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Palladoarsenide

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About PalladoarsenideHide

Formula:
Pd2As
Colour:
steel-gray
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
5
Specific Gravity:
10.42 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named for the composition.
Compare 'UM1974-01-As:PdSb', most likely an antimonian variety.

Also compare UM1975-07-As:PdSn, UM1976-01-As:BiPd, UM1976-03-As:NiPd, UM1974-01-As:PdSb, and very similar palladobismutharsenide.


Classification of PalladoarsenideHide

Approved
First Published:
1974
2.AC.25a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
A : Alloys
C : Alloys of metalloids with PGE
2.4.14.1

2 : SULFIDES
4 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
3.12.24

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals

Physical Properties of PalladoarsenideHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
steel-gray
Comment:
in polished section (reflected light?): grayish white with slight rose tint
Hardness:
Hardness:
VHN20=277 - 357 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
2 directions
Density:
10.42 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of PalladoarsenideHide

Anisotropism:
moderate: dark gray with bluish tint to red-brown (air), dark gray to brownish gray with red tint (oil)
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=44.2%R2=45.1%
420nmR1=46.8%R2=46.8%
440nmR1=48.4%R2=48.8%
460nmR1=49.4%R2=50.3%
480nmR1=50.2%R2=51.6%
500nmR1=51.2%R2=53.1%
520nmR1=51.9%R2=54.1%
540nmR1=52.5%R2=54.8%
560nmR1=53.3%R2=55.4%
580nmR1=53.9%R2=55.8%
600nmR1=54.6%R2=56.3%
620nmR1=55.4%R2=57.1%
640nmR1=56.0%R2=57.6%
660nmR1=56.6%R2=58.1%
680nmR1=57.1%R2=58.6%
700nmR1=57.8%R2=59.2%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 59.2%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red

Chemical Properties of PalladoarsenideHide

Formula:
Pd2As
Common Impurities:
Pt,Au,Ag,Ni,Cu,Sb,Te

Crystallography of PalladoarsenideHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.25(1) Å, b = 8.47(2) Å, c = 10.44(2) Å
β = 94.0°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.092 : 1 : 1.233
Unit Cell V:
815.96 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
18

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.14 Å(100)
2.21 Å(90)
2.60 Å(70)
1.955 Å(70)
2.35 Å(60)
2.31 Å(60)
2.13 Å(50)

Type Occurrence of PalladoarsenideHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
irregular grains in chalcopyrite, up to 0.4 mm, long & veinlet-like, vermicular, having curving boundaries
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
A.E. Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Geological Setting of Type Material:
veins along the footwall of a Cu–Ni sulfide deposit; also within heavy mineral concentrates
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Reference:
Begizov, V.D., Meshichankina, V.I., Dubakina, L.S. (1974) Palladoarsenide, Pd2As, a new natural palladium arsenide from the copper-nickel deposits of the Oktyabr deposits. Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 103(1): 104-107.

