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Paracoquimbite

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About ParacoquimbiteHide

Formula:
Fe4(SO4)6(H2O)12· 6H2O
formerly given as Fe2(SO4)3.9H2O; changed to better address its homeotypic relation to coquimbite. The current formula is just a multiplication of the former one.
Colour:
Pale violet
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
2.11
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
From the Greek "para" for near and its relation to Coquimbite.
Dimorph of:
Al is not essential in paracoquimbite (but is essential in coquimbite), as derived from the IMA redefinition.




Classification of ParacoquimbiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Approval History:
redefinition code: IMA-19F
7.CB.55

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
29.8.4.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
8 : A2(XO4)3·H2O
25.10.10

25 : Sulphates
10 : Sulphates of Fe alone

Physical Properties of ParacoquimbiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Pale violet
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
On {0112} and {10
14}, imperfect.
Density:
2.11(1) g/cm3 (Measured)    2.115 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ParacoquimbiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.550(2) nε = 1.555(2)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.005
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low

Chemical Properties of ParacoquimbiteHide

Formula:
Fe4(SO4)6(H2O)12· 6H2O

formerly given as Fe2(SO4)3.9H2O; changed to better address its homeotypic relation to coquimbite. The current formula is just a multiplication of the former one.
IMA Formula:
Fe3+2(SO4)3 · 9H2O

Crystallography of ParacoquimbiteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 - Rhombohedral
Space Group:
R3
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.926(9) Å, c = 51.3(21) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 4.695
Unit Cell V:
5,303.60 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
12
Morphology:
Crystals rhombohedral, frequently with large {0112}; also equant, pseudo-cubic, with large {0001} and {0112}, or prismatic [0001]. massive, granular.
Twinning:
On {0001}, common.

Epitaxial Relationships of ParacoquimbiteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Epitaxy Comments:
Coquimbite in parallel position; contact surface {0001}. As scepter-like overgrowths.

Type Occurrence of ParacoquimbiteHide

Other Language Names for ParacoquimbiteHide

Simplified Chinese:副针绿矾

Relationship of Paracoquimbite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AluminocoquimbiteAl2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Paracoquimbite associated with FluoriteCaF2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe)SO4 · H2OTric.
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2OMon.
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2OMon.
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. m : Bb
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2OTet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35AlpersiteMg(SO4) · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2OTric. 1
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteAl2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon.
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.10.1SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.10.2RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.3SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
25.10.4FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.10.5MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.6Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.10.7LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.8KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.9CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
25.10.11QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.12FerricopiapiteFe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.13MetahohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.14HohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 8H2OTric. 1
25.10.15ButleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.16ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.10.17AmarantiteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 7H2OTric. 1
25.10.18FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon.
25.10.19Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.10.20RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.21BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.22CopiapiteFe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in water , astringent.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ParacoquimbiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Ungemach (1933) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 197: 1132.
Ungemach (1935) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 58: 165.
American Mineralogist (1971): 56: 1567.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1974): 89.
J. Majzlan, T. Đjorđjević, U. Kolitsch & J. Schefer (2010): Hydrogen bonding in coquimbite, nominally Fe2(SO4)3•9H2O, and the relationship between coquimbite and paracoquimbite. Mineral. Petrol. 100, 241-248.
Miyawaki, R., Hatert, F., Pasero, M., Mills, S.J. (2019): New minerals approved by IMA CNMNC in Octber and November 2019. Newsletter 52. IMA 19-E: Revalidation of dienerite; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=15946

Internet Links for ParacoquimbiteHide

Localities for ParacoquimbiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Horn District
      • Drosendorf-Zissersdorf
        • Wollmersdorf (Zettlitz-Wollmersdorf)
Hammer, V.M.F. & Sabor, M. (2004): 1379) Paracoquimbit vom ehemaligen Graphitabbau Zettlitz bei Wollmersdorf. P. 244 in: Niedermayr, G. et al., Carinthia II, 194./114., 217-257.
Canada
 
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cape Breton Co.
Zodrow, E.L. (1989) Summary report of secondary sulphate minerals, Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada. Nova Scotia Department of Mines & Energy, Report 89-3, Mines & Minerals Branch Report of Activities, Part A: 141-143.
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Henderson, B. (2007): Römerite and paracoquimbite, two new sulfates found at Mont St-Hilaire. Micronews, 41(1), 4-6
Chile (TL)
 
