-Pb-Bi sulphide associations. Bulletin Geological Society Denmark, 26, 41-68.
Dana 7:I:393.; Karup-Møller, S. (1977). Mineralogy of some Ag-(Cu)-Pb-Bi sulphide associations. Bulletin Geological Society Denmark, 26, 41-68.
    • San Miguel Co.
      • Ophir Mining District (Iron Springs Mining District)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Summit Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
      • Montezuma Mining District (Snake River Mining District)
        • Warden Gulch
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
  • Nevada
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Bristol and Jackrabbit Mining Districts
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Toquima Range
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Round Mountain Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Navoiy
    • Central Kyzylkum Region
      • Zarafshan
        • Muruntau ore field
Koneev, R.I., Turesebekov, A.H., Ignatikov, E.N., Vasilevsky, B.B., and Rakhimov, R.R. (2005), In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (Eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Vol. 1, 1403-1406
  • Tashkent
    • Okhangaron District
Kovalenker, V. A., Safonov, Y. G., Naumov, V. B., & Rusinov, V. L. (1997). The Epithermal Gold-Telluride Kochbulak Deposit. Geology of Ore Deposits C/C of Geologiia Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 39, 107-128.
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