Synonyms of PalladoarsenideHide

Other Language Names for PalladoarsenideHide

Simplified Chinese:斜砷钯矿

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Palladoarsenide associated with CherepanoviteRhAs
1 photo of Palladoarsenide associated with IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.AC.TörnroositePd11As2Te2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
2.AC.05aAtheneitePd2As0.75Hg0.25Hex. 6 m2 : P62m
2.AC.05bVincentitePd3AsTet.
2.AC.10cArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3Tric. 1 : P1
2.AC.10bMertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
2.AC.10aStillwateritePd8As3Trig.
2.AC.15aIsomertieitePd11Sb2As2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
2.AC.15bMertieite-IPd11(Sb,As)4Hex.
2.AC.15aMiessiitePd11Te2Se2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
2.AC.20bPalarstanidePd5(Sn,As)2Hex.
2.AC.20aStibiopalladinitePd5Sb2Hex.
2.AC.20cMenshikovitePd3Ni2As3Hex. 6/m : P63/m
2.AC.25eMajakitePdNiAsHex.
2.AC.25fPalladobismutharsenidePd2(As,Bi)Orth.
2.AC.25cPalladodymite(Pd,Rh)2AsOrth.
2.AC.25bRhodarsenide(Rh,Pd)2AsOrth.
2.AC.25dNaldrettitePd2SbOrth. mm2 : Cmc21
2.AC.30UM1999-02-As:NiRh(Rh,Ni)7As4
2.AC.30PolkanoviteRh12As7Hex.
2.AC.35aGenkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2
2.AC.35bUngavaitePd4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
2.AC.40PolaritePd(Bi,Pb)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
2.AC.45cBorishanskiitePd1+x(As,Pb)2 , x = 0-0.2Orth. mm2
2.AC.45aFrooditeα-PdBi2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.AC.45bIridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.12.1Seinäjokite(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)2Orth.
3.12.2LauriteRuS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)AsOrth.
3.12.4Anduoite(Ru,Os)As2Orth.
3.12.5Ruarsite(Ru,Os)AsSMon.
3.12.6XingzhongitePb2+Ir3+2S4Iso.
3.12.7RhodplumsiteRh3Pb2S2Trig.
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite(Cu1+0.5Fe3+0.5)Rh3+2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.9KonderiteCu3Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)8S16Hex. 6/m : P6/m
3.12.10Bowieite(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.12.11CherepanoviteRhAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.12.12Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
3.12.13Vysotskite(Pd,Ni)STet.
3.12.14Vasilite(Pd,Cu)16(S,Te)7Iso.
3.12.15PalladseitePd17Se15Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
3.12.16Oosterboschite(Pd,Cu)7Se5Orth.
3.12.17TelluropalladinitePd9Te4Mon.
3.12.18TemagamitePd3HgTe3Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.19SopcheiteAg4Pd3Te4Orth.
3.12.20MicheneritePdBiTeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
3.12.21KotulskitePd(Te,Bi)2-x (x ≈ 0.4)Hex.
3.12.22Telargpalite(Pd,Ag)3(Te,Bi)Iso.
3.12.23MerenskyitePdTe2Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.25StillwateritePd8As3Trig.
3.12.26AtheneitePd2As0.75Hg0.25Hex. 6 m2 : P62m
3.12.27MajakitePdNiAsHex.
3.12.28PalarstanidePd5(Sn,As)2Hex.
3.12.29ArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3Tric. 1 : P1
3.12.30VincentitePd3AsTet.
3.12.31PalladobismutharsenidePd2(As,Bi)Orth.
3.12.32StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2Hex.
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)Hex.
3.12.34SudburyitePdSbHex.
3.12.35TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.
3.12.36BorovskitePd3SbTe4Iso.
3.12.37IsomertieitePd11Sb2As2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.38Mertieite-IPd11(Sb,As)4Hex.
3.12.39Mertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
3.12.40SobolevskitePdBiHex.
3.12.41Frooditeα-PdBi2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.12.42PolaritePd(Bi,Pb)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
3.12.43UrvantsevitePd(Bi,Pb)2Tet.
3.12.44CooperitePtSTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mmc
3.12.45Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)STet.
3.12.46Kharaelakhite(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)9S8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
3.12.47MalaniteCu1+(Ir3+Pt4+)S4Iso.
3.12.48Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2Trig.
3.12.49MaslovitePtBiTeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
3.12.50SperrylitePtAs2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.51PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
3.12.52GeversitePtSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.53DaomaniteCuPtAsS2Orth.
3.12.54Genkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2
3.12.55StumpflitePtSbHex.
3.12.56InsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.57ErlichmaniteOsS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.58Omeiite(Os,Ru)As2Orth.
3.12.59Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsSMon.
3.12.60Kashinite(Ir,Rh)2S3Orth.
3.12.61InaglyiteCu3Pb(Ir,Pt)8S16Hex.
3.12.62Cuproiridsite(Cu,Fe)Ir2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.63Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2Mon.
3.12.64Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
3.12.65TolovkiteIrSbSIso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for PalladoarsenideHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Bälz, U. and Schubert, K. (1969) Kristallstruktur von Pd2As(r) und Pd2Sb. Journal of Less-Common Metals: 19: 300-304.
Begizov, V.D., Meshichankina, V.I., Dubakina, L.S. (1974) Palladoarsenide, Pd2As, a new natural palladium arsenide from the copper-nickel deposits of the Oktyabr deposits. Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 103(1): 104-107.
Fleischer, M., Potter, R.W. (1975) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 60: 161-163.
Cabri, L.J., Laflamme, J.H.G., Stewart, J.M., Rowland, J.F., Chen, T.T. (1975) New data on some palladium arsenides and antimonides. The Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 321-335.
Smith, D.G.W., Nickel, E.H. (2007) A System of Codification for Unnamed Minerals: Report of the SubCommittee for Unnamed Minerals of the IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification. Canadian Mineralogist: 45: 983-1055; http://nrmima.nrm.se/Valid2009_03.pdf (2016) (concerns UM1974-01-As:PdSb)
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W. and Nichols, M.C., Eds. Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/ (2016)

