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Oxammite

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About OxammiteHide

Formula:
(NH4)2(C2O4) · H2O
Colour:
Colourless to pale yellow; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
1.5
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
In allusion to the composition, containing both OXalate and AMMonium ions.
An organic mineral derived from guano; in sub-fossil bird eggs and on sub-fossil birds.


Classification of OxammiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
10.AB.55

10 : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
A : Salts of organic acids
B : Oxalates
50.1.5.

50 : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
1 : Oxalates
31.1.1

31 : Oxalates, Citrates, Mellitates and Acetates
1 : Oxalates

Physical Properties of OxammiteHide

Transparency:
Transparent, Opaque
Colour:
Colourless to pale yellow; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {001},distinct.
Density:
1.5 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.541 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of OxammiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.438 nβ = 1.547 nγ = 1.595
2V:
Measured: 62° , Calculated: 62°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.157
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
dispersion not observed

Chemical Properties of OxammiteHide

Formula:
(NH4)2(C2O4) · H2O

Crystallography of OxammiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
2 2 2 - Disphenoidal
Space Group:
P21 21 2
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.035 Å, b = 10.32 Å, c = 3.801 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.779 : 1 : 0.368
Unit Cell V:
315.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals rare; commonly occurs as lamellar or pulverulent masses. Artificial crystals are spenoidal in form

Type Occurrence of OxammiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Bird guano deposit
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of OxammiteHide

Other Language Names for OxammiteHide

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

10.AB.XFalottaiteMnC2O4·3H2OOrth.
10.AB.Uroxite [(UO2)2(C2O4)(OH)2(H2O)2]·H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
10.AB.05HumboldtineFe2+(C2O4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
10.AB.05LindbergiteMn2+(C2O4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
10.AB.10GlushinskiteMg(C2O4) · 2H2OMon.
10.AB.15MoolooiteCu(C2O4) · 0.4H2OOrth.
10.AB.20StepanoviteNaMgFe3+(C2O4)3 · 8-9H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
10.AB.25MinguzziteK3Fe3+(C2O4)3 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
10.AB.30WheatleyiteNa2Cu(C2O4)2 · 2H2OTric.
10.AB.35ZhemchuzhnikoviteNaMgAl(C2O4)3 · 8H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
10.AB.40WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2OTet. 4/m : I4/m
10.AB.45WhewelliteCa(C2O4) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
10.AB.50CaoxiteCa(C2O4) · 3H2OTric.
10.AB.60NatroxalateNa2(C2O4)Mon.
10.AB.65Coskrenite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La)2(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OTric.
10.AB.70Levinsonite-(Y)(Y,Nd,La)Al(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OMon. 2/m
10.AB.75Zugshunstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La)Al(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OMon.
10.AB.80NovgorodovaiteCa2(C2O4)Cl2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

31.1.2MoolooiteCu(C2O4) · 0.4H2OOrth.
31.1.3WheatleyiteNa2Cu(C2O4)2 · 2H2OTric.
31.1.4GlushinskiteMg(C2O4) · 2H2OMon.
31.1.5WhewelliteCa(C2O4) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
31.1.6WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2OTet. 4/m : I4/m
31.1.7HumboldtineFe2+(C2O4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
31.1.8StepanoviteNaMgFe3+(C2O4)3 · 8-9H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
31.1.9ZhemchuzhnikoviteNaMgAl(C2O4)3 · 8H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
31.1.10MinguzziteK3Fe3+(C2O4)3 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for OxammiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brio (1867) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 55: 870.
Shepard (1870) Rural Carolinian: 1: 471 (May, 1870).
Tanner (1875) Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science, London: 32: 162.
Raimondi, A. (1878) Minéraux du Pérou: Catalogue raisonné d’une collection des principaux types minéraux de la République. 336pp., Paris.: 30, 33 (as Guañapite).
Groth, P. (1910) Chemische Krystallographie. Leipzig. 5 volumes: vol. 3: 150.
Frondel, C. (1950) Notes on arcanite, ammonian aphthitalite and arcanite. American Mineralogist, 35, 596–598.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1103-1104.
Winchell, H. and R.J. Benoit (1951) Taylorite, mascagnite, aphthitalite, lecontite, and oxammite from guano. American Mineralogist, 36, 590–601.
National Bureau of Standards Circular 539 (1957), 7, 5.
Taylor, J.C. and T.M. Sabine (1972) Isotope and bonding effects in ammonium oxalate monohydrate, determined by the combined use of neutron and X-ray diffraction analyses. Acta Crystallographica (1972): B28: 3340-3351.

Internet Links for OxammiteHide

Localities for OxammiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Dundas Shire
      • Madura Roadhouse
Mineralogical Magazine (1977): 41: 33-35.
Czech Republic
 
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Děčín District
Varilová, Z., Prikryl, R., & Cílek, V. (2011). Erratum to: Pravcice Rock Arch (Bohemian Switzerland National Park, Czech Republic) deterioration due to natural and anthropogenic weathering. Environmental Earth Sciences, 64(4), 1191.
Peru (TL)
 
  • La Libertad
    • Virù Province
American Mineralogist (1951): 36: 590; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1104.
 
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