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Paralaurionite

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About ParalaurioniteHide

Formula:
PbCl(OH)
Colour:
Colourless, white, yellow, violet, green
Lustre:
Sub-Adamantine
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
6.15
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
From the Greek for "near", para-, and laurionite, in allusion to its polymorphic relationship to that species.
Dimorph of:

Classification of ParalaurioniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.DC.05

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
10.2.3.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
2 : A(O,OH)Xq
8.8.8

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb

Physical Properties of ParalaurioniteHide

Sub-Adamantine
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, white, yellow, violet, green
Hardness:
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {001}.
Density:
6.15 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.28 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ParalaurioniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 2.050 nβ = 2.150 nγ = 2.200
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.150
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r < v strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Violet-tinted crystals are pleochroic with absorption Y is greater than X, Z.
Comments:
Plates on {100} exhibit abnormal interference figures due to twinning.

Chemical Properties of ParalaurioniteHide

Formula:
PbCl(OH)

Crystallography of ParalaurioniteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Setting:
C1 2/m 1
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.865(4) Å, b = 4.006(2) Å, c = 7.233(3) Å
β = 117.24(4)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.712 : 1 : 1.806
Unit Cell V:
279.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals thin tabular {100} or lath-like by elongation [001]. The terminations of the plates or laths are rectangular or wedge-shaped as a result of development of pyramidal faces at the corners.
Twinning:
Twin plane {100}, very common, as symmetrical contact twins with composition face (100), simulating orthorhombic holohedry.
Comment:
OD structure. I-centred setting has a ~ 9.92 A, β 103°.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of ParalaurioniteHide

Synonyms of ParalaurioniteHide

Other Language Names for ParalaurioniteHide

Relationship of Paralaurionite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BismocliteBiOClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
LaurionitePbCl(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
RorisiteCaFClTet.
Zavaritskite(BiO)FTet.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
9 photos of Paralaurionite associated with GeorgiadèsitePb4(AsO3)Cl4(OH)
9 photos of Paralaurionite associated with ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2
8 photos of Paralaurionite associated with NealitePb4Fe2+(As3+O3)2Cl4 · 2H2O
7 photos of Paralaurionite associated with MendipitePb3Cl2O2
7 photos of Paralaurionite associated with PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
4 photos of Paralaurionite associated with EcdemitePb6Cl4(As2O7)
4 photos of Paralaurionite associated with PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
4 photos of Paralaurionite associated with ThorikositePb3Cl2(OH)(SbO3,AsO3)
3 photos of Paralaurionite associated with CerussitePbCO3
3 photos of Paralaurionite associated with BlixitePb8O5(OH)2Cl4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DC.05LaurionitePbCl(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.DC.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2OMon. 2/m
3.DC.15PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
3.DC.20LaurelitePb7F12Cl2Hex. 6 : P6
3.DC.25BismocliteBiOClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25RorisiteCaFClTet.
3.DC.25Zavaritskite(BiO)FTet.
3.DC.25ZhangpeishaniteBaFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.30NadoritePbSbClO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
3.DC.30PeritePbBiClO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
3.DC.35AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2OTric.
3.DC.37CalcioaravaipaitePbCa2AlF9Tric. 1
3.DC.40ThorikositePb3Cl2(OH)(SbO3,AsO3)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
3.DC.45MereheaditePb47Cl25(OH)13O24(CO3)(BO3)2Mon. m
3.DC.50BlixitePb8O5(OH)2Cl4Orth.
3.DC.55PinalitePb3WO5Cl2Orth.
3.DC.60SymesitePb10(SO4)O7Cl4 · H2OTric. 1 : P1
3.DC.65EcdemitePb6Cl4(As2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
3.DC.65HeliophyllitePb6Cl4(As2O7)Orth.
3.DC.70MendipitePb3Cl2O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
3.DC.75DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2Orth. mm2 : Pmc21
3.DC.80OnoratoiteSb8Cl2O11Tric. 1 : P1
3.DC.85CotunnitePbCl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.DC.90PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4Orth.
3.DC.95BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.8.1AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6Trig.
8.8.2MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2Orth. mm2 : Pmc21
8.8.7LaurionitePbCl(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.8.9PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2OMon. 2/m
8.8.11BlixitePb8O5(OH)2Cl4Orth.
8.8.12PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4Orth.
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4Tet. 4mm : P4mm
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
8.8.18BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2OTric.
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8Trig. 3 : R3
8.8.21KolaritePbTeCl2Orth.
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in nitric acid.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ParalaurioniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Arzruni and Thaddéeff (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 229 (as Rafaëlit).
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1899) On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 12, n° 55, 102-110.
Smith, G.F.H. (1899) Note on the identity of paralaurionite and rafaelite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 12, n° 56, 183.
Ktenas (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 173.
Russell (1927) Mineralogical Magazine: 21: 221.
Palache, C. (1934) The form relations of the lead oxychlorides, laurionite, paralaurionite, and fiedlerite. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 573-586.
Palache, C. (1950) Paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 29, n° 211, 341.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 64-66.
Merlino, S., Pasero, M., and Perchiazzi, N. (1993) Crystal structure of paralaurionite and its OD relationships with laurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 57, 323-328.