Internet Links for PalladoarsenideHide

Localities for PalladoarsenideHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Coolgardie Shire
Econ Geol (1986) 81:1218-1225
Bulgaria
 
  • Sofia Province
    • Zlatitsa Obshtina
      • Zlatitsa
Strashimirov, S., Petrunov, R., and Kanazirski, M. (2002): Mineralium Deposita 37, 587-598.; Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.; Georgiev, Georgi (2008) A genetic model of the Elatsite porphyry copper deposit, Bulgaria. GEOCHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY • SOFIA 46, 143-160.
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Ring of Fire
        • BMA527861 Area
N Farhangi,CM Lesher,and MG Houlé
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Coldwell complex
Mcdonald, A.M., Cabri, L.J., Stanley, C.J., Good, D.J., Redpath, J., Lane, G., Spratt, J. & Ames, D.E. (2015) Coldwellite, Pd3Ag2S, a new mineral species from the Marathon deposit, Coldwell complex, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 53, 1-13. ; Good, D. J., Cabri, L. J., & Ames, D. E. (2017). PGM facies variations for Cu-PGE deposits in the Coldwell Alkaline Complex, Ontario, Canada. Ore Geology Reviews, 90, 748-771.
Good, D. J., Cabri, L. J., & Ames, D. E. (2017). PGM facies variations for Cu-PGE deposits in the Coldwell Alkaline Complex, Ontario, Canada. Ore Geology Reviews, 90, 748-771.
      • Lac des Iles Area
Louis J. Cabri and J.H. Gilles Laflamme (1979) Mineralogy of Samples from the Lac Des Iles Area, Ontario. Canmet Report 79-27
Canadian Mineralogist, Vol.22, pp. 125-136 (1984)
      • O'Neill Township
American Mineralogist, Volume 76, pages 1694-1700, 199l
      • Seagull Lake Area
        • Seagull Lake complex
Wilson, G., & Harper, G. (2013). Nipigon Reefs Project: A New Look at the PGE-bearing Seagull Mafic-Ultramafic Complex. Field Guide to the Copper-Nickel-Platinum Group Element Deposits of the Lake Superior Region, Precambrian Research Center Guidebook, 13-01.
      • Seeley Lake Area
Good, D. J., Cabri, L. J., & Ames, D. E. (2017). PGM facies variations for Cu-PGE deposits in the Coldwell Alkaline Complex, Ontario, Canada. Ore Geology Reviews, 90, 748-771.
Finland
 
  • Lapland
    • Penikat complex
Econ Geol (1986) 81:1126-1136
    • Portimo complex
Iljina, M. 1994. The Portimo Layered Igneous Complex - with emphasis on diverse sulphide and platinum-group element deposits. Acta Univ. Oul. A258, 1994
Econ Geol (1986) 81:1236-1241
    • Rovaniemi
Törmänen, Tuomo et al. 2014. New PGE-REEF mineralization of the Sotkavaara pyroxenite intrusion, Rovaniemi, northern Finland.GTK,Tieteelliset posterit, vol.338; Guice, G. L., Törmänen, T., Johanson, B., & Lahaye, Y. (2017). Offset-type PGE mineralisation in the Sotkavaara Intrusion, northern Finland: an association with zones of low-cr clinopyroxenite. Applied Earth Science, 126(2), 61-62.; Guice, G. L., Törmänen, T., Karykowski, B. T., Johanson, B., & Lahaye, Y. (2017). Precious metal mineralisation in the Sotkavaara Intrusion, northern Finland: Peak Pt, Pd, Au and Cu offsets in a small intrusion with poorly-developed magmatic layering. Ore Geology Reviews, 89, 701-718.
Greece
 
  • Epirus
    • Pindus
      • Pindos ophiolite complex
Kapsiotis, A. N. (2013). Genesis of chromitites from Korydallos, Pindos Ophiolite Complex, Greece, based on spinel chemistry and PGE-mineralogy. Journal of Geosciences, 58(1), 49-69.
India
 