  • Antofagasta
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Cerritos Bayos
Ungemach (1933) C.R. Acad.Sci. Paris: 197: 1133; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 535.; Kampf, A.R.; Mills, S.J.; Housley, R.M.; Williams, P.A.; Dini, M. (2012): Alcaparrosaite, K3Ti4+Fe3+(SO4)4O(H2O)2, a new hydrophobic Ti4+ sulfate from Alcaparrosa, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine 76, 851-861.
        • Chuquicamata District
          • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
Ungemach (1933) C.R.Acad.Sci. Paris: 197: 1133; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 535.
  • Atacama
    • Copiapó Province
Ungemach (1933) C.R. Acad.Sci. Paris: 197, 1133; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 535.
China
 
  • Xinjiang
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Yizhou District
Yingxia Xu, Kezhang Qin, Kuishou Ding, Yu Miao, Tonghui Fang, Xingwang Xu, and He Sun (2007): Mineral Deposits 26(1), 58-69; Kezhang Qin, Kuishou Ding, Yingxia Xu, Yu Miao, Tonghui Fang, and Xingwang Xu (2008): Acta Petrologica Sinica 24(5), 1112-1122
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Morbihan
      • Guern
R. Pierrot, L. Chauris, C. Laforêt and F. Pillard : "Inventaire Minéralogique de la France N° 9 : Morbihan", BRGM, 1980.
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Colmar-Ribeauvillé
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
P&T N°23-24, H. BARI 1982, Minéralogie des filons du Neuenberg à Sainte Marie aux Mines (Haut-Rhin).
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Tanneron
Mari G. (2002), La mine de Fontsante (Var), Le Règne Minéral, n°43, pp: 38-60
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Görlitz District
      • Niesky
        • Horscha
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2007): Der Schieferabbau Pansberg bei Horscha in der Lausitz, Sachsen. Lapis 32 (7-8), 68-73; 86.
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
No reference listed
Branko Rieck Collection
Rieck, B., Kolitsch, U., Voudouris, P., Giester, G. and Tzeferis, P. (2018): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Mineralien-Welt 29 (5), 32-77 (in German).
Hungary
 
  • Baranya County
    • Pécs
Japan
 
  • Oita
    • Beppu
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Lebanon
 
  • South Governate
    • Jezzine District
Kruszewski, Ł., 2018/2019. Secondary sulfate minerals from Bhanine valley coals (South Lebanon) – a crystallochemical and geochemical study. Geological Quarterly (in press)
Portugal
 
  • Beja
    • Mértola
      • Corte do Pinto
South Africa
 
  • Gauteng
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
Glass, J. (2006). The environmental impact of the abandoned Edendale lead mine near Tshwane, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg).
Spain
 
  • Castile and Leon
    • Segovia
Iriarte, M., Hernanz, A., Ruiz‐López, J. F., & Martín, S. (2013). μ‐Raman spectroscopy of prehistoric paintings from the Abrigo Remacha rock shelter (Villaseca, Segovia, Spain). Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 44(11), 1557-1562.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
      • Bisbee
        • Calumet and Arizona group of claims (Calumet and Arizona Mining Company group of claims)
Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 7.
Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 7.
  • Georgia
    • Lincoln Co.
Collected by Julian Gray 21 September 2010. Confirmed by XRD at the University of Georgia.
  • Nebraska
    • Jefferson Co.
      • Fairbury
Chemical Geology Volume 215, Issues 1-4, 15 February 2005, Pages 433-452
  • Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
      • Steamboat Springs Mining District
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • Virginia
    • Louisa Co.
      • Gold-Pyrite Belt
        • Mineral
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Rockbridge Co.
      • Lyndhurst-Vesuvius Mining District
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Mars
 
  • Aeolis quadrangle
    • Gusev Crater
      • Columbia Hills
        • Husband Hill
          • Cumberland Ridge
Johnson, J.R., Bell, J.F. III, Cloutis, E., Staid, M., Farrand, W.H., McCoy, T., Rice, M., Wang, A., Yen, A. (2007): Mineralogic constraints on sulfur-ric soils from Pancam spectra at Gusev crater, Mars. Geophysical Research Letters: 34: L13202. Farrand, W.H., Johnson, J.R., Rice, M.S., Wang, A., Bell III, J.F. (2016) VNIR Multispectral Observations of Aqueous Alteration Materials by the Pancams on the Spirit and Opportunity Mars Exploration Rovers. American Mineralogist, 101:9, 2005-2019.
 
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