Internet Links for ParalaurioniteHide

Localities for ParalaurioniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Sankt Veit an der Glan District
      • Hüttenberg
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
U. Kolitsch and H. Pristacz (2009): An orthorhombic dimorph of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, from slags at Maria Waitschach, Austria, and Lavrion, Greece. Poster, Joint MinPet 2009 and 4th MSCC, Budapest, Hungary, September 7-11; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 83.; Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
Econ Geol (1991) 86:1222-1237
      • Sierra Gorda
Palache, C. (1950): Paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 341-345. ["rafaelite" = paralaurionite]
Brugger J, Meisser N, Ansermat S, Krivovichev S V, Kahlenberg V, Belton D, Ryan C G (2012) Leucostaurite, Pb2[B5O9]Cl·0.5H2O, from the Atacama Desert: The first Pb-dominant member of the hilgardite group, and micro-determination of boron minerals by PIGE. American Mineralogist 97, 1206-1212
http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/penfieldite.pdf
M. Dini specimens
        • Caracoles mining district
          • Quebrada Honda
Arzruni and Thaddéeff (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 229; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 65, 317.
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Příbram District
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Ardèche
      • Thueyts
        • Mayres
Gol D. (2009) - Histoire et minéralogie de l'ancienne concession minière de Mayres in Le Règne Minéral n°85
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Carnoët
        • Menez-Plom
P. Le Roch collection
    • Finistère
      • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
Germany
 
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Sounion area
            • Sounion Mines
Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 102-110.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 65; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, Laurion (1996): The Minerals in the Ancient Slags.; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
          • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
No reference listed
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
          • Oxygon area
No reference listed
          • Panormos area
No reference listed
          • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; - Rüsenberg, K. A. (2001): Mineralparagenesen in den Schlacken von Lavrion und ihre Entstehung. Aufschluss 52, 25-44 (in German)
          • Puntazeza area (Punta Zeza area)
Rüsenberg, K. A. (2001): Mineralparagenesen in den Schlacken von Lavrion und ihre Entstehung. Aufschluss 52, 25-44 (in German)
          • Sounion area
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch); Fritz Schreiber Collection
Collection of Elmar Lackner; van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Tourkolimanon area
No reference listed
          • Vrissaki area
Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Italy
 
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
      • Anzio
Marco Bonifazi Collection
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Genoa
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Piedmont
    • Vercelli Province
Luigi Chiappino data
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
        • Sassetta
          • Canina Valley
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
        • Suvereto
Luigi Chiappino data
      • Piombino
Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N. (1992): I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77; Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N., Bartoli, M.L., Chiappino, L. (1992): Baratti (LI): una nuova località mineralogica italiana analoga al Laurion. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 15, 2 (2-1992), 67-75 [2a parte]; Cerutti, G., Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20, 4, 13-18 and 50.
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Midelt Province
Gaudefroy, C. (1955): Paralaurionite from Mibladen. In: description provisoire des espèces minérales du Maroc. III. Notes Mémoires Service Géologique Maroc. 123, 170-172
  • Oriental Region
    • Jerada Province
      • Touissit-Bou Beker District
Van King
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Minerals of South Africa
UK
 
  • England
    • Bristol
      • Westbury on Trym
BMS Database
    • Cornwall
      • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
      • Porthleven
Russell, A and Hutchinson, A. (1927) On laurionite and associated minerals from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 21, n° 116, 221-228.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 65.
      • St Minver
        • Trebetherick
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
    • County Durham
      • Castleside
Norman Wilson collection
    • Somerset
      • Mendip
        • Cranmore
Turner, R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2010): Mineral Relationships in the Mendip Hills. Journal of the Russell Society, vol 13, pp 3-46; Turner, R.W., (2006) A Mechanism for the formation of the Mineralised Mn Deposits at Merehead Quarry, Cranmore, Somerset, England. Mineralogical Magazine vol. 70, no. 6, pp 629-653; Turner, R.W., Siidra, O.I., Rumsey, M.S., Polekhovsky, Y.S., Kretser, Y.L., Krivovichev, S.V., Spratt, J., Stanley, C.J. (2015): Yeomanite, Pb2O(OH)Cl, a new chain-structured Pb oxychloride from Merehead Quarry, Somerset, England. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 1203-1211.
        • Nunney
BMS Database
  • Scotland
    • Dumfries and Galloway
      • Wanlockhead
BMS Database; Green, D. I. (1987): The minerals of Meadowfoot smelter. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals 2, 3-9.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Gila Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mts
        • Banner Mining District
          • Christmas
Raman analyzed at the University of Arizona.
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Osborn Mining District
        • Tonopah
          • Belmont Mountain
Collected by and in the collection of Joe Ruiz. Analyzed by the University of Arizona.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Mammoth Mining District
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
Palache, C. (1950): Paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 341-345.; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141; Fahey, J.J., et al (1950), Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, AZ, Am.Min.: 35: 93-98; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 67.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 320; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, Arizona, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181; Palache, C. (1950), Paralaurionite, Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 341-345; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 44.
 
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