  • Karnataka
    • Davanagere District
      • Shimoga schist belt
T. T. Alapieti, T. C. Devaraju, R. J. Kaukonen (2005) Sem-eds Study of the Platinum-group Minerals in the PGE mineralized Hanumalapura Segment of the Layeredmafic-ultramafic Complex of Channagiri, Davangere District, Karnataka. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 65:745-752.
Madagascar
 
  • Betsiboka
    • Maevatanana
      • Morafeno
McDonald, I., Ohnenstetter, D., Ohnenstetter, M., and Vaughan, D.J. (1999): Palladium oxides in ultramafic complexes near Lavatrafo, western Andriamena, Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine. 63: 345-352
Norway
 
  • Troms og Finnmark
    • Porsanger
Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
Oman
 
  • Al Buraimi Governorate
    • Northern Oman Ophiolite
Ahmed, A. H., & Arai, S. (2003). Platinum-group minerals in podiform chromitites of the Oman ophiolite. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(3), 597-616.
Russia
 
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
    • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
      • Taimyr Peninsula
        • Putoran Plateau
(2014) 12th International Platinum Symposium p320; Spiridonov, E. M., E. A. Kulagov, A. A. Serova, I. M. Kulikova, N. N. Korotaeva, E. V. Sereda, I. N. Tushentsova, S. N. Belyakov, and N. N. Zhukov. "Genetic Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, and Rh mineralogy in Noril’sk sulfide ores." Geology of Ore Deposits 57, no. 5 (2015): 402-432.
            • Talnakh Cu-Ni Deposit
ZVMO,(1974) 103, 104-107; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
No reference listed
2014 Ultramafic-mafic intrusions, volcanic rocks and PGE-Cu-Ni sulfide deposits of the Noril’sk Province, Polar Siberia . 12th International Platinum Symposium
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Fedorovo-Pansky massif (Pana layered complex)
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula; Groshev, N.Y.; Rundkvist, T.V.; Karykowski, B.T.; Maier, W.D.; Korchagin, A.U.; Ivanov, A.N.; Junge, M. (2019) Low-Sulfide Platinum–Palladium Deposits of the Paleoproterozoic Fedorova–Pana Layered Complex, Kola Region, Russia. Minerals 9, 764.
Groshev, N.Y.; Rundkvist, T.V.; Karykowski, B.T.; Maier, W.D.; Korchagin, A.U.; Ivanov, A.N.; Junge, M. (2019) Low-Sulfide Platinum–Palladium Deposits of the Paleoproterozoic Fedorova–Pana Layered Complex, Kola Region, Russia. Minerals 9, 764.
Groshev, N.Y.; Rundkvist, T.V.; Karykowski, B.T.; Maier, W.D.; Korchagin, A.U.; Ivanov, A.N.; Junge, M. (2019) Low-Sulfide Platinum–Palladium Deposits of the Paleoproterozoic Fedorova–Pana Layered Complex, Kola Region, Russia. Minerals 9, 764.
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
    • Monche tundra intrusion
Grokhovskaya, T. L., Lapina, M. I., & Mokhov, A. V. (2009). Assemblages and genesis of platinum-group minerals in low-sulfide ores of the Monchetundra deposit, Kola peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 51(6), 467-485.
    • Monchegorsk
      • Monchegorsk Cu-Ni Deposit
(2014) 12th International Platinum Symposium p88
Chashchin, V. V., & Petrov, S. V. (2013). Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(5), 357-382.
Chashchin, V. V., & Petrov, S. V. (2013). Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(5), 357-382.
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Kontupohja District
(2014) 12th International Platinum Symposium p63
    • Louhi District
      • Oulanka plutonic complex
        • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo
    • Sekhukhune District
      • Burgersfort
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
    • Waterberg District
      • Mogalakwena
        • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
Holwell, D. A., McDonald, I., & Armitage, P. E. B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 83-101.; HOLWELL D.A., MCDONALD I. & ARMITAGE, P.E.B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the South Central Pit, Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70, 83-101.
  • North West
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
        • Royal Bafokeng
Smith, A. J. B., Viljoen, K. S., Schouwstra, R., Roberts, J., Schalkwyk, C., & Gutzmer, J. (2013). Geological variations in the Merensky Reef at Bafokeng Rasimone Platinum Mine and its influence on flotation performance. Minerals Engineering, 52, 155-168.
USA
 
  • Montana
    • Stillwater Co.
      • Blakely Creek
Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
  • Pennsylvania
    • Chester Co.
      • State Line Chromite Mining District
Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology v. 41, no. 3/4.
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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